An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16017 entries, 14075 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 11, 2024

et al

571 entries
  • 12811

Pharmacopoeia Bruxellensis: Jussu amplissimi senatus edita.

Brussels: Jan Mommaert, 1641.

The first Brussels pharmacopeia, modeled after the first Paris pharmacopeia.  Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Belgium, PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacopeias › Dispensatories or Formularies
  • 8853

Vol. 1: Travels through the low countries, Germany, Italy and France, with curious observations, natural, topographical, moral, physiological, & c. Also, A catalogue of plants, found spontaneously growing in those parts, and their virtues. Vol. 2: A collection of curious travels and voyages. Containing Dr. Leonhart Rauwolff's journey into the eastern countries, viz. Syria, Palestine, or the Holy Land, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Chaldea, & c. Translated from the original high Dutch, by Nicholas Staphorst. And also, travels into Greece, Asia, Minor, Egypt, Arabia Felix, Petraea, Ethiopia, the Red Sea, & c. Collected from the observations of Mons. Belon, Prosper Alpinus, Dr. Huntingdon, Mr. Vernon, Sir George Wheeler, Dr. Smith, Mr. Greaves, and others. To which are added three catalogues of such trees, shrubs and herbs as grow in the Levant. By the Rev. John Ray, F. R. S. (2 vols.)

London: For J. Walthoe..., 1738.

This is the second and best edition in 2 volumes of works that were first issued separately in 1673 and 1693 respectively. For Rauwolf see No. 7327. Digital facsimile of the 1738 edition from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Middle East, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 6731

Sveriges läkare-historia ifran Konung Gustaf den I:s till närvarande tid. 5 vols.

Stockholm: P. A Norstedt & Soner, 18221935.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sweden
  • 11905

Narrative of privations and sufferings of the United States officers and soldiers while prisoners of war in the hands of the rebel authorities. Being the report of a commission of inquiry, appointed by the United States Sanitary Commission. With an appendix, containing the testimony. Edited by Valentine Mott.

Philadelphia: Printed for the U.S. Sanitary Commission, 1864.

Includes four engravings based upon photographs of Union soldiers who were emaciated following imprisonment at Belle Isle. The contributors included Dorothea Dix and several military surgeons, including William Ely, G. B. Parker, and J. Woodbridge. Mott's commission was charged with "ascertaining, by inquiry and investigation, the true physical condition of prisoners, recently discharged by exchange, from confinement at Richmond and elsewhere, with in the Rebel lines; whether they did, in fact, during such confinement, suffer materially from want of food, or from its defective quality, or from other privations, or sources of disease; and whether their privations and sufferings were designedly inflicted on them by military or other authority of the Rebel Government, or were due to causes which such authorities could not control. And that the gentleman above named be requested to visit such camps of paroled or discharged prisoners as may be accessible to them, and to take, in writing, the depositions of so many of such prisoners as may enable them to arrive at accurate results."

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: American (U.S.) CIVIL WAR MEDICINE
  • 5357

Intornoall’Anchilostoma duodenale (Dubini).

Gazz. med. ital. lomb., 7 ser., 5, 193-96, 1878.

Fecal diagnosis of hookworm disease. Before this time hookworm had been diagnosed only post mortem. With C. Parona and E. Parona. English translation in Kean (No. 2268.1).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES › Hookworm Disease, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Hookworms
  • 4865

Remarks on the various surgical procedures devised for the relief or cure of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux).

Brit. med. J., 2, 1139-43, 1191-93, 1249-52, 1891.

Horsley, with J. Taylor and W. S. Coleman, devised an operation for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in which the Gasserian ganglion was removed by a temporal approach.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 11911

The opening of the Johns Hopkins Medical School to women. Reprinted from Open Letters in the Century Magazine for February 1891.

1891.

A collection of articles by various experts supporting the opening of the planned Johns Hopkins Medical School to women. Contributors included Cardinal Gibbons, Mary Putnam Jacobi, Josephine Lowell, C. F. Folsom, Carey M. Thomas, and Osler. "In light of the experience in Switzerland, Dr. Osler expressed himself as entirely in favor of the admission of women on a co-educational basis." When it opened in 1893 The Johns Hopkins Medical School accepted a limited number of women students.

Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1800 - 1899
  • 355

Index-catalogue of medical and veterinary zoology.

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 18921982.

An index to the world's literature on parasites and parasitisms of man, of domestic animals, and of wild animals whose parasites may be transmitted to man and domestic animals. It also contains references to fur-bearing animals, wild life, and to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes or roundworms, which impact food or forage crops. The index eventually extended to about 100 volumes, and around 20,000 pages, in about 30 languages.

The Texas A&M University Medical Sciences Library and the Oklahoma State University Libraries partnered to digitize the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (ICVMZ), and made it available online at this link.

 



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Periodicals, PARASITOLOGY, TROPICAL Medicine , VETERINARY MEDICINE, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 5459

La fièvre jaune.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 17, 665-731, Paris, 1903.

Yellow fever convalescent serum employed. With A. T. Salimbeni and P. L. Simond.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever
  • 1895

An active alkaloid from ergot.

Brit. med. J., 2, 1792, 1906.

Isolation of ergotoxine. With F. H. Carr.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Ergot
  • 2402

Eine serodiagnostische Reaktion bei Syphilis.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., Berlin, 32, 745-46, 1906.

The “Wassermann reaction”, a specific diagnostic blood test for syphilis, and a modification of the complement-fixation reaction of Bordet and Gengou. With A. Neisser and C. Bruck.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 5319

Study of a spirochete obtained from a case of relapsing fever in man, with notes on morphology, animal reactions, and attempts at cultivation.

J. infect. Dis., 3, 266-90, 1906.

Spirochaete causing the American variety of relapsing fever first isolated. With A. W. Pappenheimer and T. Flournoy.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Relapsing Fever
  • 9393

Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde. The Macrolepidoptera of the world: A systematic description of the known Macrolepidoptera. 16 vols. plus 4 supplements. Written and edited by Adalbert Seitz.

Stuttgart: Alfred Kernen, 19061954.
Published in French, German and English. The first 4 vols. describe the Palaearctic fauna and vols. 5–16 describe the exotic fauna (Volums 1–4, Palaearctic fauna, with 4 supplements; Vols. 5–8, American fauna; Vol. 9–12, Indo-Australian fauna; Vols. 13–16, African fauna). The colored plates were printed by 10–14 color lithography. 
"Band 1: Abt. 1, Die Großschmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes, Die palaearktischen Tagfalter, 1909, 379 Seiten, mit 89 kolorierten Tafeln (3470 Figuren)
Band 2: Abt. 1, Die Großschmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes, Die palaearktischen Spinner und Schwärmer, 1912–1913
Band 3: Abt. 1, Die Großschmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes, Die palaearktischen eulenartigen Nachtfalter, 1914
Band 4: Abt. 1, Die Großschmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes, Die spannerartigen Nachtfalter, 1915
Band 5: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die Großschmetterlinge des amerikanischen Faunengebietes, 1907
Band 6: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die amerikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer, 1940, 1327 Seiten, 198 Tafeln
Band 7: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die amerikanischen Eulen, 1923, 508 Seiten, 87 Tafeln
Band 8: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die amerikanischen Spanner, 1907, 144 Seiten, 16 Tafeln
Band 9: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die indo-australischen Tagfalter, 1927, 1197 Seiten 177 Tafeln
Band 10: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die indo-australischen Spinner und Schwärmer, 1933, 847 Seiten, 104 Tafeln
Band 11: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die indo-australischen eulenartigen Nachtfalter, 1924, 1141 Seiten, 203 Tafeln
Band 12: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die indo-australischen Geometridae
Band 13: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die afrikanischen Tagfalter, 1925, 613 Seiten, 80 Tafeln
Band 14: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die afrikanischen Spinner und Schwärmer, 1925–1930, 80 Tafeln
Band 15: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die afrikanischen eulenartigen Nachtfalter, 286 Seiten, 41 Tafeln
Band 16: Abt. 2, Die exotischen Großschmetterlinge, Die afrikanischen spannerartigen Nachtfalter, 1929, 160 Seiten, 18 Tafeln
Band 1, Supplement: Die palaearktischen Tagfalter,
Band 2, Supplement: Die palaearktischen Spinner und Schwärmer
Band 3, Supplement: Die palaearktischen eulenartigen Nachtfalter
Band 4, Supplement: Die spannerartigen Nachtfalter

Authors contributing to the series besides Adalbert Seitz were: Karl JordanJulius RoberWilliam WarrenPer Olof Christopher AurivilliusLouis Beethoven ProutHans FruhstorferMax GaedeThomas LehmannRichard HaenschGustav WeymerTheodor LehmannMax Wilhelm Karl DraudtHans StichelJules Paul MabilleEugen WehrliMax BartelErich Martin HeringEmbrik StrandKarl GrünbergWilliam SchausWalter RothschildBruno Gehlen."(Wikipedia article on Adalbert Seitz, accessed 05-2017).

Digital facsimiles from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link and at this link

 



Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 5479

Das Pappatacifieber.

Leipzig & Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1909.

An Austrian military commission consisting of R. Doerr, K. Franz, and S. Taussig proved that the causal organism of pappataci fever was a virus and that Phlebotomus papatasii was the vector.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Sandfly-Borne Diseases › Phlebotomus (Pappataci) Fever, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Phenuviridae › Phlebovirus
  • 1639

Handbuch der Hygiene. 6 vols.

Leipzig: S. Hirtzel, 19111913.

With Max Gruber and P. M. Ficker.



Subjects: Hygiene, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 5961

Le magot animal réactif du trachôme. Filtrabilité du virus. Pouvoir infectant des larmes.

C. R. Acad. Sci (Paris), 155, 241-43, 1912.

Filtration of the trachoma agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. With L. Blaisot and A. Cuénod.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative or Gram-Positive Bacteria › Chlamydia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Trachoma, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye › Conjunctivitis › Trachoma
  • 3755

The treatment and prevention of pellagra.

U. S. publ. Hlth. Serv. Rep., 29, 2821-25, 1914.

With C. H. Waring and D. G. Willets. A collection of Goldberger’s most important papers with a list of his publications appeared in 1964.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Pellagra
  • 5068

Active immunization in diphtheria and treatment by toxin-antitoxin.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 63, 859-61, 1914.

With A. Zingher and M. H. Serota. Park was an early advocate of diphtheria immunization with toxin-antitoxin. A second paper is in the same journal, 1915, 65, 2216-20.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Toxin-Antitoxin, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria
  • 3848

Experimental hyperthyroidism.

Amer. J. Physiol., 36, 363-64, 1915.

First successful experimental production of exophthalmic goitre. With C. A. L. Binger and R. Fitz.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 5642

Traitement abortif de l’infection des plaies.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 3 sér., 74, 361-68, 1915.

Carrel–Dakin treatment of wounds. With J. Daufresne and M. Dumas.
Carrel & Dehelly expanded this into a monograph entitled Le traitement des plaies infectées. Paris: Masson et Cie, 1917. That was rapidly translated into English by Herbert Child as The treatment of infected wounds. With an introduction by Sir Anthony A. Bowlby. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, 1917. Digital facsimile of the English translation from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: SURGERY: General › Antisepsis / Asepsis, SURGERY: General › Wound Healing
  • 4647

Sur un syndrome de radiculo-névrite avec hyperalbuminose du liquide céphalo-rachidien sans réaction cellulaire. Remarques sur les caractères cliniques et graphiques des réflexes tendineux.

Bull. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 40, 1462-70, 1916.

“Guillain-Barré syndrome”, acute infective polyneuritis. With J. A. Barré and A. Strohl.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions
  • 5326

The cause of rat-bite fever.

J. exp. Med., 23, 249-50; 25, 33-44, 1916, 1917.

K. Futaki, I. Takaki, T. Taniguchi, and S. Osumi found a spirillum (Sp. morsus muris) in the lymphatic glands and blood stream in cases of rat-bite fever (sodoku).



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Spirillium, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Rat-Bite Fever
  • 5334

The etiology, mode of infection, and specific therapy of Weil’s disease (Spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica)

J. exp. Med., 23, 377-402, 1916.

Inada, Y. Ido, R. Hoki, R. Kaneko, and H. Ito proved that Sp. (Leptospira) icterohaemorrhagiae is the causal organism in Weil’s disease (Leptospirosis). Preliminary report (in Japanese) in Tokyo Ijishinshi, 1915, No. 1908.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Leptospira, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leptospiroses
  • 5474

On the transmission of Australian dengue by the mosquito Stegomyia fasciata.

Med. J. Aust., 2, 179-84, 200-05, 1916.

These workers proved that Aëdes aegypti (Stegomyia fasciata) is capable of transmitting dengue fever. See also J. Hyg. (Camb.), 1918, 16, 317-418. With C. H. Bradley and W. McDonald.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Dengue Fever
  • 4649

Quarante cas d’encéphalo-myélite subaiguë.

Bull. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 3 sér., 41, 614-16, 1917.

Cruchet’s account of epidemic encephalitis was given on 27 April 1917, preceding that of Economo by 13 days. With F. Moutier 



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Encephalitis Lethargica 1915-1926, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis
  • 1905

Flavine and brilliant green, powerful antiseptics with low toxicity to the tissues: their use in the treatment of infected wounds.

Brit. med. J., 1, 73-79, 1917.

Introduction of acriflavine. With R. Gulbransen, E. L. Kennaway, and L. H. D. Thomton.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Disinfectants, SURGERY: General › Wound Healing
  • 4986

The Stanford revision and extension of the Binet–Simon scale for measuring intelligence.

Baltimore, MD: Warwick & York, 1917.


Subjects: PSYCHOLOGY
  • 5334.1

The rat as a carrier of Spirochaeta icterohaemorrhagiae, the causative agent in Weil’s disease (spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica)

J. exp. Med., 26, 341-53, 1917.

Rats shown to be the carriers of Leptospira. With R. Hoki, H. Ito, and H. Wani.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Leptospira, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leptospiroses
  • 1908

A new germicide for use in the genito-urinary tract; “mercurochrome-220”.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 73, 1483-91, 1919.

Introduction of mercurochrome. With E. C. White and E. O. Swartz.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Disinfectants, UROLOGY
  • 12592

The medical problems of flying. Including Reports Nos. I-VII of the Air Medical Investigation Committee. Privy Council Medical Research Council.

London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1920.


Subjects: AVIATION Medicine
  • 1054

Fat-soluble vitamine. VII. The fat-soluble vitamine and yellow pigmentation in animal fats with some observations on its stability to saponification.

J. biol. Chem., 47, 89-109, 1921.

Separation of vitamin A from vitamin D. With M. Sell and M. Van R. Buell.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 5392

Cultivation of rickettsia-like bodies in typhus fever.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 77, 1967-69, 1921.

Isolation of Rickettsia prowazeki from the blood. With S. A. Ritter and G. Baehr.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Rickettsia › Rickettsia prowazekii , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus
  • 1054.1

Studies on experimental rickets. XXI. An experimental demonstration of the existence of a vitamin which promotes calcium deposition.

J. biol. Chem., 53, 293-312, 1922.

Discovery of vitamin D. with N. Simmonds, J. E. Becker, and P. G. Shipley.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Rickets, NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 3871

Crises solaires et hypertension paroxystique en rapport avec une tumeur surrénale.

Bull. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 3 sér., 46, 982-90, 1922.

First full description of chromaffin cell tumors of the adrenal medulla. With J. Tinel and E. Doumer.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Adrenals, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Hypertension, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 3002

Traitement des varices par les injections phlébo-sclérosantes du salicylate de soude.

Gaz. Hôp. Paris, 95, 1573-75, 1922.

Introduction of sodium salicylate injections for the treatment of varicose veins. With J. Paraf and J. Lermoyez.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Venous Disease
  • 2252

Blood concentration changes in extensive superficial burns, and their significance for systemic treatment.

Arch. intern. Med., 32, 31-49, 1923.

F. P. Underhill, G. L. Carrington, R. Kapsinow, and G. T. Pack made important studies on the blood concentration following burns.



Subjects: Diseases Due to Physical Factors › Burns
  • 4390

Nouvelle observation d’acrocéphalosyndactylie.

Bull. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 3 sér., 47, 1672-75, 1923.

With Tixier, Hue, and Kermorgant.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Cranialfacial Disorders, ORTHOPEDICS › Diseases of or Injuries to Bones, Joints & Skeleton › Congenital Diseases
  • 4199

Roentgenography of the urinary tract during excretion of sodium iodide.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 80, 368-73, 1923.

First use of sodium iodide in uretero-pyelography. With C. G. Sutherland and A. J. Scholl. 



Subjects: IMAGING › X-ray, UROLOGY
  • 2343

Essai d’immunisation contre l’infection tuberculeuse.

Bull. Acad. Med. (Paris), 3 sér., 91, 787-96, 1924.

B.C.G. (Bacille Calmette–Guérin) vaccine was first produced in 1906 and subcultured for 13 years. It was first used as a prophylactic against tuberculosis in children in 1921. It remained in use in 2020. See also No. 2346.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium bovis, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis
  • 5301.1

On a Herpetomonas found in the gut of the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes, fed on kala-azar patients.

Indian med. Gaz., 59, 593-97, 1924.

Demonstration that L. donovani is capable of reproduction in Phlebotomus. With R. O. Smith.



Subjects: INDIA, Practice of Medicine in, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Sandfly-Borne Diseases › Leishmaniasis, PARASITOLOGY
  • 1056

Fat-soluble vitamin. XXVI. Antirachitic property of milk and its increase by direct irradiation and by irradiation of the animal.

J. biol. Chem., 66, 441-49, 1925.

Demonstration that the therapeutic properties of ultra-violet light could be effectively stored in foods and later released after consumption. With E. B. Hart, C. A. Hoppert, and A. Black.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Rickets, NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 3786

Generalized giant lymph follicle hyperplasia of lymph nodes and spleen; a hitherto undescribed type.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., , 84, 668-71., 1925.

See No. 3787. With G. Baehr and N. Rosenthal.



Subjects: Spleen: Lymphatics
  • 1057

A further study of butter, fresh beef, and yeast as pellagra preventives, with consideration of the relation of factor P-P of pellagra (and black tongue of dogs) to vitamin B.

U.S. publ. Hlth Rep., 41, 297-318, 1926.

Anti-pellagra vitamin (B2, riboflavine). With G. A. Wheeler, R. D. Lillie, and L. M. Rogers.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Pellagra
  • 2345

Ueber Versuche, schwere Formen der Tuberkulose durch diätetische Behandlung zu beeinflussen.

Münch. med. Wschr., 73, 47-51, 1926.

Gerson introduced a salt-restricted diet in the treatment of tuberculosis; this was subsequently modified by Sauerbruch and Herrmannsdorfer, becoming known as the “Gerson–Sauerbruch–Hermannsdorfer diet”. The scientific efficacy of this diet, or of other diets promoted by Gerson to cure cancer, was never independently confirmed. With A. Hermannsdorfer,



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, NUTRITION / DIET, Quackery
  • 2522.1

A disease of rabbits characterised by a large mononuclear leucocytosis, caused by a hitherto undescribed bacillus acterium monocytogenes (n. sp.).

J. Path. Bact., 29, 407-39, 1926.

Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes. With R. A. Webb and M. B. R. Swann.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Listeria, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 5328

Erythema arthriticum epidemicum; preliminary report.

Boston med. surg. J., 194, 285-87, 1926.

“Haverhill fever” first reported. The writers isolated an organism, later found to be identical with Streptothrix muris ratti and Streptobacillus moniliformis. With L. E. Sutton and O. Willner.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Rat-Bite Fever
  • 1186

Über das Vorkommen weiblichen Sexualhormons (Menformon) im Harn von Männern.

Klin. Wschr. 6, 1859, 1927.

Discovery of the estrogenic activity of male urine. With E. Dingemanse, P. C. Hart, and S. E. de Jongh.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 1916

The nature of the vaso-dilator constituents of certain tissue extracts.

J. Physiol. (Camb.), 62, 397-417, 1927.

Proof that histamine occurs in certain organs in amounts sufficient to account for the depressant action of extracts of these organs. With H. H. Dale, H. W. Dudley, and W. V. Thorpe.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 3141

Anemia in children, with splenomegaly and peculiar changes in the bones.

Amer. J. Dis. Child, 34, 347-63, 1927.

“Cooley’s erythroblastic anemia”, thalassemia. With E. R. Witwer and O. P. Lee. An earlier brief account by Cooley and Lee appeared in Trans. Amer. Pediat. Soc.,1925, 37, 29.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Blood Disorders › Thalassemia, HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis, PEDIATRICS
  • 3972

Carcinoma of the islands of the pancreas; hyperinsulinism and hypoglycemia.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 89, 348-55., 1927.

R. M. Wilder, F. N. Allan, M. H. Power, and H. E. Robertson reported the occurrence of carcinoma with hyperinsulinism. They also reported the first operation for hyperinsulinism performed on December 2, 1926 by William Mayo.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pancreas, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, SURGERY: General
  • 1168.1

The active principles of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. I. The demonstration of the presence of two active principles. II. The separation of the two principles and their concentration in the form of potent solid preparations.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 50, 573-601, 1928.

Isolation of vasopressin and oxytocin. With T. B. Aldrich, I. W. Grote, L. W. Rowe, and E. P. Bugbee.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 5462

Experimental transmission of yellow-fever to laboratory animals.

Amer. J. trop. Med., 8, 103-64, 1928.

Experimental infection of the monkey, Macacus rhesus, with the yellow fever virus. Stokes succumbed to yellow fever while investigating the disease. With J. H. Bauer and N. P. Hudson.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Yellow Fever Virus
  • 1061

The absorption spectrum of vitamin D.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 94, 561-83, 1929.

See No. 1065. With C. Fischmann, R. G. C. Jenkins, and T. A. Webster.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 1191

The effects of extracts of testis in correcting the castrated condition in the fowl and in the mammal.

Endocrinology, 13, 367-74, 1929.

C. R. Moore, T. F. Gallagher, and F. C. Koch were the first to obtain a potent testicular extract containing the male sex hormone, androsterone, later obtained in crystalline form by Butenandt. They also gave a detailed account of the capon-comb test for the assay of the male hormone.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 2859

L’artériographie des membres de l’aorte et de ses branches abdominales.

Méd. contemp. (Lisboa), 47, 93-96, 1929.

Aortography. With A. C. Lamas and J. Pereira Caldas. Also published in Bull. Soc.méd.chir. Paris, 1929, 55,587-601.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Arteriography / Angiography, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Cardiac Radiology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Portugal
  • 2716

Some different types of essential hypertension; their course and prognosis.

Amer J. med. Sci.197, 332-43, 1929.

The Keith-Wagener-Barker classification of hypertension. With  N. W. Barker.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Hypertension (High Blood Pressure), CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System › Diseases of Cardiovascular System
  • 5712

Induction of anesthesia in man by intravenous injection of sodium isoamyl-ethyl barbiturate.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 26, 399-403, 1929.

Sodium amytal (Amobarbitol).  With J. T. C. McCallum, H. A. Shonle, E. E. Swanson, J. B. Scott, and G. H. A. Clowes.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology
  • 5538.2

Etiology of Oroya fever. XIV. The insect vectors of Carrión’s disease.

J. exp. Med., 49, 993-1008, 1929.

Phlebotomus sand flies shown to be the vector of Oroya fever. With R. C. Shannon, E. B. Tilden, and J. B. Tyler.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Sandfly-Borne Diseases › Oroya Fever
  • 1064

Maintenance nutrition in the adult pigeon and its relation to torulin (vitamin B1).

Biochem. J., 24, 1832-51, 1930.

Discovery of vitamin B5, probably identical with nicotinic acid. With H. W. Kinnersley and R. A. Peters.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 3973

Contribución al estudio sobre la composición quimica de la insulina. Estudio de algunos cuerpos sintéticos solfurados con acción hypoglucemiante.

Rev. Soc. argent Biol., 6, 134-41, 1930.

Discovery of the hypoglycemic effect of certain sulphonamide derivatives. With L. L. Silva and L. Libenson.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Sulfonamides
  • 6223

Amniography; preliminary report.

Amer.J. Roentgenol., 24, 363-66, 1930.

Introduction of amniography. With J. D. Miller and L. E. Holly.



Subjects: IMAGING › X-ray, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 1065

The quantitative estimation of vitamin D by radiography.

London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1931.

Medical Research Council Special Report No. 158. R. B. Bourdillon, H. M. Bruce, C. Fischmann, R. G. C. Jenkins, and T. A. Webster isolated from irradiated ergosterol a crystalline compound, calciferol, which, weight for weight, has 400,000 times the anti-rachitic value of cod liver oil. See also No. 1061.



Subjects: › Rickets, NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 3091

Eine klinisch brauchbare Bestimmungsmethode der Blutumlaufszeit mittels Decholininjektion.

Med. Klin., 27, 986-88, 1931.

The decholin method for estimation of circulation time. With J. Deutsch and Z. Brull.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY
  • 5072

On the existence of two forms of diphtheria bacillus B. diphtheria gravis and B. diphtheriae mitis.

J. Path. Bact., 34, 667-81, 1931.

J. S. Anderson, F. C. Happold, J. W. McLeod, and J. G. Thomson were the first to distinguish the gravis, mitis, and intermediate types of C. diphtheriae.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Corynebacterium diphtheriae, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria
  • 4434

Intracapsular fractures of the neck of the femur. Treatment by internal fixation.

Arch. Surg. (Chicago), 23, 715-59, 1931.

Smith-Petersen nail, a three-flanged nail which prevented rotation of the femoral head. With E.F. Cave and G. W. Van Gorder.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 5396.2

Typhus fever. A virus of the typhus type derived from fleas collected from wild rats.

Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash.), 46, 334-38, 1931.

Murine typhus shown to be caused by an organism later named Rickettsia mooseri, transmitted by fleas from rats to man. With A. Rumreich and L. F. Badger.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Rickettsia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus
  • 5475

Experimental studies of dengue.

Philipp. J. Sci., 44, 1-251, 1931.

Proof that Aëdes albopictus is a vector of dengue. See also the earlier paper in the same journal, 1930, 41, 215-29. With J. H. St. John and F. H. K. Reynolds.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Dengue Fever
  • 1067

Crystalline vitamin D.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 109, 488-506, 1932.

Written with R. B. Bourdillon, H. M. Bruce, R. K. Callow, J. St. L. Philpot, and T. A. Webster.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 3551

Regional ileitis. A pathologic and clinical entity.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 99, 1323-29, 1932.

“Crohn’s disease” – regional ileitis. With L. Ginzburg and G. D. Oppenheimer.

"Some of Crohn's initial research into the causes of the Crohn's disease was centered around his personal convictionthat it was caused by the same pathogen, a bacterium called Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (MAP), responsible for the similar condition that afflicts cattle called Johne's disease. However, he was unable to isolate the pathogen—most likely because M. paratuberculosis sheds its cellular wall in humans and takes the form of a spheroplast, making it virtually undetectable under an optical microscope. This theory has resurfaced in recent years and has been lent more credence with the arrival of more sophisticated methods of identifying MAP bacteria" (Wikpedia article on Burill Crohn, accessed 1-2020).

"While the causes of Crohn's disease are unknown, it is believed to be due to a combination of environmental, immune, and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals.[6][7][8][2] It results in a chronic inflammatory disorder, in which the body's immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract, possibly targeting microbial antigens.[7][9] While Crohn's is an immune-related disease, it does not appear to be an autoimmune disease (in that the immune system is not being triggered by the body itself).[10] The exact underlying immune problem is not clear; however, it may be an immunodeficiency state.[9][11][12] About half of the overall risk is related to genetics with more than 70 genes having been found to be involved.[1][13] Tobacco smokers are twice as likely to develop Crohn's disease as nonsmokers.[3] It also often begins after gastroenteritis.[1] Diagnosis is based on a number of findings including biopsy and appearance of the bowel wall, medical imaging and description of the disease.[1] Other conditions that can present similarly include irritable bowel syndrome and Behçet's disease.[1"(Wikipedia article on Crohn's disease, accessed 1-2020).



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium , GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System
  • 5194.2

Carbarsone in the treatment of amebiasis.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 98, 189-94, 1932.

With H. H. Anderson and  N. A. David.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Amoebiasis
  • 1068

Synthese der d- und l-Ascorbinsäure (C-Vitamin).

Helv. chim. Acta, 16,1019-33, 1933.

T. Reichstein, A. Grüssner, and R. Oppenauer synthesized vitamin C.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 1068.1

“Pantothenic acid”, a growth determinant of universal biological occurrence.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 55, 2912-27, 1933.

Discovery of pantothenic acid (vitamin B3). with C. M. Lyman, G. H. Goodyear, J. H. Truesdail, and D. Holaday.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 1170

The adrenotropic hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe.

Lancet, 2, 347-48, 1933.

Isolation of an impure “adrenotropic hormone” containing adrenocorticotropic principle. With E. M. Anderson and D. L. Thomson.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary
  • 1171

The preparation, identification and assay of prolactin – a hormone of the anterior pituitary.

Amer. J. Physiol., 105, 191-216, 1933.

With R. W. Bates and S. W. Dykshorn.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1923

The pharmacological action of an alkaloid obtained from Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. A preliminary note.

Indian J. med. Res., 21, 26l-71, 1933.

R. N. Chopra, J. C. Gupta, and B. Mukherjee demonstrated the sedative and hypotensive effect of an alkaloid isolated from Rauwolfia serpentina (reserpine).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Rauvolfia serpentina › Reserpine, PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology
  • 2899
  • 3033

Congestive heart failure and angina pectoris: The therapeutic effect of thyroidectomy on patients without clinical or pathologic evidence of thyroid toxicity.

Arch. intern. Med., 51, 866-77, 1933.

Thyroidectomy for congestive heart failure and angina pectoris. With D. D. Berlin.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid
  • 2718

The circulation time in various clinical conditions determined by the use of sodium dehydrocholate.

Amer. Heart J. 8, 766-86, 1933.

Use of decholin sodium for estimation of circulation time. With B. S. Oppenheimer and R. V. Sagar.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System › Diseases of Cardiovascular System, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function
  • 1150

Isolation in crystalline form of the hormone essential to life from the suprarenal cortex; its chemical nature and physiologic properties.

Proc. Mayo Clin., 9, 245-50, 1934.

Together with H. L. Mason, B. F. McKenzie, C. S. Myers, and G. A. Koelsche, Kendall reported the isolation in crystalline form of cortin ('C20H30O5)'



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1201

Über die Synthese des Testikelhormons (Androsteron) und Stereoisomerer desselben durch Abbau hydrierter Sterine.

Helv. chim. Acta, 17, 1395-1406, 1934.

First complete synthesis of a sex hormone (androsterone). With M. W. Goldberg, J. Meyer, H. Brüngger, and E. Eichenberger.
In 1939 Ruzicka shared the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Butenandt (No. 1195) "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes, including the first chemical synthesis of male sex hormones."



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2864

Electrocardiograms that represent the potential variations of a single electrode.

Amer. Heart J., 9, 447-58, 1934.

Unipolar leads. With F. D. Johnston, A. G. MacLeod, and P. S. Barker.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Electrocardiography, Electrodiagnosis
  • 2719

Studies on experimental hypertension. 1. The production of persistent elevation of systolic blood pressure by means of renal ischemia.

J. exp. Med. 59, 347-79, 1934.

 Goldblatt discovered  the role of the kidneys in the regulation of blood pressure. This was the first of Goldblatt’s papers on experimental hypertension, which established an aetiologic role for renal ischemia in the production of hypertension and established a laboratory basis for its study. Written with J. Lynch, R. F. Hanzal, and W. W. Summerville.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System › Diseases of Cardiovascular System, NEPHROLOGY, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Hypertension
  • 5717

Cyclopropane as an anesthetic agent: a preliminary clinical report.

Curr. Res. Anesth., 13, 56-60, 1934.

First clinical use of cyclopropane. With W. B. Neff, and E. A. Rovenstine.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA
  • 5336

De leptospiroses bij den hond, en de beteekenis der Leptospira canicola.

Ned. T. Geneesk., 78, 5197-209, 1934.

First reported cases of human infection with L. canicola. With A. Klarenbeek, W. A. P. Schüffner, and J. Voet.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Leptospira, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leptospiroses, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 1201.1

Über krystallinisches männliches Hormon aus Hoden (Testosteron), wirksamer als aus Harn oder aus Cholesterin bereitetes Androsteron.

Hoppe-Seyl. Z. physiol. Chem., 233, 281-82, 1935.

Isolation of testosterone from the testis. With E. Dingemanse, J. Freud, and E. Laqueur.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 2416

Mapharsen in the treatment of syphilis. A preliminary report.

Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chicago), 32, 868-92, 1935.

Clinical use of mapharsen. With R. L. McIntosh, L. M. Wieder, H. R. Foerster, and G. A. Cooper.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 3659.1

Treatment of carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

Ann. Surg., 102, 763-79, 1935.

Pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer of pancreas. With W. B. Parsons and C. R. Mullins.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pancreas, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Gallbladder, Biliary Tract, & Pancreas, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma, SURGERY: General
  • 5721

Clinical experiences with the use of trichlorethylene in the production of over 300 analgesias and anesthesias.

Curr. Res. Anesth., 14, 68-71, 1935.

Human anesthetization with trichlorethylene. With S. Goldblatt, I. S. Warm, and D. E. Jackson.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA
  • 4659

A virus isolated in 1935 epidemic of summer encephalitis in Japan.

Jap. J. exp. Med., 14, 185-96, 1936.

T. Taniguchi, M. Hosokawa, and S. Kuga established a virus etiology for Japanese B encephalitis.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Japanese Encephalitis, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions, VIROLOGY
  • 1086.1

Observations on a substance in pancreas (a fat metabolizing hormone) which permits survival and prevents liver changes in depancreatized dogs.

Amer. J. Physiol., 117, 175-81, 1936.

Lipocaic. With J. Van Prohaska and H. P. Harms.



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 1202

The isolation of the principal estrogenic substance of liquor folliculi.

J. biol. Chem., 115, 435-48, 1936.

Isolation of oestradiol. With S. A. Thayer and E. A. Doisy.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Gonads: Sex Hormones
  • 3659.2

Das Coeliakiesyndrom bei angeborener zysticher Pankreasfibromatose und Bronchiektasien.

Wien. med. Wschr., 86, 753-56, 1936.

Cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis) described. With E. Uehlinger and C. Knauer.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Gallbladder, Biliary Tract, & Pancreas, PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases
  • 3905

Experimental diabetes insipidus in the monkey.

Arch. intern. Med., 57, 1067-80, 1936.

With C. Fisher and S. W. Ransom.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 4009

Nouvelle pratique dermatologique. 8 vols.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1936.


Subjects: DERMATOLOGY
  • 3974

Protamine insulinate.

J. Amer. med. Ass., 106, 177-80, 1936.

Hagedorn created NPH insulin and founded Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, known today as Novo Nordisk. NPH insulin is one of the earliest examples of engineering drug delivery.

Hagedorn became interested in modifying the sbsorption rate of insulin. He was aware that contaminating proteins slowed the aborption of insulin into the bloodstream, but these caused irritation and side effects. Searching for a protein that would not cause any irritation, he came upon protamine, a protein isolated from fish sperm. Hagerdorn discovered that the addition of protamine to insulin caused the insulin to form microscopic clumps. These clumps took longer to dissolve in the bloodstream. With B. N. Jensen, N. B. Krarup, and I. Wodstrup,



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, PHARMACOLOGY
  • 3975

Protamine insulin.

Canad. med. Ass. J., 34, 400-01, 1936.

R. B. Kerr, C. H. Best, W. R. Campbell, and A. A. Fletcher advocated the combination of zinc with insulin to delay its absorption rate. Later this was combined with protamine to form protamine zinc insulin.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 5480

Cultivation of the viruses of sandfly fever and dengue fever on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick-embryo.

Indian J. Med. Research, Calcutta, 23, 865-70., 1936.

Cultivation of the virus of phlebotomus fever. With R. S. Rao and C. S. Swaminath.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Sandfly-Borne Diseases › Phlebotomus (Pappataci) Fever, VIROLOGY
  • 6574.1

Medisinens historic i Norge.

Oslo, Norway: Grondal, 1936.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Norway
  • 12005

Liquid crystalline substances from virus infected plants.

Nature, 138, 1051-1052, 1936.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Bawden, Pirie, Bernal, Fankuchen. The authors isolated and crystallized tobacco mosaic virus, finding for the first time that a virus contained nucleic acids, when others claimed that it just contained proteins. They showed that the virus molecules were anisometric and consist of ribonucleoprotein.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › X-Ray Crystallography, VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 4689

The treatment of meningococcic meningitis with sulfanilamide.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 108, 1407-08, 1937.

With S. Gelman and P. H. Long.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Cerebrospinal Meningitis
  • 1075

Studies on vitamin E. The isolation of β-tocopherol from wheat germ oil.

Biochem. J., 31, 2257-63, 1937.

With F. Bergel and T. S. Work.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 1154

Corticosteron, a crystallized compound with the biological activity of the adrenal-cortical hormone.

Nature (Lond.), 139, 26, 1937.

Isolation of corticosterone. With E. Laqueur, T. Reichstein, R. W. Spanhoff, and I. E. Uyldert.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 4824

The electro-encephalogram in epilepsy.

J. ment. Sci., 83, 137-55, 1937.

Demonstration of the changes in the electro-encephalogram in epilepsy. With S. Graham and W. Grey Walter.



Subjects: Electrodiagnosis, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 3038

Arterectomy.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 64, 149-55, 1937.

Arterectomy in arterial thrombosis. With R. Fontaine and S. M. Dupertuis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY
  • 3019

Heparin and the thrombosis of veins following injury.

Surgery, 2, 163-87, 1937.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Murray, Jaques, Perrett, Best. Heparin was discovered by Jay McLean and William Henry Howell in 1916; however it was not tested as an anticoagulant in clinical trials until 1935.  With L.B. Jaques, T. S. Perrett.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anticoagulation, VASCULAR SURGERY
  • 4402

The effects on bone of the presence of metals; based upon electrolysis. An experimental study.

Ann. Surg., 105, 917-38, 1937.

Introduction of vitallium. With W. Stuck and A. Beach.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Muskuloskeletal System › Physiology of Bone Formation
  • 5329

Sur une nouvelle fièvre par morsure de rat.

Bull. Acad. Méd. (Paris), 3 sér., 117, 705-13, 1937.

A. Lemierre, J. Reilly, A. Laporte, and M. Morin isolated Streptobacillus moniliformis from a case of rat-bite fever.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Rat-Bite Fever
  • 11568

La angio-cardiografía radio-opaca.

Arch. Soc. Est. Clin. (Havana), 31, 523 , 1937.

Intravenous angiocardiography. This was the first publication that dealt with the normal cardiac structure and the changes seen in ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Arteriography / Angiography, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Cuba
  • 1077
  • 3760

The isolation and identification of the anti-black tongue factor.

J. biol. Chem., 123, 137-49, 1938.

Isolation of nicotinic acid, the pellagra-preventing factor (Vitamin B3). With R. J. Madden, F. N. Strong, and D. W. Woolley.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Pellagra, NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 4659.1

Human encephalitis caused by the virus of the Eastern variety of equine encephalomyelitis.

New Engl. J. med., 219, 411, 1938.

Isolation of the virus of Eastern equine encephalitis from man. With J. H. Dingle, S. Farber, and M. L. Connerley.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions, VETERINARY MEDICINE, VIROLOGY
  • 1079

α-Tocopherol.

Helv. chim. Acta, 21, 520-25, 1938.

P. Karrer, H. Fritzsche, B. H. Ringier, and H. Salomon synthesized vitamin E (α-tocopherol).



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 4770

The response of the myasthenic state to guanidine hydrochloride.

Science, 87, 348-50, 1938.

Guanidine first used in treatment of myasthenia gravis. With K. Dodd and S. S. Riven.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Myopathies
  • 2027

An inexhaustible source of blood for transfusion, and its preservation. Preliminary report.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 66, 176-78, 1938.

J. R. Goodall, F. O. Anderson, G. T. Altimas, and F. L. MacPhail pointed out the possibility of using placental blood for transfusion purposes.



Subjects: THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion
  • 1926
  • 2440.2

The action of substances allied to 4:4'-diaminodiphenylsulphone in streptococcal and other infections in mice.

Biochem. J., 32, 1101-10, 1938.

G. A. H. Buttle, T. Dewing, G. E. Foster, W. H. Gray, S. Smith, and D. Stephenson discovered the potency of dapsone (DDS).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2867

Effects of induced oxygen want in patients with cardiac pain.

Amer. Heart J., 15, 187-200, 1938.

Diagnosis of cardiac pain. With A. L. Barach and H. G. Bruenn.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 3799

The oestrogenic activity of certain synthetic compounds.

Nature (Lond.), , 141, 247-48, 1938.

Introduction of stilboestrol, the first synthetic estrogen. With L. Gol[d]berg, W. Lawson,



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY
  • 3663

Synthesis of hippuric acid in man following intravenous injection of sodium benzoate.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 38, 77-78, 1938.

Intravenous hippuric acid test for liver function. With H. N. Ottenstein and H. Weltchek. See also Amer. J. Dis., 1939, 6, 716-17.



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Tests for Liver Function
  • 5467.1

Yellow fever virus in jungle mosquitoes.

Science, 88, 110-11, 1938.

Haemagogus sp. shown to be vectors of yellow fever. With L. Whitman and M. Frania.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Yellow Fever Virus, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology › Medical Entomology
  • 1080

Isolierung des Vitamins K in hochgereinigter Form.

Helv. chim. Acta, 22, 310-313, 1939.

Isolation of vitamin K1 from alfalfa. It was isolated independently by R. W. McKee and his co-workers, J. Amer. chem. Soc., 1939, 61, 1295.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 4771

Myasthenia gravis and tumors of the thymic region. Report of a case in which the tumor was removed.

Ann. Surg., 110, 544-61, 1939.

First deliberate treatment of myasthenia gravis by thymectomy, with M. F. Mason, H. J. Morgan, and S. S. Riven.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Myopathies, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Surgical Oncology
  • 1933.2

Studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms. LX. Griseofulvin, C17H17O6Cl, a metabolic product of Penicillium griseo-fulvum Dierckx.

Biochem. J., 33, 240-48, 1939.

Isolation of griseofulvin. With H. Raistrick and P. Simonart.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 3098

Studies on leukemia with the aid of radioactive phosphorus.

New int. Clin., n.s. 2, vol. 3, 33-58, 1939.

Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes for the treatment of leukemia. John H. Lawrence was the brother of Ernest Orlando Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron; John Lawrence also worked at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.  With K. G. Scott and L. W. Tuttle.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, Nuclear Medicine, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, Radiation Oncology
  • 2870

Studies on the estimation of cardiac output in man, and abnormalities in cardiac function, from the heart’s recoil and the blood’s impacts; the ballistocardiogram.

Amer. J. Physiol 127, 1-28, 1939.

Introduction of the ballistocardiogram. With A. J. Rawson, H. A. Schroeder, and N. R. Joseph.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function, Electrodiagnosis
  • 3877

Treatment of adrenal insufficiency by means of subcutaneous implants of pellets of desoxycorticosterone acetate (a synthetic adrenal cortical hormone).

Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp., 64, 155-66, 1939.

With L. L. Engel and H. Eisenberg. For treatment of Addison’s disease by the same method, see the same journal, pp. 339-65.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Adrenals
  • 5645

The local implantation of sulfanilamide in compound fractures.

Surgery, 6, 1-12, 1939.

Sulphonamide dressing of wounds. With L. W. Johnsrud and M. C. Nelson.



Subjects: SURGERY: General › Antisepsis / Asepsis, SURGERY: General › Wound Healing
  • 6231

Prediction and prevention of late pregnancy accidents in diabetes.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 198, 482-92, 1939.

First report of hormone treatment. Written with R.S. Titus, E.P. Joslin, and H. Hunt.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1085

A further note on the identity of vitamin H with biotin.

Science, 92, 609-10, 1940.

Isolation of β-biotin (formerly known as vitamin H). With D. B. Melville, P. György, and C. S. Rose.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 1954

Sulfanilylguanidine: a chemotherapeutic agent for intestinal infections.

Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp., 67, 163-88, 1940.

Sulphaguanidine was introduced by E. K. Marshall, A. C. Bratton, H. J. White, and J. T. Litchfield.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Sulfonamides
  • 1955

Chemotherapy, II. Some sulfanilamido heterocycles.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 62, 2002-05, 1940.

Synthesis of sulphamerazine, by R. O. Roblin, J. H. Williams, P. S. Winnek, and J. P. English.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Chemotherapy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Sulfonamides
  • 2349

The effect of promin (sodium salt of P. P’-diamino-diphenyl-sulfone-N, N’-dextrose sulfonate) on experimental tuberculosis: a preliminary report.

Proc. Mayo Clin., 15, 695-99, 1940.

Experimental evidence of the value of promin (sodium glucosulphone) in tuberculosis. With H. C. Hinshaw and H.E. Moses. See also Amer. Rev. Tuberc., 1942, 45, 303-33.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis
  • 2923

Grosse pulmonaire. Petite aorte. Affection congénitale.

Bull. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 56, 847-50, 1940.

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery reported. With D. Routier and R. Heim de Balsac.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Vascular Malformations
  • 5259.1

The form of Plasmodium, gallinaceum present in the incubation period of the infection.

Indian J. med. Res., 28, 273-76, 1940.

Independently of Mudrow, H. E. Shortt, K. P. Menon, and P. V. Seetharama Iyer found pre-erythrocytic forms of P. gallinaceum in the tissues.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PARASITOLOGY › Plasmodia, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Veterinary Parasitology
  • 10951

A neurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native in Uganda.

Am. J. Trop. Med. & Hygiene, 20, 471-492, 1940.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Smithburn, Hughes, Burke. In 1937 the authors isolated a virus from the blood of an adult female with fever from the Omogo West Nile district of Uganda, and named it West Nile virus. They described pathology that involves encephalitis and can cause death in monkeys. Digital facsimile from ajtmh.org at this link

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.).



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Uganda, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › West Nile Virus , VIROLOGY
  • 1244.1

Methods for the collection of fluid from single glomeruli and tubules of the mammalian kidney, and the collection and analysis of fluid from single nephrons of the mammalian kidney.

Am. J. Physiol., 134, 562-89; 580-95, 1941.

This was the first (and for many years) the only application of the Wearn-Richards procedure (No. 1239) to the mammalian kidney.



Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 1956

Sulfadiazine. Therapeutic evaluation and toxic effects on four hundred and forty-six patients.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 116, 2641-47, 1941.

Introduction of sulphadiazine. With E. Strauss and O. L. Peterson.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Sulfonamides
  • 3100

The rôle of iso-immunization in the pathogenesis of erythroblastosis fetalis.

Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec., 42, 925-37, 1941.

Erythroblastosis fetalis due to rhesus incompatibility (Rh disease) between mother and child. With L. Burnham, E. M. Katzin, and P. Vogel.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Icterus Gravis Neonatorum, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, HEMATOLOGY › Immunohematology
  • 3102

Studies on the hemorrhagic sweet clover disease. V. Identification and synthesis of the hemorrhagic agent.

J. biol. Chem., 138, 513-27, 1941.

Isolation of dicoumarol (3:3-methylene-bis-4-hydroxycoumarin). With C. F. Huebner.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anticoagulation
  • 5096

Sulfanilylguanidine in the treatment of acute bacillary dysentery in children.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull., 68, 94-111, 1941.

E. K. Marshall, A. C. Bratton, L. B. Edwards, and E. L. Walker were the first to use sulphaguanidine in the treatment of bacillary dysentery.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Dysentery, PEDIATRICS
  • 12823

Report of the Blood Transfusion Association concerning the Project for Supplying Blood Plasma to England, which has been carried on jointly with the American Red Cross from August, 1940, to January, 1941. Narrative account of work and medical report.

New York: Blood Transfusion Association, 1941.

Drew discovered the method for long-term storage of blood plasma, and organized America's first large-scale blood bank.

Drew's thesis for his medical degree at Columbia was entitled "Banked Blood: A Study in Blood Preservation." "The thesis also made him the first African American to earn a medical doctorate from Columbia. Scudder remarked that the thesis was “a masterpiece” and “one of the most distinguished essays ever written, both in form and content.”

"Drew’s doctoral research assessed previous blood and transfusion research, blood chemistry and fluid replacement, and evaluated variables affecting shelf-life of stored blood — from types and amounts of anticoagulants (substances that prevent blood from clotting) and preservatives, to shapes of storage containers and temperature.

"His key findings, complex procedures, and standards for collecting, processing and storing blood proved his expertise and led to an appointment to head the Blood for Britain Project (BFB), an effort to transport desperately needed blood and plasma to Great Britain, which was under attack by Germany" 

As Medical Supervisor, Blood Plasma Division, Charles R. Drew was the lead author of Part II: "Medical report submitted in behalf of the Board of Medical Control by the Medical Supervisor of the Blood Plasma Division, the Chairman of the Board, the Chairman of the Blood Plasma Committee, and the Assistant to the Board, Blood Plasma Division" (https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/african-americans-in-sciences/charles-richard-drew.html, accessed 5-2020).

Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.



Subjects: BLACK PEOPLE & MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion
  • 1958

Sulphamethazine: Clinical trial of a new sulphonamide.

Lancet, 1 (for 1942), 639-41, 1942.

Sulfadimidine (also spelled Sulphadimidine) with G. S. Smith, R. W. Luxton, W. A. Ramsay, and J. Goldman. [Also designated as Vol. 239 by publishers of The Lancet.]



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Sulfonamides
  • 2237

Diffuse collagen disease; acute disseminated lupus erythematosus and diffuse scleroderma.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 119, 331-32, 1942.

P. Klemperer, A. D. Pollack, and G. Baehr combined a number of diseases, hitherto regarded as unrelated, into an entity which they termed diffuse collagen disease.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY, Medicine: General Works
  • 2700.01

Metabolic studies on neoplasm of bone with the aid of radioactive strontium.

Am. J. med. Sci. 204, 521-530, 1942.

Radioisotopic bone scanning. With B. Low-Beer, H. Friedell, and J. Lawrence.



Subjects: Radiation Oncology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 4154

Dermatite papulo-squameuse atrophiante.

Bull. Soc. franç. Derm. Syph. 49, 148-50, 281, 1942.

“Degos’s disease”, malignant atrophic papulosis. With J. Delort and R. Tricot. Earlier described by W. Köhlmeier, Frankf. Z. Path., 1940, 54, 413.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 1088

Synthetic biotin.

Science, 97, 447-48, 1943.

Synthesis of biotin. With D. E. Wolf, R. Mozingo, and K. Folkers.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 1040

Radioactive iron absorption by gastro-intestinal tract. Influence of anemia, anoxia, and antecedent feeding distribution in growing dogs.

J. exp. Med., 78, 169-88, 1943.

An important contribution to the knowledge of iron absorption. With W. F. Bale, J. F. Ross, W. M. Balfour, and G. H. Whipple.



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 1934.2

Penicillamine, a characteristic degradation product of penicillin.

Nature (Lond.), 151, 107 (only), 1943.

With W. Baker.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 2441

The promin treatment of leprosy. A progress report.

Publ. Hlth Rep. (Wash.), 58, 1729-41, 1943.

Promin (sodium glucosulphone) introduced in the treatment of leprosy. With R. C. Pogge, F. A. Johansen, J. F. Dinan, B. M. Prejean, and C. G. Eccles.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 5214.1

Use of penicillin in sulfonamide resistant gonorrheal infections.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 122, 289-92, 1943.

With E. N. Cook and L. Thompson.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Gonorrhoea & Trichomonas Infection, PHARMACOLOGY › Drug Resistance, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 4615

Iodinated organic compounds as contrast media for radiographic diagnoses. III. Experimental and clinical myelography with ethyl iodophenylundecylate (pantopaque).

Radiology, 43, 230-35, 1944.

Introduction of “pantopaque” for diagnosis of cerebral tumors. With C. E. Dungan, J. B. Furst, J. T. Plati, S. W. Smith, A. P. Darling, and E. C. Wolcott.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROLOGY › Neuroradiology
  • 1928.3

Über Konstitution und toxische Wirkung von natürlichen und neuen synthetischen insektentötenden Stoffen.

Helv. chim. Acta, 27, 892- 928, 1944.

Müller introduced Dichlordiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT) as an insecticide. With H. Martin and P. Läuger. 

In 1948 Müller received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods."



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, TOXICOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY › Insecticides
  • 2659.2

“Folic acid” a tumor growth inhibitor.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 55, 204-05, 1944.

Inhibition of tumor growth by a folic acid concentrate. With R. Lewisohn, D. Laszlo. These workers later (Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. N. Y., 1944, 56, 144-45) obtained similar results with xanthopterin.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2659.3

Influence of synthetic oestrogens upon advanced malignant disease.

Brit. med. J. 2, 393-98, 1944.

Administration of synthetic estrogens in advanced mammary cancer caused regression of tumors. With J. M. Watkinson, E. Paterson, and P. C. Koller.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Cancer Drugs
  • 3213.1

Studies on the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia. A filterable agent transmissible to cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos.

J. exp. Med., 79, 649-68, 1944.

The Eaton agent, isolated from primary atypical pneumonia. With G. Meiklejohn and W. van Herick.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Pneumonia, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 4255

The artificial kidney: Dialyser with great area.

Acta med. scand., 117, 121-34, 1944.

The Kolff artificial kidney. With H. T. J. Berk and others. Kolff first published his discovery in a neutral country (Sweden) since in 1944 Holland was occupied by the Germans. See also No. 1976.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Dialysis
  • 5398.3

The therapeutic effect of para-aminobenzic acid in louse-borne typhus fever.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 126, 349-56, 1944.

With J. C. Snyder, E. S. Murray, C. J. D. Zarafonetis, and R. S. Ecke.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Rickettsia › Rickettsia prowazekii , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus
  • 5449.1

Chemical, clinical, and immunological studies on the products of human plasma fractionation. XII. The use of concentrated normal human serum gamma globulin (human immune serum globulin) in the prevention and attenuation of measles.

J. clin. Invest., 23, 541-49, 1944.

Gamma globulin used for passive immunization against measles. With C. G. Jennings and C. A. Janeway.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles
  • 12599

Penicillin content of blood serum after various doses of penicillin by various routes.

Lancet, 244, 621-624, 1944.

In this paper Fleming and colleagues explained how to choose routes of administration of penicillin as well as dosage, and reproduced the graphs/figures that showed blood levels achieved with different doses and routes of administration.
Fleming was the first to use Procaine mixed with penicillin in order to alleviate the tremendous intramuscular pain of the injections. He showed that the anesthetic did not affect the bacterial killing power of the antibiotic. With M. Y. Young, A. J. E. Rowe.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 1929

British anti-lewisite (BAL).

Nature (Lond.), 156, 616-19, 1945.

British Anti-Lewisite BAL (dimercaprol), a medication used to treat acute poisoning by arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead, was discovered during the 1939-45 war. With L. A. Stocken and R. H. S. Thompson. 



Subjects: TOXICOLOGY
  • 1929.1

Effectiveness of a nitrofuran in the treatment of infected wounds.

Milit. Surg., 97, 380-84, 1945.

First clinical use of “furacin” (nitrofuran). With C. L. Kiehn and J. W. Christopherson.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, SURGERY: General › Wound Healing
  • 1936

Bacitracin: a new antibiotic produced by a member of the B, subtilis group.

Science, 102, 376-77, 1945.

With H. Anker and F. L. Meleney.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 3104

Detection of weak and “incomplete” Rh agglutinins: a new test.

Lancet, 246 (6358), 15-16, 1945.

Coombs’s test for detecting antibodies in various clinical scenarios, such as Rh disease and blood transfusion. With A. E. Mourant and R. R. Race. A fuller description appears in Brit. J. exp. Path.,1945, 26, 255-66.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests, THERAPEUTICS › Blood Transfusion
  • 3150

Observations of the anti-anemic properties of synthetic folic acid.

Sth. med. J. (Nashville), 38, 707-09, 1945.

Hemopoietic properties of folic acid reported. With C. F. Vilter, M. B. Koch, and M. H. Caldwell.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 5260

Studies on synthetic antimalarial drugs.

Ann. trop. Med. Parasit., 39, 139-64, 208-16, 1945.

F. H. S. Curd, D. G. Davey, and F. L. Rose synthesized proguanil (“paludrine”) and first tested it in avian malaria.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antimalarial Drugs
  • 4727

Le traitement de la maladie de Parkinson par le chlorhydrate de diéthylaminoéthyl-N-thiodiphénylamine (2987 R.P.). Premiers résultats.

Rev. neurol. (Paris), 78, 581-84, 1946.

Introduction of “diparcol” in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. With D. Boyet and G. Dumont.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Movement Disorders › Parkinson's Disease (paralysis agitans)
  • 2351

Ueber eine neue, gegen Tuberkelbazillen in vitro wirksame Verbindungsklasse.

Naturwissenschaften, 33, 315, 1946.

Introduction of thiosemicarbazone in treatment of tuberculosis. With R. Behnisch, F. Mietzsch, and H. Schmidt.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antitubercular Drugs
  • 3045

Anastomosis of the aorta to a pulmonary artery. Certain types in congenital heart disease.

J. Amer. med. Ass., 132, 627-31, 1946.

With S. Smith and S. Gibson.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 3106

Leukaemia treated with urethane compared with deep x-ray therapy.

Lancet, 1, 677, 1946.

Urethane in treatment of leukemia. With A. Haddow, I. Ap Thomas, and J. M. Watkinson.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, Radiation Oncology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 3152

Observations on the effect of massive doses of iron given intravenously to patients with hypochromic anemia.

Blood, 1, 129-42, 1946.


Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 4256

The treatment of acute renal failure by peritoneal irrigation.

Ann. Surg., 124, 857-78, 1946.

With H. A. Frank and A. M. Seligman.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease
  • 5725

Propriétés curarisantes du di-iodoéthylate de bis-[quinoléyloxy-8’] 1.5-pentane.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 223, 597-98, 1946.

Introduction of gallamine triethiodide (“flaxedil”). With S. Courvoisier, R. Ducrot, And R. Horclois. See also the same journal, 1947, 225, 74.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA
  • 5544.2

Immunity in mumps. VI. Experiments on the vaccination of human beings with formolized mumps virus.

J. exp. Med., 84, 407-28, 1946.

With E. P. Maris, and L. W. Kane.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Mumps, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Paramyxoviridae › Mumps orthorubulavirus (MuV)
  • 5351.2

Miracil, ein neues Chemotherapeuticum gegen die Darmbilharziose.

Naturwissenschaften, 33, 253 (only), 1946.

Lucanthone hydrochloride (Miracil D). With R. Gönnert and H. Mauss.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES
  • 5400

Rickettsialpox. A newly recognized rickettsial disease. IV. Isolation of a rickettsia apparently identical with the causative agent of rickettsialpox from Allodermanyssus sanguineus, a rodent mite.

Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash.), 61, 1677-82, 1946.

Isolation of Rickettsia akari, aetiologic agent of rickettsialpox. With W. L. Jellison and C. Pomerantz.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rickettsial Infections
  • 1245

Studies of the renal circulation.

Oxford: Blackwell, 1947.

With A. E. Barclay, P. M. Daniel, K. J. Franklin, and M. M. L. Prichard. In studying the anurias which follow injury, especially crushing injuries and burns, Trueta’s team demonstrated that both the processes of filtration and of re-absorption are subject to nervous control, leading to the development of a more rational therapy for these conditions.



Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 1937

“Aerosporin”, an antibiotic produced by Bacillus aerosporus Greer.

Nature (Lond.), 160, 263, 1947.

Discovery of aerosporin (polymyxin). With A. M. Brown and G. Brownlee.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 1938

Chloromycetin, a new antibiotic from a soil actinomycete.

Science, 106, 417, 1947.

Production of chloramphenicol from Streptomyces venezuelae. With Q. R. Bartz, R. M. Smith, D. A. Joslyn and P. R. Burkholder.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 1939

Procaine penicillin G (duracillin); a new salt of penicillin which prolongs the action of penicillin.

Proc. Mayo Clin., 22, 567-70, 1947.

Procaine benzylpenicillin also known as penicillin G procaine was developed by Herrell and colleagues. With D.R. Nichols.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 1941

Polymyxin: a new chemotherapeutic agent.

Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp., 81, 43-54, 1947.

With R. G. Shepherd and H. J. White.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2660

Effect of intraperitoneal injection of malignant urine extracts in normal and hypophysectomized rats.

Science, 105, 475-76, 1947.

Test for diagnosis of cancer. With B. Halperin and S. H. Libert.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 2876

Electrokymograph for recording heart motion, improved type.

Amer. J. Roentgenol., 57, 409-16, 1947.

With B. R. Boone and W. E. Chamberlain.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function
  • 2878.1

Ventricular fibrillation of long duration abolished by electric shock.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 135, 985-86, 1947.

The first successful defibrillation of a surgical patient, with the chest opened, and the paddles applied directly to the heart. With  H.S. Feil.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias › External Defibrillator, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY
  • 4912.1

Stereotaxic apparatus for operations on the human brain.

Science, 106, 349-50, 1947.

"The first successful cranial application of stereotactic surgery in humans is credited to the team of Ernest Spiegel and Henry Wycis in the Department of Experimental Neurology at Temple University in Philadelphia (Spiegel et al. 1947). Their original frame, using a Cartesian coordinate systems and similar in design and operation to the Clarke-Horsley device, was fixed to a patient’s head by means of a plaster cast. The frame and cast were removable, allowing separate imaging and surgery sessions. Contrast radiographyventriculography and later pneumoencephalography permitted the visualization of intracranial reference points from which the location of target structures of interest could be determined. Initial applications were for psychosurgery.[7](Wikipedia article on Ernst Adolf Spiegel, accessed 3-2020)

 With M. Marks, and A. J. Lee.



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSURGERY › Psychosurgery, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery
  • 5351.3

Experimental chemotherapy of filariasis. III. Effect of 1-diethylcarbamyl-4-methyl-piperazine hydrochloride against naturally acquired filarial infections in cotton rats and dogs.

J. Lab. clin. Med., 32, 1314-29, 1947.

Proof of antifilarial action of diethylcarbarmazine citrate (hetrazan). With S. Kushner, H. W. Stewart, E. White, W. S. Wallace, and Y. Subbarow.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › DISEASES DUE TO METAZOAN PARASITES, PHARMACOLOGY › Chemotherapy
  • 11511

Development of an artificial kidney: Experimental and clinical experiences.

Arch. Surg., 55, 505-522, 1947.

".... a significant contribution to renal therapies was made by Canadian surgeon Gordon Murray with the assistance of two doctors, an undergraduate chemistry student, and research staff. Murray's work was conducted simultaneously and independently from that of Kolff. Murray's work led to the first successful artificial kidney built in North America in 1945–46, which was successfully used to treat a 26-year-old woman out of a uraemic coma in Toronto. The less-crude, more compact, second-generation "Murray-Roschlau" dialyser was invented in 1952–53, whose designs were stolen by German immigrant Erwin Halstrup, and passed off as his own (the "Halstrup–Baumann artificial kidney").[26] (Wikipedia article on hemodialysis, accessed 1-2020)

With Edmund Delorme and Newell Thomas.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Dialysis
  • 566.2

The growth in vitro of single isolated tissue cells.

J. nat. Cancer Inst., 9, 229-46, 1948.

Sanford was the first to clone in vitro a single living cell of a mammal—in this instance, a rodent. She performed this feat in search of a means to research how cells transform into malignancy.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1091

Crystalline vitamin B12.

Science, 107, 396-97, 1948.

With N. G. Brink, F. R. Koniuszy, T. R. Wood, and K. Folkers.



Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 2010.3

A linear electron accelerator.

Rev. sci. lnstrum., 19, 89-108, 1948.

With W. R. Kennedy.



Subjects: THERAPEUTICS
  • 2526

A new mycobacterial infection in man.

J. Path. Bact., 60, 93-122, 1948.

Myco. ulcerans first described. With J. C. Tolhurst, G. Buckle, and H. A. Sissons.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium
  • 3046.1

The surgical treatment of mitral stenosis. 1. Valvuloplasty.

New Engl. J. Med., 239, 801-09, 1948.

Valvuloplasty for mitral stenosis. Harken reported the first successful intracardiac operation for treatment of this lesion--a procedure was first attempted in the 1920s. Charles Bailey in Philadelphia undertook a similar approach at the same time, and according to Lawrence Cohn "These surgeons began the 'modern' era of cardiac surgery." (L. H. Cohn, "Surgical Treatment of Valvular Heart Disease," Am. J. Surg. 135, 444-451, 1978). With L. B. Ellis, P. F. Ware. 



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Heart Valve Disease, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2237.1

Presentation of two bone marrow elements: The “Tart” cell and the “L. E”. cell.

Proc. Mayo Clin., 23, 25-28, 1948.

The Hargraves “L. E”. cell, a diagnostic aid in acute disseminated lupus erythematosus. With H. Richmond and R. J. Morton. First reported by Morton in A study of the bone marrow in cases of disseminated lupus erythematosus, his Univeristy of Minnesota thesis, 1947, prepared under the guidance of Hargraves.



Subjects: Medicine: General Works
  • 2879

Thoracic aortography. Preliminary report.

Acta radiol. (Stockh.), 29, 181-88, 1948.

With H. E. Hanson and J. Karnell.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function, IMAGING › X-ray
  • 3908

Studies in growth. I. Interrelationship between pituitary growth factor and growth-promoting androgens in acromegaly and gigantism. II. Quantitative evaluation of bone and soft tissue growth in acromegaly and gigantism.

J. clin. Endocr., 8, 1013-36, 1948.

L. W. Kinsell, G. D. Michaels, C. H. Li, and W. E. Larsen showed that there is an increase in growth hormone in plasma in acromegaly.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 3020

Report of the Committee for the Evaluation of Anticoagulants in the Treatment of Coronary Thrombosis with Myocardial Infarction.

Amer. Heart J., 36, 801-15, 1948.

With C. D. Marple and D. F. Beck.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Myocardial Infarction, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Thrombosis / Embolism
  • 5262

The pre-erythrocytic stage of mammalian malaria.

Brit. med. J., 1, 192-94, 1948.

Demonstration of the pre-erythrocytic stage of P. cynomolgi in the monkey. With P. C. C. Garnham and B. Malamos. Preliminary communication in Nature (Lond.), 1948, 161, 126.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PARASITOLOGY › Plasmodia, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Veterinary Parasitology
  • 1155

Isolation of nor-adrenaline from the adrenal gland.

Acta chem. scand., 3, 305-6, 1949.

With U.S. von Euler and U. Hamberg. See also fuller account in Acta physiol. scand., 1950, 20, 101-8. Noradrenaline was independently isolated by B. F. Tullar, Science, 1950, 109, 536-7.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 2010.5

Therapeutic possibilities of microwaves.

J. Amer. med. Ass., 139, 989-93, 1949.

Introduction of microwave radiation therapy. With J. F. Herrick, G. M. Martin.



Subjects: RADIOLOGY, THERAPEUTICS
  • 1930

Bradykinin, a hypotensive and smooth muscle stimulating factor releases from plasma globulin by snake venoms and by trypsin.

Amer. J. Physiol., 156, 261-73, 1949.

Discovery of bradykinin. With W. T. Beraldo and G. Rosenfeld.



Subjects: PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY › Venoms
  • 4914

Revascularization of the brain through establishment of a cervical arteriovenous fistula. Effects in children with mental retardation and convulsive disorders.

J. Pediat., 35, 317-29, 1949.

With C. F. McKhann and W. D. Belnap.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, NEUROLOGY › Neurodevelopmental Disorders › Mental Retardation, PEDIATRICS
  • 5728

Proprietà farmacodinamiche di alcuni derivati della succinilcolina dotati di azione curarica. Esteri di trialchiletanolammonio di acidi bicarbossilici alifatici.

R. C. Ist. sup. Sanità, 12, 106-37, 1949.

Introduction of succinylcholine chloride. With S. Guarino, V. G. Longo, and M. Marotta.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 5546

Disease resembling nonparalytic poliomyelitis associated with a virus pathogenic for infant mice.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 141, 894-901, 1949.

Isolation of the Coxsackie virus from patients with poliomyelitis. With E. W. Shaw.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Coxsackie Virus Diseases, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Picornaviridae › Coxsackievirus
  • 5225

The laboratory diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum.

J. clin. Path., 2, 241-49, 1949.

Skin-test antigen. With C. F. Barwell, E. J. King, and L. W. J. Bishop.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Lymphogranuloma Venereum
  • 1945.1

Terramycin, a new antibiotic.

Science, 111, 85, 1950.

Oxtetracycline (terramycin).



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2660.2

A sensitive directional gamma-ray detector.

Nucleonics, 6, 78-81, 1950.

Directional scintillation detector probe. Cassen assembled the first automated scanning system, comprised of a motor driven scintillation detector coupled to a relay printer. The scanner was initially used to image thyroid glands after the administration of radioiodine.  Later, with the development of organ-specific radiopharmaceuticals, the scanner was widely used during the late 50s until the early 70s to image body organs. With L. Curtis and C. W. Reed.



Subjects: IMAGING, Nuclear Medicine, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 2881

Mechanism of the auricular arrythmias.

Circulation, 1, 241-45, 1950.

With E. Corday, I. C. Brill, A. L. Seller, R. W. Oblath, W. A. Flieg, and H. E. Kruger.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias
  • 3788.1

Triethylene melamine in the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease and allied neoplasms

Trans. Ass. Amer. Phycns., 63, 136-46., 1950.

With D. A. Karnofsky, J. H. Burchenal, and L. F. Craver.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, Spleen: Lymphatics
  • 4256.1

Homotransplantation of the kidney in human; preliminary report.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 144, 844-5, 1950.

Report of first human patient to survive a kidney transplant. The operation was on June 17, 1950, and the patient was discharged on August 26. With four co-authors. See No. 4257.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 3692.1

Studies on mass control of dental caries through fluoridation of the public water supply.

Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash.), 65, 1403-08, 1950.

It has not been conclusively demonstrated whether fluoride serves a specific physiological role, but fluoridation of public water supplies was followed by a reduction in the incidence of dental caries. One of the first studies on mass control of dental caries. With F. A. Arnold, P. Jay, and J. W. Knutson. See No. 3681.2.



Subjects: DENTISTRY, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 5546.1

Colorado tick fever. Isolation of the virus from Dermacentor andersoni in nature and a laboratory study of the transmission of the virus in the tick.

J. Immunol., 64, 257-63, 1950.

Isolation of the virus of Colorado tick fever. With M. S. Miller and E. R. Mugrage.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Colorado, VIROLOGY
  • 5262.3

Primaquine, S.N. 13,272, a new curative agent in vivax malaria: a preliminary report.

J. nat. Malaria Soc., 9, 285-92, 1950.

Introduction of primaquine.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antimalarial Drugs
  • 1246.1

Lokalisation des Konzentrierungsprozesses in der Niere durch direkte Kryoskopie.

Helv. Physiol. pharmacol. Acta, 9, 196-207, 1951.

The initial experimental evidence advanced in support of the countercurrent hypothesis. With B. Hargitay and W. Kuhn.



Subjects: Genito-Urinary System › Kidney: Urinary Secretion, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 1945.3

Viomycin, a new antibiotic active against mycobacteria.

Amer. Rev. Tuberc., 63, 1-3, 1951.

Isolation of viomycin. With 11 co-authors.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 3978

Kliniske undersøgelser med nye retarderet virkende insulin-praeparater.

Ugeskr. Laeg.113, 1767-71, 1951.

First clinical trials of lente, ultralente, and semilente insulin zinc suspension. See also Science, 1952, 116, 394-98; and J. Amer. med. Assoc., 1952, 150, 1667. With M. Jersild, K. Peterson, and J. Schlichtkrull.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 2993.1

A propos du traitement des anévrysmes de l’aorte. Ablation de l’anévrysme. Rétablissement de la continuité par greffe d’aorte humaine conservée.

Mém. Acad. Chir. (Paris), 77, 381-83, 1951.

First successful resection of abdominal aortic aneurysm and insertion of a homologous graft. With M. Allary and N. Oeconomos.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aneurysms, VASCULAR SURGERY
  • 5729

Bis-Cholinester von Dicarbonsäuren als Muskelrelaxantien in derNarkose.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 63, 464-66, 1951.

Clinical use of succinylcholine chloride. With K. H. Ginzel, H. Klupp, F. Pfaffenschlager, and G. Werner.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA
  • 12229

Development of a pump-oxygenator to replace the heart and lungs: An apparatus applicable to human patients, and application to one case.

Annals of Surgery, 134, 709-721, 1951.

Dennis and colleagues performed the first human cardiac operation with total heart-lung bypass. The patient was a 6-year old girl with a huge atrial septal defect. Though she did not survive, this report encouraged others to attempt open-heart surgery using various oxygenators, including modifications of the Gibbon pump oxygenator. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 4672

Evaluation of Red Cross gamma globulin as a prophylactic agent for poliomyelitis.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 150, 739-60, 1952.

Trial of gamma globulin in the prophylaxis of poliomyelitis. With L. L. Coriell, J. Stokes, P. F. Wehrle, and C. R. Klimt.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Poliomyelitis
  • 4672.1

Immune responses in human volunteers upon oral administration of a rodent-adapted strain of poliomyelitis virus.

Amer. J. Hyg., 55, 108-26, 1952.

Successful immunization against poliomyelitis with a living attenuated virus vaccine. With G. A. Jervis and T. W. Norton.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Poliomyelitis, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Picornaviridae › Poliovirus
  • 1155.1

Isolation of a highly active mineralocorticoid from beef adrenal extract.

Nature (Lond.), 169, 795-96, 1952.

Isolation of aldosterone. With S. A. Simpson and J. F. Tait.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1155.2

The total synthesis of steroids.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 74, 4223-51, 1952.

Synthesis of cortisone by Woodward and colleagues. With F. D. Taub, K. Heusler, and W. M. McLamore.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Adrenals
  • 1931

Reserpin, der sedative Wirkstoff aus Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.

Experientia (Basel), 8, 338, 1952.

Isolation of reserpine. With E. Schlittler and H. J. Bein.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Rauvolfia serpentina › Reserpine, PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology
  • 1946

“Ilotycin”, a new antibiotic.

Antibiot. and Chemother., 2, 281-83, 1952.

Discovery of erythromycin. With R. L. Bunch, R. C. Anderson, H. E. Boaz, E. H. Flynn, H. M. Powell, and J. W. Smith.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2353

Chemotherapy of human tuberculosis with hydrazine derivatives of isonicotinic acid. (Preliminary report of representative cases.)

Quart. Bull. Sea View Hosp., 13, 27-51, 1952.

Introduction of isoniazid. With I. J. Selikoff and G. G. Omstein. See also Amer. Rev. Tuberc., 1952, 65, 257-442.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, PHARMACOLOGY › Chemotherapy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antitubercular Drugs
  • 3047.3

The use of tubes constructed from Vinyon “N” cloth in bridging arterial defects.

Ann. Surg., 135, 332-6, 1952.

Introduction of plastic material to repair arterial defects. Voorhees later abandoned this material in favour of Dacron. With A. Jaretzki and A. W. Blakemore.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › Cardiothoracic Prostheses
  • 3108.1

Christmas disease, a condition previously mistaken for haemophilia.

Brit. med. J., 2, 1378-82, 1952.

Christmas disease, hemophilia B, due to lack of Factor IX. Named after the patient whose case was the first recorded example. With six co-authors.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Blood Disorders › Hemophilia, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 3108.2

Studies on condensed pyrimidine system. IX. The synthesis of some 6-substituted purines.

J. Amer. chem. Soc., 74, 411-14, 1952.

Synthesis of 6-mercaptopurine. 

In 1988 Gertrude Elion shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George Hitchings and Sir James Black “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.”



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11103

Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture.

J. Immunol., 69, 645-671, 1952.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Weller, Enders, Robbins. In this paper the authors describe their improved method for culturing poliomyelitis viruses in "normal kidney tissue." 

Followed by Robbins, Weller, Enders, "Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture II. The propagation of the poliomyelitis viruses in roller-tube cultures of various human tissues", J. Immunol., 69, 1952, 673-691. 

Publication of these techniques was instrumental in allowing Jonas Salk to develop the first polio vaccine.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for these references and their interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Poliomyelitis (Infantile Paralysis), NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Poliomyelitis, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Picornaviridae › Poliovirus
  • 4672.2

Studies in human subjects on active immunization against poliomyelitis. 1. A preliminary report of experiments in progress.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 151, 1081-98, 1953.

Killed-virus vaccine. With four co-authors.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Poliomyelitis (Infantile Paralysis), NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Poliomyelitis, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Picornaviridae › Poliovirus
  • 1931.1

Propriétés pharmacodynamiques du chlorhydrate de chloro-3 (diméthylamino-3’propyl) -10 phénothiazine (4.560 R.P.).

Arch. int. Pharmacodyn., 92, 305-61, 1953.

Chlorpromazine. With J. Foumel, R. Ducrot, M. Kolsky, and P. Koetschet. Chloropromazine was later marketed in the United States as Thorazine.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology › Chlorpromazine
  • 2660.5

Clinical studies on the carcinolytic action of triethylenephosphoramide.

Cancer, 6, 135-41, 1953.

TEPA. With five co-authors.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 2660.6

The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at the time of irradiation as a factor in radiotherapy.

Brit. J. Radiol., 26, 638-48, 1953.

The sensitivity of tumour cells to x rays shown to be much enhanced when irradiated in a well-oxygenated medium. With A. D. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, and O. C. A. Scott.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Radiation (Radiotherapy)
  • 2526.2

Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture.

Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. (N. Y), 84, 570-73, 1953.

Discovery of adenoviruses. With R. J. Huebner, L. K. Gilmore, R. H. Parrott, and T. G. Ward.



Subjects: PATHOLOGY, VIROLOGY
  • 3108.3

Clinical evaluation of a new antimetabolite, 6-mercaptopurine, in treatment of leukemia and allied diseases.

Blood, 8, 965-99, 1953.

Clinical introduction of 6-mercaptopurine in treatment of acute leukemia and chronic myelocytic leukemia. With nine co-authors.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 3108.5

Treatment of leukemia with triethylenethiophosphoramide (Thio-TEPA); preliminary results in experimental and clinical leukemia.

Arch. int. Med., 92, 628-45, 1953.

With C. Zarafonetis, N. Smith, I. Woldow and D. C. H. Sun.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 5729.1

Anesthesia: XL. The anesthetic action of trifluoroethyl vinyl ether.

J. Pharmacol., 108, 488-95, 1953.

Fluroxene, first fluorine-containing anesthetic. With C. J. Carr, Go Lu and F. K. Bell.



Subjects: ANESTHESIA
  • 1947

Purification and some properties of cephalosporin N, a new penicillin.

Biochem. J., 58, 94-102, 1954.

With G. G. F. Newton and C. W. Hale.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 3047.6

Controlled cross circulation for open intracardiac surgery; physiologic studies and results of creation and closure of ventricular septal defects.

J. Thorac. Surg., 28, 331-43, 1954.

Warden and colleagues undertook the first repair of various cardiac anomalies. With M. Cohen, and R.C. Read.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 3924.3

A new syndrome: progressive familial infantile cerebral dysfunction associated with unusual urinary substance.

Pediatrics, 14, 462-6, 1954.

Maple syrup urine disease described. With P. L. Hurst and J. M. Craig.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders, PEDIATRICS
  • 4256.2

Nephrotomography. A preliminary report.

Amer. J. Roentgenol., 71, 213-23., 1954.

With W. Dubilier and J. C. Monteith.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY, RADIOLOGY
  • 3412.6

A new method for testing hearing in temporal lobe tumours. Preliminary report.

Acta oto-laryng. (Stockh.), 44, 219-21, 1954.

The first tests for disorders of central auditory function were developed by Bocca, C. Calearo, and V. Cassinari.



Subjects: OTOLOGY › Audiology › Hearing Tests
  • 6311.1

Historical review of British obstetrics and gynaecology, 1800-1950.

Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone Ltd., 1954.

Edited by J. M. Munro Kerr, R. W. Johnstone, and M.H. Phillips. Supplements No. 6299.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY › History of Gynecology, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › History of Obstetrics
  • 566.4

Tissue fractionation studies. 6. Intracellular distribution patterns of enzymes in rat-liver tissue.

Biochem. J., 60, 604-18, 1955.

Lysosomes. With B. C. Pressman, R. Gianetto, R. Wattiaux and F. Appelmans.



Subjects: BIOLOGY
  • 1947.2

Amphotericins A and B, antifungal antibiotics produced by a streptomycete.

Antibiot. Ann., 579-91, 19551956.

With six co-authors.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 4256.3

Experiences with renal homotransplantation in the human. Report of nine cases.

J. clin. Invest., 34, 327-82, 1955.

With Benjamin F. Miller. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 7757

The serum lipoprotein transport system in health, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

Plasma, 2, 413-484, 1955.

Gofman, a nuclear and physical chemist as well as a physician, has been called the "father of clinical lipidology." He discovered and described the major classes of plasma lipoproteins: intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), as well as VLD (very low density lipoprotein). He characterized LDL as carrier of "bad cholesterol" leading to atherosclerosis; however he did not find that higher levels of HDL have predictive value as "good cholesterol".  He drew attention to VLDL as risk factor, noting that diabetics are frequently marked by higher VLDL levels, and also noted the rise in atherogenic lipoproteins at much earlier age in men than women. This is a long review of research conducted by Gofman and his team from 1949 to 1955; it footnotes 31 previously published papers by Gofman and associates. With O. DeLalla, F. Glazier, M.K. Freeman, A.V. Nicholas, B. Strisower, and A. R. Tamplin. This paper was reprinted with an historical introduction by Richard J. Havel, in Journal of Clinical Lipidology I (2007) 104-141.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease, Lipidology, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 10995

Intracardiac surgery with the aid of a mechanical pump oxygenator system (Gibbon type): Report of eight cases.

Proc. Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic, 30, 201-6, 1955.

Co-authored with JW Dushane, RT Patrick, DE Donald, PS Hetzel and EH Wood,

"Kirklin refined the heart-lung machine (screen type) originally developed by Gibbon, to the point that it allowed the person to receive oxygenated blood, temporarily providing a blood free environment to work on the heart.[11][12][13] In 1954, Kirklin's rival, C. Walton Lillehei used the technique of cross circulation to operate on an 11-month-old baby who died on the 11th day after surgery. Usually using the parent for cross circulation, he performed 45 operations of ventricular septal defects (VSDs), ASDs and tetralogy of Fallot. 30 survived and 20 were still alive 50 years later.[10]

"Following the experimental trial in dogs, which by 1955 had demonstrated a 90% survival following heart-lung bypass, Kirklin's team were granted permission by the governance of the Mayo Clinic to go ahead with a clinical trial in eight children, using the machine. In March 1955, the first child survived a repair of a VSD.[9] In this planned series of clinical cases, a 50% survival was reported. This was the first clinical series of open heart surgeries performed with a mechanical pump-oxygenator. Prior to this, the conditions were predominantly fatal. He therefore performed the world’s first successful series of open heart operations using the heart-lung machine. The Board of Governors at the Mayo Clinic approved the first eight operations, of which 4 (50%) survived.[11]

As a result, open heart surgeries and repairs of some heart defects could be performed under direct vision routinely and with a high degree of success. Kirklin's modifications and team work also allowed repairs of tetralogy of Fallot.[6][7][10][11] "(Wikipedia article on John W. Kirklin, accessed 10-2019).



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Heart-Lung Machine, Pediatric Surgery
  • 752.4

Enzymic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 21, 197-98, 1956.

In 1959 Kornberg shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Severo Ochoa "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid."

Order of authorship in the original publication: Bessman, Kornberg, Lehman, Simms.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 1947.3

Mitomycin, a new antibiotic from streptomyces.

J. Antibiot. (A)., 9, 141-6, 1956.

Isolation of mitomycin C, effective in Hodgkin’s disease and lymphoma. With six co-authors.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Lymphoma, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 3047.9

A simple, expendable, artificial oxygenator for open heart surgery.

Surg. Clin. North America, 36, 1025-34, 1956.

DeWall bubble oxygenator. With six co-authors.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 2578.18

The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production in the domestic fowl.

Poultry Sci., 35, 224-25, 1956.

The relationship of the bursa of Fabricius to antibody formation was discovered by Glick, T. S. Chang, and R. G. Jaap. Its removal in early life led to inability to produce antibodies.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2578.19

Autoantibodies in Hashimoto’s disease (lymphadenoid goitre).

Lancet, 2, 820-21, 1956.

Demonstration of autoantibodies. With P. N. Campbell, and R. V. Hudson.



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid , IMMUNOLOGY
  • 4257

Successful homotransplantation of the human kidney between identical twins.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 160, 277-82, 1956.

This was the first successful kidney transplant. The patient, both of whose own kidneys had been removed, was alive 11 months after the transplant. With Warren R. Guild. See No. 4256.1.

In 1990 Joseph Murray shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with E. Donnall Thomas (No. 13594) "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.”

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for pointing out that this paper was the work for which Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize.)



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Transplantation, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 7782

Preliminary communication: Malignant disease in childhood and diagnostic irradiation in-utero.

Lancet, 2, 447, 1956.

Stewart was one of the earliest to study the effect of prenatal X-rays, later replaced by ultrasound. She found that the children of mothers who received these X-rays were almost twice as likely to develop leukemia or cancer as other children. With J.W. Webb, B.D. Giles, and D. Hewitt. Stewart's follow-up paper was "A survey of childhood malignancies," British Medical Journal, 2 (1958) 1495-1508., with J.W. Webb and D. Hewitt.

 



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, TOXICOLOGY › Radiation Exposure, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1947.4

Production and isolation of a new antibiotic, kanamycin.

J. Antibiotics Japan, Ser. A, 10, 181-88, 1957.

With nine co-authors.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2419.2

A fluorescent test for treponemal antibodies.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y), 96, 477-80, 1957.

Fluorescent treponemal antibody test. With V. H. Falcone and A. Harris.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis
  • 2660.9

Fluorinated pyrimidines, a new class of tumour-inhibitory compounds.

Nature (Lond.), 179, 663-6, 1957.

Synthesis of 5-fluorouracil. With eight co-authors.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 2660.10

The induction of neoplasms with a substance released from mouse tumors by tissue culture.

Virology, 3, 380-400, 1957.

Isolation of polymavirus (papovavirus). With B. E. Eddy, A. M. Gochenour, N. G. Borgese, and G E. Grubbs.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VIROLOGY, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 3215.4

Recovery from infants with respiratory illness of a virus related to chimpanzee coryza agent (CCA).

Amer. J. Hyg., 66, 281-90, 1957.

Respiratory syncytial virus. With B. Roizman and R. Myers.



Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases, VIROLOGY
  • 3978.3

Pharmacological studies of a new oral hypoglycemic drug.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 95, 190-92, 1957.

Phenformin, a biguanide formerly used in diabetes. With L. Freedman and S. L. Shapiro. Clinical report on pp. 193-4.



Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 13471

Chronic thyroiditis and autoimmunization.

J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1645, 1439-47, 1957.

"Witebsky helped develop procedures for the isolation and partial characterization of A and B blood antigens. He also began the practice of neutralization of certain antibodies in the blood of universal blood donors.

"In 1957 he co-authored a paper the "Witebsky's postulates" which determined whether a disease entity could be regarded as an autoimmune disease:[4]

  • Direct demonstration of free circulating antibodies active at body temperature.
  • Recognition of the specific antigen (for this antibody).
  • Production of antibodies against same antigen in experimental animals.
  • Experimental animal demonstrates same tissue changes in human." (Wikipedia article on Ernst Witebsky, accessed 8-2021)


Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid , IMMUNOLOGY
  • 13594

Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy.

New Eng. J. Med., 257, 491-496, 1957.

Thomas and colleagues reported the first bone marrow transplants. They described the treatment of six patients with cancers and/leukemia and one patient with multiple myeloma. Three of the patients died, two responded and survived to hospital discharge, and one was still alive on day 53 when the paper was submitted. The paper was intended to describe the procedure, its side effects, its complications and to document the various lab parameters monitored on each patient, and their probable significance and utility when used to monitor the patient post irradiation, chemotherapy and marrow infusion. Order of authorship in the original publication: Thomas, Locte, Lu, et al.

In 1990 Thomas shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Joseph E. Murray "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Multiple Myeloma, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 2660.11

Neuartige Krebs-Chemotherapeutica aus der Gruppe der zyklischen N-Lost-Phosphamidester.

Naturwissenschaften, 45, 64-66, 1958.

Cyclophosphamide. With F. Bourseaux and N. Brock.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Cancer Drugs
  • 3047.12

Clinical use of an elastic Dacron prosthesis.

Arch. Surg., 77, 538-51, 1958.

Arterial prosthesis. With L. C. France, R. F. Smith, and J. G. Whitcomb.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arterial Disease, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › Cardiothoracic Prostheses
  • 5449.3

Propagation of measles virus in cultures of chick embryo cells.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 97, 23-29, 1958.

With M. V. Milovanovič.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles
  • 11458

Fecal enema as an adjunct in the treatment of pseudomembranous enterocolitis.

Surgery, 44, 854-859, 1958.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Eiseman, Silen, Bascom.... Report of the first "fecal transplant / fecal therapy," also known as "faecal microbiota transplanation," for recurrent / resistant C. difficile colitis. Eiseman and Bascom were surgeons; this could explain why this paper on infectious disease was published in the journal Surgery. When published in 1958 this treatment was considered "extremely radical" and was widely criticized. Several decades later the technique eventually became the "therapy of choice" in the 21st century for particularly virulent C. difficile infections.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Clostridium, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile) Infections, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome
  • 2353.2

Experiments on the antituberculous activity of alpha-ethyl-thioisonicotinamide.

Amer. Rev. Tuberc., 79, 1-5, 1959.

Ethionamide. With F. Grumbach and D. Liberman.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antitubercular Drugs
  • 3047.13

Ventricular aneurysm following myocardial infarction: Results of surgical treatment.

Ann. Surg., 150, 595-612, 1959.

Cardiopulmonary bypass and open excision of the aneurysm. With W.S. Henly, K.H. Amad, & D.W. Chapman.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Myocardial Infarction, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY
  • 2883.3

A bipolar myocardial electrode for complete heart block.

J. Lancet, 79, 506-8, 1959.

With N. A. Roth, D. Bernardez, and J. L. Noble.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES
  • 6569.3

Materialy po istorii meditsiny i zdravookhraneniia Latvii.

Riga, Latvia: Latviiskoe Gosud. Izd.-vo, 1959.

With F.F. Grigorash and A. A. Krauss. Revised abridged version by Vasil’ev and Grigorash, Moscow, 1964.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latvia
  • 12277

Angina pectoris.I. A variant form of angina pectoris. Preliminary report.

Am. J. Med., 27, 375-88, 1959.
Prinzmetal angina. "Dr. Prinzmetal and his collaborators focus upon an interesting variant of angina pectoris which appears to be associated with temporary, recurrent spasm of a partially occluded coronary artery. In contrast to the usual angina pectoris, precordial pain in this variant is apt to come on at rest and is relieved by exercise. There is a striking elevation of the ST segment during severe attacks of pain, simulating acute myocardial infarction, but this promptly reverts to normal upon cessation of the attack" (Agress, Myron Prinzmetal. Profiles in Cardiology, 347). 


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease › Angina Pectoris
  • 13334

Transfusions et greffes de moelle osseuse homologue chez des humains irradiés a haute dos accidentellement.

Rev. Franc. Etudes Clin. et Biol., 4, 226-238, 1959.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mathé, Jammet, Pendic et al. Mathé performed the first bone marrow graft between unrelated donors and hosts in order to save six Yugoslavian nuclear researchers who had been accidentally irradiated. That event made him aware of the possibility and necessity of developing active and adoptive immunotherapy and applying it to the treatment of cancers.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, Regenerative Medicine, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 1931.3

The psychosedative properties of methaminodiazepoxide.

J. Pharmacol., 129, 163-71, 1960.

Librium. With four co-authors.



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Psychopharmacology
  • 2883.4

Closed-chest cardiac massage.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 173, 1064-67, 1960.

Kouwenhoeven and colleagues developed closed-chest cardiac massage without thoracotomy. Kouwenhoeven has been called "the father of cardiopulmonary resuscitation."



Subjects: Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine › Resuscitation, Resuscitation
  • 5449.4

Studies on an attenuated measles-virus vaccine. I. Development and preparation of the vaccine: technics for assay of effects of vaccination.

New Engl. J. Med, 263, 153-59, 1960.

Live virus vaccine. With M. V. Milovanovič, and A. Holloway.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Measles
  • 6912

Structure of myoglobin: A three-dimensional Fourier synthesis at 2 Å resolution.

Nature, 185, 422-27, 1960.

Kendrew's second paper reporting the first solution of the three-dimensional molecular structure of a protein, for which he shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in chemistry with Max Perutz, who solved the structure of the related and more complex protein, hemoglobin, two years after Kendrew’s achievement. With R. E. Dickerson, B. E. Strandberg, R. G. Hart, D. R. Davies, D. C. Phillips, and V. C. Shore.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 13995

L'opéron: Groupe de gènes à expression coordonnée par un opérateur.

Compt. rend. l'Acad. Sci., 250, 1727-1729, 1960.

Jacob and Monod received their share of the Nobel Prize in 1965 for their discoveries concerning the operon and viral synthesis. The first operon they described was the lac operon in E. coli. Their operon theory suggested that in all cases, genes within an operon are negatively controlled by a repressor acting at a single operator located before the first gene. Later, it was discovered that genes could be positively regulated, and also regulated at steps that follow transcription initiation. Therefore, no generalized regulatory mechanism is possible because different operons have different mechanisms. Today, an operon is defined as a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promotor, transcribed together into a single mRNA strand. 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY › Genetics
  • 2353.3

A new synthetic compound with antituberculous activity in mice; ethambutol (dextro-2, 2’-(ethylenediimino)-di-l-butanol).

Amer. Rev. resp. Dis., 83, 891-3, 1961.

Ethambutol for the treatment of tuberculosis. With C. O. Baughn, R. G. Wilkinson and R. G. Shepherd.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antitubercular Drugs
  • 3155.3

Stomatocytosis: a hereditary red cell anomaly associated with haemolytic anaemia.

Brit. J. Haemat., 7, 303-14, 1961.

With R. Sephton Smith and R. M. Hardisty.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Blood Disorders › Inherited Hemolytic Anemia, HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 4154.7

Isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis from soil.

Science, 133, 1126-7, 1961.

With E.S. McDonough, L. Ajello and R.J. Ausherman.



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses
  • 214.2

Age of Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika.

Nature, 191, 478-79, 1961.

Introduction of the potassium-argon dating method to paleoanthropology, showing that lava at the base of the site of Olduvai Gorge was about 1.8 million years old, and proving that fossils, Australopithecus (Zinjanthropus) boisei, found in Olduvai Bed 1 dated from this time. With J.F. Evernden and G.H. Curtis.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Paleoanthropology, ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Tanzania, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 1138.2

Evidence for calcitonin – a new hormone from the parathyroid that lowers blood calcium.

Endocrinology, 70, 638-49, 1962.

With E. C. Cameron, B. A. Cheney, A. G. F. Davidson, and K. G. Henze.



Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Thyroid, Parathyroids, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Parathyroids
  • 1931.4

The structure of prostaglandin E, F1 and F2.

Acta chem. scand., 16, 501-2, 1962.

In this and subsequent papers Bergström and Samuelsson elucidated the chemical structure of prostaglandins. 

In 1982 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances."






Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 10920

Powassan virus: Field investigations in Northern Ontario, 1959-1961.

Canad. med. Ass. J., 86, 971-974, 1962.

The authors isolated a virus from the brain of a child who died of encephalitis in Powassan, Ontario, and named it the Powassan virus. They posited a tick vector and possible rodent natural hosts.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Canada, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Powassan Virus, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 1947.5

Gentamicin, a new antibiotic complex from Micromonospora.

J. medicinal Chem., 6, 463-4, 1963.

With nine co-authors.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 2660.15

Pre-therapeutic experiments with the fast neutron beam from the Medical Research Council cyclotron. A symposium.

Brit. J. Radiol., 36, 77-121, 1963.


Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Radiation (Radiotherapy)
  • 2660.16
  • 3788.2

The Vinca alkaloids: a new class of oncolytic agents.

Cancer Res., 23, 1390-1427, 1963.

Clinical use of vinblastine (for Hodgkin’s disease and other lymphomas) and vincristine (for acute leukemias of childhood). With J. G. Armstrong, M. Gorman, and J. P. Burnett. Preliminary communication in J. Lab. clin. Med., 1959, 54, 830.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Cancer Drugs, Spleen: Lymphatics
  • 2578.35

Individual antigenic specificity of isolated antibodies.

Science, 140, 1218-19, 1963.

Idiotypes. With M. Mannik and R.C. Williams. Kunkel and his team discovered idiotypy independently of Jacques Oudin and Philip Gell.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY
  • 1931.5

A new adrenergic beta-receptor antagonist.

Lancet, 1, 1080-81, 1964.

Development of Propranolol, the first beta-blocker effectively used in the treatment of coronary heart disease and hypertension.  R. G. Shanks, L. H. Smith and A. C. Dornhorst.

In 1988 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment."



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 2419.3

An improved FTA test for syphilis; the absorption procedure (FTA-ABS).

Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash.), 79, 410-412, 1964.

Absorbed fluorescent treponemal antibody (FTA-ABS) test. With W. E. Deacon and P. E. Meyer.  The text is available from the NLM PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 3047.19

Heart transplantation in man: Developmental studies and report of a case.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 188, 1132-40, 1964.

Heart transplant from a chimpanzee into a man; unsuccessful. Hardy was expecting the donor heart to be obtained from a relatively young patient dying of brain damage, but the patient went into terminal myocardial failure before a human organ could be obtained. The recipient was a prisoner serving a life sentence for murder; he died 18 days after the operation. Westaby and Bosher, Landmarks in cardiac surgery (Oxford, 1999) 259-260.

The paper has seven co-authors.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY › Heart Transplants, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 3108.8

Successful prevention of experimental Rh sensitization in man with an anti-Rh gamma2-globulin antibody preparation.

Transfusion, 4, 26-32, 1964.

With J. G. Gorman and W. Pollack.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders
  • 8178

Automated multiphasic screening and diagnosis.

Am. J. Public Health Nations Health, 54, 741-750, 1964.

Describes aspects of the pioneering automated multiphasic screening and diagnosis program at the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, the origins of their medical informatics system, developed by Collen and colleagues at Kaiser with the help of mathematicians/statisticians Dantzig and Neyman. Also by Robert M. Baer and A. B. Siegelaub. Collen directed the development of medical informatics at Kaiser Permanente. By 2017 this was probably the most advanced system of electronic medical records management. Digital facsimile from PubMed Central at this link.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 13944

On the colinearity of gene structure and protein structure.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 51, 266-272, 1964.

Yanofsky and colleagues established that gene sequences and protein sequences are colinear in bacteria. Order of authorship in the original publication: Yanofsky, Carlton, ... Henning. In genetics, coliniarity is a property of the genetic code to preserve the order of codons.

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genetic Code
  • 1207.1

Total synthesis of crystalline bovine insulin.

Scientia sin., 14,1710-16, 1965.


Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pancreas
  • 3666.4

A “new” antigen in leukemia sera.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 191, 541-46, 1965.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Blumberg, Alter, Visnich.) Discovery of Australia antigen, hepatitis B antigen, Aa, later called HBsAg.  Blumberg received half of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in Biology in 1976 for the discovery of the antigen, for discovery of the hepatitis B virus, and for the discovery/ invention of the hepatitis B vaccine— the first cancer vaccine.  See B. S. Blumberg, Hepatitis B: The Hunt for a Killer Virus (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.)



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Hepatitis, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis B Virus
  • 257.2

Structure of a ribonucleic acid.

Science, 147, 1462-65, 1965.

The complete sequence of an alanine transfer RNA determined – the first nucleic acid structure to be determined. With seven co-authors. 

In 1968 Holley shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 11587

Congenital heart disease: Correlation of pathologic anatomy and angiography. 2 vols.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1965.

With Lewis Carey and Richard Lester.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Cardiovascular Pathology, CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects
  • 13992

The synthesis of a self-propagating and infectious nucleic acid with a purified enzyme.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 54, 919-927, 1965.
Spiegelman's Monster, the name given to an RNA chain of only 218 nucleotides that can be reproduced by the RNA replication enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also called RNA replicase. Spiegelman achieved the first synthesis of a biologically competent, infective viral nucleic acid. See https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/spotlight/px/feature/monster

With I. Haruna, I. B. Holland, G. Beaudreau, and D. Mlls. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.


Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids
  • 5509.3

Attenuated rubella virus. II. Production of an experimental live-virus vaccine and clinical trial.

New Engl. J. Med., 275, 575-80, 1966.

With T. C. Panos.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rubella & Allied Conditions, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Matonaviridae › Rubella Virus
  • 11105

Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method.

Am. J. Clin. Path., 45, 493-496, 1966.

The disk diffusion test, or agar diffusion test, or Kirby–Bauer test (disc-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test, disc-diffusion antibiotic sensitivity test, KB test), for the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, Laboratory Medicine, MICROBIOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics
  • 3666.5

Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological, and immunological types of infection.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 200, 365-73, 1967.

With J. P. Giles and J. Hammond.



Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Hepatitis
  • 5509.4

Rubella-virus hemagglutination-inhibition test.

New Engl. J. Med., 276, 554-57, 1967.

With five co-authors.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rubella & Allied Conditions, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Matonaviridae › Rubella Virus
  • 7865

Zur Ätiologie einer unbekannten, von Affen ausgegangenen menschlichen Infektionskrankheit.

Deutsch Med. Woch.,92 (51), 2341-2343., 1967.

Isolation, identification and structure of the Marburg virus. WITH H. L. Shu, W. Sienczka, D. Peters, and G. Müller.

 



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, VIROLOGY
  • 10006

Composition of tubular fluid in the macula densa segment as a factor regulating the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

Circulation Research, 21 (Suppl.2) 79-90, 1967.

"This demonstration of 'tubulo-glomerular feedback' therefore provided mechanistic insights into one of the fundamental homeostatic functions of the kidney—the ability to conserve salt and water. Adjusting filtered sodium load to match tubular reabsorptive capacity is essential to prevent excessive urinary sodium losses that would quickly result in cardiovascular collapse. Demonstration of this feedback loop between the tubular and glomerular portions of the same nepron provided a new dimension to understanding the nephron as a single, connected physiological unit" (Feehally et al, Landmark papers in nephrology [2013] 1.4, p. 9) With J. Schnermann, W. Nagel, M. Horster, and M. Wahl.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Physiology
  • 12242

Clinical experiences with a new implantable demand pacemaker.

Am. J. Cardiol., 20, 232-238, 1967.

Harken and colleagues reported "the first clinical use of an implantable noncompetitive pacer" (Jeffrey, Machines in Our Hearts. Baltimore, 2001, 134.) Berkovits, an engineer working for Medtronic, was an inventor of the device.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias › Pacemakers
  • 12834

Does the agent of scrapie replicate without nucleic acids?

Nature, 214, 764-766, 1967.

This paper, which predated Griffith's' paper (No. 12833), demonstrated that the scrapie agent replicates without nucleic acids. Alper and colleagues irradiated scrapie infected mouse brain extracts with lethal ultraviolet rays at both 254-265 and 280-285 wavelengths, which would kill all viruses and bacteria then known, and inactivate or destroy nucleic acids. They did not draw the conclusion that the scapie agent must be associated with a protein, but that was the clear implication of their research. This paper was a catalyst for Griffith to develop the work published in No. 12833.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Prion Diseases, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 3108.9

Arabinosyl cytosine: A useful agent in the treatment of acute leukemia in adults.

Blood, 32, 507-23, 1968.

Cytosine arabinoside. With J. P. Holland, M. Weil, et al.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 13987

Mechanism of DNA chain growth, I. Possible discontinuity and unusual secondary structure of newly synthesized chains.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 59, 598-605, 1968.

The Okazakis discovered what became known as Okazaki fragments, short sequences of DNA nucleotides (approximately 150 to 200 base pairs long in eukaryotes) which are synthesized discontinuously and later linked together by the enzyme DNA to create the lagging strand during DNA replication. Before this discovery it was commonly thought that replication was a continuous process for both strands, but the discoveries involving E. coli led to a new model of replication. The Ozakis found that there was a discontinuous replication process by pulse-labeling DNA and observing changes that pointed to non-contiguous replication.

The Ozakis published their results in 4 papers:

2. "Mechanism of DNA Chain Growth, II. Accumulation of Newly Synthesized Short Chains in E. coli Infected with Ligase-Defective T4 Phages," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 60, (1968) 1356-1362.
3. "Mechanism of DNA Chain Growth, III. Equal Annealing of T4 Nascent Short DNA Chains with the Separated Complementary Strands of the Phage DNA," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 63 (1969) 1343-1350.
4. "Mechanism of DNA Chain Growth, IV. Direction of Synthesis of T4 Short DNA Chains as Revealed by Exonucleolytic Degradation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 64 (1969) 1242-1248.
Digital facsimiles of all 4 papers are available from PubMedCentral.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids
  • 3047.23

Surgical treatment of Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome.

Ann. thorac. surg., 8, 1-11, 1969.

Surgical management of the tachycardia of Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome.



Subjects: CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY
  • 2883.8

Catheter technique for recording His bundle activity in man.

Circulation, 39, 13-18, 1969.

Scherlag was the first person to consistently record atrial ventricular bundle ("His bundle") potentials, which served as one of the cornerstones of clinical electrophysiology.

With 5 co-authors.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiac Electrophysiology, CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 2578.39

The covalent structure of an entire ÁG immunoglobulin molecule.

Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), 63, 78-85, 1969.

Complete sequence of an immunoglobulin molecule. With five coauthors.

In 1972 Edelman shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with R. R. Porter “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.”

See also G.M. Edelman & Miroslav Dave Poulik (1923- ), Studies on structure units of the γ-globulins. J. exp. Med., 1961, 113, 861-884. Full text available from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 5440.2

Prevention of varicella by zoster immune globulin.

New Engl. J. Med., 280, 1191-94, 1969.

With A. Ross, L. H. Miller, and B. Kuo.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Chickenpox
  • 2442.5

Experimental and clinical studies on rifampicin in treatment of leprosy.

Brit. med. J., 1, 89-92, 1970.

With J. M. H. Pearson and M. F. R. Waters.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Leprosy Drugs
  • 2660.24

Combination chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin’s disease.

Ann. intern. Med. 73, 881-95, 1970.

Combination chemotherapy with nitrogen mustard (mustine hydrochloride), vincristine sulphate, procarbazine hydrochloride and prednisone, introduced in 1964 for the treatment of advanced Hodgkin’s disease. With A. A. Serpick and P. P. Carbone.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Chemotherapy for Cancer, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Lymphoma
  • 2660.26

Field trials with an attentuated cell associated vaccine for Marek's disease.

Vet. Rec., 77, 1339-1340, 1970.

In 1959 Biggs moved to the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) to form and head a unit to study lymphoid tumor conditions of the domestic fowl. He gave the name Marek’s disease to one of the tumor conditions, after the Hungarian veterinarian József Marek. Biggs and his group determined that it was caused by a herpesvirus, and later developed a vaccine for the disease. With six co-authors.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VETERINARY MEDICINE, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Herpesviridae › Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2
  • 2883.9

Catheterization of the heart in man with use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter.

New Eng. J. Med., 283, 447-51, 1970.

The Swan-Ganz balloon flotation catheter, a flow-guided balloon-tipped catheter of flexible construction, which enabled “placement without associated ventricular arrhythmias, prompt and reliable passage to the pulmonary artery and passage without fluoroscopy”. With 4 co-authors.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization
  • 10887

Babesiosis in a Massachusetts resident.

New Eng. J. Med., 283, 854-856, 1970.

Order of authorship in the original paper was Western, Benson, Gleason. First report of babesiosis in a non-immuncompromised patient, confirming the potential wide spread of this tick-transmitted illness. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Babesiosis, PARASITOLOGY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts
  • 8327

Health maintenance strategy.

Medical Care, 9, 291-298, 1971.

Elwood is often referred to as the "father of the health maintenance organization. He not only coined the term, he also played a role in bringing about structural changes to the American health care system to simultaneously control cost and promote health by replacing fee-for-service with prepaid, comprehensive care. With N. N. Anderson, J.E. Billings, R.J. Carlson, E.J. Hoagberg, and W. McClure.



Subjects: ECONOMICS, BIOMEDICAL › History of Biomedical Economics, Insurance, Health, Managed Care
  • 10007

The dynamics of glomerular ultrafiltration in the rat.

Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50, 1776-1780, 1971.

"Brenner and colleagues combined two relatively novel tools: a servo-null device for accurate measurment of capillary hydrostatic pressure... and a strain of specially selected rats with superficially located glomeruli, i.e. with overlying tubules. These two tools permitted direct measurment of the hydrostatic pressure within cannulated glomerular capillaries....

"These studies therefore radically redefined the process of glomerular filtration. Moreover, these technqiues could subsequently be applied to understand the mechanisms by which a host of mediators, disease states, and theapies modified glomerular filtration, transforming our understanding of both the process and the regulation of glomerular filtration" (Feehally et al, Landmark papers in nephrology [2013] 1.5., pp. 10-11). With J. L. Troy and T. M. Daugharty.



Subjects: NEPHROLOGY
  • 13398

Isolation of a tumor fraction responsible for angiogenesis.

J. exp. Med., 133, 275-288, 1971.

Isolation of the first angiogenic tumor factor. Digital text from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 9021

A medicine-man's implements and plants in a Tiahuanacoid tomb in highland Bolivia, (Etnologiska studier, 32). Edited by Henry Wassén.

Goteborg, Sweden: Etnografiska Museum, 1972.

Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia. The first reference to the site in modern history was recorded by Spanish conquistador Pedro Cieza de León, who came upon the remains of Tiwanaku in 1549 while searching for the Inca capital in Qullasuyu.[1]The name by which Tiwanaku was known to its inhabitants may have been lost as they had no written language.[2][3] The ancient inhabitants of Tiwanaku are believed to have spoken the Puquina language.[4] (Wikipedia)

 

 

 



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Medical Anthropology, BOTANY › Ethnobotany, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Bolivia, Latin American Medicine
  • 3047.25

Aortocoronary bypass with saphenous vein graft: seven year follow-up.

J. Amer. med. assoc., 223, 792-94, 1973.

"Probably the first successful saphenous bypass graft was by Edward Garrett (1964), whilst he was working with DeBakey. He performed the bypass graft in order to wean a patient from cardiopulmonary bypass, and the long-term result of the procedure was not reported until 10 years later [this article]." (Westaby and Bosher, 196). See No. 3047.21



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Aortic Diseases, CARDIOVASCULAR (Cardiac) SURGERY
  • 13956

Double helix at atomic resolution.

Nature, 243, 150-154, 1973.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Rosenberg, Seeman,...Rich. This paper was the first confirmation of the double-helix structure at atomic resolution.
See also:
Roberta Ogilvie Day, Nadrian C. Seeman,... Alexander Rich, "A crystalline fragment of the double helix: The structure of the dinucleoside phosphate guanylyl-3'5'-cytidine," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.) 70, 849-853. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids
  • 6909

Computerized transaxial x-ray tomography of the human body.

Science,186, (4160), 207-212, 1974.

Ledley and team developed the developed the ACTA 0100 CT Scanner (Automatic Computerized Traverse Axial)— the first whole-body computed tomography scanner. With G. Di Chiro, A. J. Luessenhop, and H.L. Twigg. For further information see the entry in HistoryofInformation.com at this link.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, IMAGING › Computed Tomography (CT, CAT)
  • 9487

"A computer-based system for the study and control of drug interactions in hospitalized patients," P. L. Morselli, S. Garattini, and S. N. Cohen, Drug interactions, 363-373.

New York: Raven Press, 1974.

MEDIPHOR System (Monitoring and Evaluation of Drug Interactions by a Pharmacy-Oriented Reporting System) developed by Cohen, Shortliffe and colleagues at Stanford University Medical School, published as a chapter in the book, Drug interactions (1974). With 12 co-authors.



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, PHARMACOLOGY
  • 12245

Diagnosis of cyanotic congenital heart malformations in infants by real-time, two-dimensional echocardiography.

Nature, Pediatric Research, 8, 352, 1974.

Two-dimensional (cross-sectional) echocardiography. 



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › Congenital Heart Defects, CARDIOLOGY › Pediatric Cardiology, CARDIOLOGY › Tests for Heart & Circulatory Function › Echocardiography
  • 12717

A new infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (MLNS) prevailing in Japan.

Pediatrics, 54, 271-276, 1974.

The first report on Kawasaki Disease in English. By 1973, 6,000 cases of Kawasaki disease were reported in Japan.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kawasaki Disease (MLNS), PEDIATRICS
  • 1931.7

Thromboxanes: a new group of biologically active compounds derived from prostaglandin endoperoxides.

Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), 72, 2994-98, 1975.

With J. Stevenson and B. Samuelsson.



Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Coagulation , PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Cardiovascular Medications
  • 5766.4

The free vascularized bone graft. A clinical extension of microvascular techniques.

Plast. reconstr. Surg., 55, 533-54, 1975.

First clinically successful free bone graft with microvascular anastomosis in which a fibular segment was transferred to the contralateral leg to reconstruct a large tibial defect. With G.D.H. Miller and F. J.Ham.



Subjects: ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Bone Grafts, PLASTIC & RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 8255

Opera medica omnia edenda curaverunt L. García-Ballester, J. A. Paniagua et M. R. McVaugh.

Granada: Seminarium Historiae Medicae Granatensis & Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona Edicions, 1975.

This is the first scholarly, critical edition of the collected works of Arnau de Vilanova. When I wrote this entry in December 2016 the ongoing editing publishing project was up to 17 vols. in 20, offered at the Universitat de Barcelona Edicions website at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE , MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › Spain
  • 11190

Parvovirus-like particles in human sera. Preliminary communication.

Lancet, 1 (7898) 72-73, 1975.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Cossart, Field, Cant. First description of Parvovirus B19, the first human parvovirus discovered. It is among the smallest DNA viruses and is most often known for causing diseases in children, though it can also affect adults.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Parvovirus Diseases, PEDIATRICS, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 14006

Application of synchrotron radiation to protein crystallography: Preliminary results.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 73, 128-132, 1975.

First report on the application of synchrotron radiation to protein crystallography. Order of authorship in the original publication: Phillips, Wlodwawer..., Hodgson. Digital facsimile from pnas.org at this link.

"Synchrotrons can now produce X-rays that are one trillion times brighter than the X-rays Rosalind Franklin used for Photo 51, according to University of Liverpool biophysicist Samar Hasnain, editor in chief of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation and other journals of the International Union of Crystallography. Indeed, synchrotrons have vastly expanded the scope and refinement of investigations of biological structures and dynamics. They have enabled dazzling biological discoveries, including those associated with five Nobel Prizes in the past 20 years. The most recent of these were Brian Walker [i.e Brian Kobilka] and Robert Lefkowitz's 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work on G protein–coupled receptors, membrane proteins that send signals of extracellular molecules to the cell's interior, and Thomas Steitz, Venki Ramakrishnan, and Ada Yonath's 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work on the structure of the ribosome, the cell's organelle for synthesizing proteins for many purposes. Walker [i.e. Brian Kobilka] and Lefkowitz's synchrotron work was primarily done at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratory, in Illinois, and the Steitz, Ramakrishnan, and Yonath ribosome work involved research at multiple synchrotrons, including APS and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), in Grenoble, France" (https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/67/3/201/2962463).



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure
  • 1931.71

Biological effects of cyclosporin A: a new antilymphocytic agent.

Agents & Actions (Basel), 6, 468-75, 1976.

The immunosuppressive cyclosporin A, instrumental in the success of organ transplants. With C. Feurer, H.U. Gubler & H. Strähelin.



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Immunosuppressants, TRANSPLANTATION
  • 11888

The resistance factor to Plasmodium vivax in blacks.

New Eng. J. Med., 295, 302-304, 1976.

The authors showed that the Plasmodium vivax parasite requires the Fya/Fyb Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor on the surface of red blood cells for penetration of human red blood cells. Because most African and American blacks have the FyFy genotype they are resistant to infection by P. vivax.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EVOLUTION, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Groups, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PARASITOLOGY › Plasmodia › P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi
  • 12434

Acute enterocolitis in a human being infected with the protozoan Cryptosporidium.

Gastroenterology, 70, 592-598, 1976.

First report of infection by Cryptosporidium in a human being.

"Abstract
"A 3-year-old child with severe acute self-limited enterocolitis was found on rectal biopsy to be infected with the protozoal parasite Cryptosporidium. This organism is known to infect a variety of vertebrates, but this is the first report of infection by Cryptosporidium in a human being. Both light and electron microscopic findings in the rectal biopsy are reported. It is suggested, on the basis of the severity of the clinical symptoms, and on the pathological changes in the rectum, that the organism in this case is likely to have been the cause of the enterocolitis and thus to have been a pathogen rather than a commensal. The source of the infection in this child could not be established. The value of signoidoscopy and biopsies is noted in this condition and as a general method for determining the etiology of a gastrointestinal infection in cases where other studies are negative."

Digital facsimile from gastrojournal.org at this link.

Tzipori & Widmer, "A hundred-year retrospective on cryptosporidiosis," Trends Parasitol., 24, 184-189.


Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Cryptosporidium
  • 14222

Correlation of glucose regulation and hemoglobin AIc in diabetes mellitus.

New Eng. J. Med., 295, 417-420, 1976.

The authors studied 5 diabetic patients and first realized that A1c was an ideal index to reveal the overall control of a patient’s blood
sugar over the past several months before a doctor’s visit. They were the first to state that “Hemoglobin A1c concentration appears to reflect the mean blood sugar concentration best over the previous weeks to months," …. And “the periodic monitoring of hemoglobin A1c levels provides a useful way of documenting the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients….”

Order of authorship in the original publication: Koenig, Peterson, et al, Cerami.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: Laboratory Medicine, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 3215.8

Legionnaires’ disease. Isolation of a bacterium and demonstration of its role in other respiratory disease.

New Engl. J. Med., 297, 1197-1203, 1977.

Order of authorship in the original publication: McDade, Shepard, Fraser.... See also p. 1218.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Legionella, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Pneumonia › Legionnaire's Disease, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases
  • 6650.3

Women in medicine: A bibliography of the literature on women physicians.

Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977.

Lists over 4,000 items published between 1750 and 1975. With R. Haimbach, C. Fenichel and N. B. Woodside.



Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 10923

Isolation and partial characterization of a new virus causing acute haemorrhagic fever in Zaire.

Lancet, 309, 569-571, 1977.

The first of three papers published in Lancet back to back describing the discovery of Ebola Virus Disease. In this paper the authors described isolation of the virus, imaged it with an electron microscope, and named the virus. 

The second paper in the series was Bowen, E.T., Lloyd, G., Harris, W. J., et al, "Viral hemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. preliminary studies on the aetiological agent," Lancet, 309, 571-573.

The third paper is entry 7866 in this online bibliography.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Congo, Democratic Republic of the, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sudan, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Filoviridae › Ebolavirus, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 10964

Expression in Escherichia coli of a chemically synthesized gene for the hormone somatostatin.

Science, 198, 1056-1063, 1977.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Itakura, Hirose, Crea..., Bolivar, Boyer. Synthesis of the gene for somatostatin (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH). This was the first demonstration of a foreign gene inserted into E. coli and the first hormone genetically engineered in bacteria. The technique led to the biotechnological production of insulin by Genentech under the product name, Humulin. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation).



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, Biotechnology
  • 12031

The construction of molecular cloning vehicles. II. A multipurpose cloning system.

Gene, 2, 95-113, 1977.

Order of authorship in the original publication Bolivar, Rodriguez, Betlach...Boyer...The authors describe the composition and molecular construction of pBR-322 (named after Bolivar and Rodriguez) and call it "the most versatile plasmid we have ever constructed." The paper includes the first restriction map of the plasmid. Plasmid pBR-322 was the plasmid used in the synthesis of the gene for somatostatin (No. 10964), leading to the biotechnological production of insulin by Boyer's biotechnology company, Genentech in 1977. 

The authors presented this paper in June 1977. It was published in the journal Gene in November, 1977. The paper also appeared in Beers, Basset (eds.) Recombinant molecules: Impact on science and society, Miles International Symposium, Series No. 10. New York: Raven Press, 1977. The book form version of the paper indicates that it was submitted for publication in the journal, suggesting that the version in book form might have been released before the publication in the journal.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Restriction Enzyme or Restriction Endonuclease, Biotechnology
  • 14248

Nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase and increases guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels in various tissue preparations.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.), 74, 3203-3207, 1977.

Murad demonstrated that nitroglycerin and related drugs worked by releasing nitric oxide into the body, which relaxed smooth muscle by elevating intracellular cyclic GMP. With W. P. ArnoldC. K. MittalS. Katsuki.

In 1998 the Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system."



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 13540

Transmissible agent in non-A, non-B hepatitis.

Lancet,1, 459-463, 1978.

The first paper recording the discovery of what was, eleven years later in 1989, named the hepatitis C virus (see No. 12653). Harvey Alter and colleagues inoculated the serum/plasma of 4 patients with non-A/non-B hepatitis into 5 chimps, and the chimps showed both biochemical and histological evidence of a typical hepatitis. The experiment was performed with a negative control. Order of authorship in the original paper: Alter, Purcell, Holland....

In 2020 Alter shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice "for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis C Virus
  • 13986

Mutagenesis at a specific position in a DNA sequence.

J. biol. Chem., 253, 6551-60, 1978.

Smith and Hutchison introduced site-directed mutagenesis, or oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, into molecular biology, resolving the problem of how to determine the effect of a single mutant gene with efficiency. They developed a synthetic DNA technique for introducing site-specific mutations into genes. This permitted comparison of different protein molecules, revealing the role of the initial mutation. The technique is used for investigating the structure and biological activity of DNA, RNA, and protein molecules, and for protein engineering.

The new technology enabled rapid identification and deliberate alteration of genes for the purpose of changing the characteristics of an organism. It raised the level of possibility of new diagnostic strategies and new treatments for genetic diseases, and even creation of novel artificial forms of life, as the progenitor technique for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

In 1993 Michael Smith was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies." The other half was awarded to Kary B. Mullis "for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method." 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Site-Directed Mutagenesis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 10888

Human babesiosis on Nantucket Island, USA: Description of the vector, Ixodes dammini, N. Sp. (Acarina: Ixodidae)

J. med. Entomol., 15, 218-234, 1979.

Order of authorship in the original paper was Spielman, Clifford, Piesman. The authors identified and described the insect vector of Babesiosis. This was a new species; the same species causes Lyme disease.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Babesiosis, PARASITOLOGY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Massachusetts, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 12630

Avermectins, new family of potent anthelmintic agents: Producing organism and fermentation.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 15, 361-367, 1979.

The authors, lead by Omura, announced the discovery of Streptomyces avermilitis. They described the structure of avermectin, and reported preliminary observations that this drug is antiparasitic. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Burg, Miller, Baker....Omura.)

In 2015 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015 was divided, one half jointly to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites," and the other half to Tu Youyou "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antiparasitic Drugs
  • 12631

Avermectins, new family of potent anthelminthic agents, efficacy of the B1a component.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 15, 372-378, 1979.

Campbell and colleagues reported unprecedented antiparasitic effects of the agent in vivo, and that the "B1a" component of the molecule was most effective as a single oral dose.
(Order of authorship in the original publication: Egerton, Oslin, Blair....Campbell.) Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

In 2015 William C. Campbell shared half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Satoshi Ōmura “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites.” The other half was awarded to Tu Youyou “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria.”

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antiparasitic Drugs
  • 13929

Transformation of mammalian cells with genes from procaryotes and eucaryotes.

Cell, 16, 777-75, 1979.

Axel, along with microbiologist Saul J. Silverstein and geneticist Michael H. Wigler, discovered a technique of cotransformation via transfection. This process, which allows foreign DNA to be inserted into a host cell to produce certain proteins, is fundamental to recombinant DNA research at pharamceutical and biotech companies. Order of authorship in the original publication: Wigler, ...Silverstein, Axel.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, Biotechnology
  • 13980

Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin (plasmid construction / lac operon / fused proteins / radioimmunoassay / peptide purification).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 76, 106-110, 1979.

Working at Genentech, Kleid and Goeddel and colleagues were the first scientists to apply genetic engineering techniques, incorporating chemically synthesized DNA encoding human insulin into E. coli, that expressed, after appropriate treatment, synethetic human insulin. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.




Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Recombinant DNA, Biotechnology, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 14247

Relaxation of bovine coronary artery and activation of coronary arterial guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide, nitroprusside and a carcinogenic nitrosoamine.

J. Cyclic. Nucl. Res. 5, 211–224, 1979.

With CA Gruetter, BK Barry, DB McNamara, DY Gruetter, PJ Kadowitz.

In 1998 Ignarro shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Robert F. Furchgott and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system." 



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 3705.2

Manners and customs of dentistry in Ukiyoe

Tokyo: Ishiyaku, 1980.

Reproduces all the classic Japanese prints that concern the teeth or dentistry. By Nakahara, Yoshihisa Shindo, and Kuninori Homma. 



Subjects: ART & Medicine & Biology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry
  • 6893

Cloning in single-stranded bacteriophage as an aid to rapid DNA sequencing.

J. Mol. Biol., 143, 161-78, 1980.

Sanger and colleagues developed the random shotgun method to prepare templates for DNA sequencing. With A. R. Coulson, B. G. Barrell, A. J. H. Smith & B. A. Roe.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 11057

Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA),77, 7415-7419, 1980.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Poiesz, Ruscetti,... Gallo. Gallo and associates announced the discovery of a human retrovirus with type C morphology causing a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Gallo named this virus HTLV-1 (for Human T-cell Leukemia-Lymphoma Virus - 1). Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HTLV-1 (Human T cell Leukemia-Lymphoma Virus-1), ONCOLOGY & CANCER, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Lymphoma, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae › HTLV-1
  • 12270

Termination of malignant ventricular arrhythmias with an implanted automatic defibrillator in human beings.

New Eng. J. Med., 303, 322-324, 1980.

First successful implantation of an automatic defibrillator (AICD), developed by Mirowski and Mower, and implanted by Watkins when he was a resident.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Arrythmias › Implantable Defibrillator
  • 13918

Gene transfer in intact animals.

Nature, 284, 422-425, 1980.

Cline and colleagues were the first to successfully transfer a functioning gene into a living mouse, creating the first transgenic organism.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › Gene Therapy / Human Gene Transfer
  • 13993

Are snRNPs involved in splicing?

Nature, 283, 220-224, 1980.

Steitz and Lerner used immunoprecipitation with human antibodies from patients with autoimmunity to isolate and identify the novel entities snRNPs (pronounced "snurps") and detect their role in splicing. A snRNP is a specific short length of RNA, around 150 nucleotides long, associated with protein, that is involved in splicing introns out of newly transcribed RNA (pre-mRNA), a component of the spliceosomes. Steitz's paper "set the field ahead by light years and heralded the avalanche of small RNAs that have since been discovered to play a role in multiple steps in RNA biosynthesis," noted Susan Berget. Order of authorship in the original publication: Streitz, Wolin...Lerner.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids
  • 3342.1
  • 3415.3

Naissance et développement de l’oto-rhino-laryngologie dans l’histoire de la médecine. 3 vols.

Acta oto-rhino-laryng. belg., 35, Suppl. II, III, IV-, 1981.


Subjects: OTOLOGY › History of Otology, OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY (Ear, Nose, Throat) › History of ENT
  • 13960

A complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of cauliflower mosaic virus by M13mp7 shotgun sequencing.

Nucleic Acids Research, 9, 2871-2888, 1981.

Messing and colleagues employed shotgun sequencing to sequence the genome of cauliflower mosaic virus, the first genome sequenced by the shotgun method. They developed the shotgun DNA sequencing method with single and paired synthetic universal primers. The method is based on fragmenting DNA into small sizes, purifying them by cloning, and defining the start of sequencing with a short oligonucleotide. Because fragmentation produces overlapping fragments, sequences can be concatenated by overlapping sequence information, thereby reconstructing contiguous sequences (contigs).
Order of authorship in the original publication: Messing, Gardner, Howarth....

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 14224

The crystallization of ribsomal proteins from the 50 S subunit of the Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome.

J. biol. Chem, 256, 11787-11790, 1981.

The authors crystallized fragments of the 50S subunit of a thermophile bacterium’s ribosome to 3 angstroms resolution. Order of authorship in the original publication: Appelt, Dyck, et al., Yonath. Digital facsimile from jbc.org at this link.

In 2009 Yonath shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ventatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas Steitz "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11058

A new subtype of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-II) associated with a T-cell variant of hairy cell leukemia.

Science, 218, 571-573, 1982.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Kalyanaraman, Sarngadharan,... Gallo. Discovery by Gallo of HTLV-II, which like HTLV-I, is carcinogenic.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HTLV-2, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae
  • 12236

Catheter technique for closed-chest ablation of the atrioventricular conduction system.

New Eng. J. Med., 306, 194-200, 1982.

The catheter ablation technique, pioneered by Gallagher and team.

Abstract
"This report describes a catheter technique for ablating the His bundle and its application in nine patients with recurrent supraventricular tachycardia that was unresponsive to medical management. A tripolar electrode catheter was positioned in the region of the His bundle, and the electrode recording a large unipolar His-bundle potential was identified. In the first patient, two shocks of 25 and 50 J, respectively, were delivered by a standard cardioversion unit to the catheter electrode, resulting in an intra-His-bundle conduction defect. Subsequent delivery of 300 J resulted in complete heart block. In the next eight patients, an initial shock of 200 J was used. The His bundle was ablated by this single shock in six of these patients and by an additional shock of 300 J in one. In the remaining patient, conduction in the atrioventricular node was modified, resulting in alternating first and second-degree atrioventricular block. A stable escape rhythm was preserved in all patients. The procedure was well tolerated, without complications, and all patients have remained free of arrhythmia, without medication, for follow-up periods of two to six months."



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • 12469

Effet d’un stéroide anti-progestérone chez la femme: Interruption du cycle menstruel et de la grossesse au début.

Compt. Rend. l'Acad. Sci., Sér. III, 294, 933–8, 1982.

"In April 1980, as part of a formal research project at the French pharmaceutical company Roussel-Uclaf for the development of glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, chemist Georges Teutsch synthesized mifepristone (RU-38486, the 38,486th compound synthesized by Roussel-Uclaf from 1949 to 1980; shortened to RU-486), which was discovered to also be a progesterone receptor antagonist.[54][55] In October 1981, endocrinologist Étienne-Émile Baulieu, a consultant to Roussel-Uclaf, arranged tests of its use for medical abortion in 11 women in Switzerland by gynecologist Walter Herrmann at the University of Geneva's Cantonal Hospital, with successful results announced on April 19, 1982" (Wikipedia article on Mifepristone, accessed 4-2020).



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › Abortion, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Abortion
  • 13932

Self-splicing RNA: Autoexcision and autocyclization of the ribosomal RNA intervening sequence of tetrahymena.

Cell, 31, 147-157, 1982.

Discovery of ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes). Cech discovered that RNA itself could cut strands of RNA, suggesting that life might have started as RNA. "In the 1970s, Cech had been studying the splicing of RNA in the unicellular organism Tetrahymena thermophila when he discovered that an unprocessed RNA molecule could splice itself. In 1982, Cech became the first to show that RNA molecules are not restricted to being passive carriers of genetic information – they can have catalytic functions and can participate in cellular reactions. RNA-processing reactions and protein synthesis on ribosomes in particular are catalysed by RNA. RNA enzymes are known as ribozymes and have provided a new tool for gene technology. They also have the potential to provide new therapeutic agents – for example, they have the ability to destroy and cleave invading, viral RNAs" (Wikipedia article on Thomas Cech, accessed 7-22).

In 1989 Cech shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Sidney Altman "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA."



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 14018

Agrobacterium rhizogenes inserts T-DNA into the genomes of the host plant root cells.

Nature, 295, 432-434, 1982.

Chilton was the first (1977) to demonstrate the presence of a fragment of Agrobacterium Ti plasmid DNA in the nuclear DNA of crown gall tissue. Her research on Agrobacterium also showed that the genes responsible for causing disease could be removed from the bacterium without adversely affecting its ability to insert its own DNA into plant cells and modify the plant's genome. Chilton described what she had done as disarming the bacterial plasmid responsible for the DNA transfer. Using Agrobacterium carrying the disarmed Ti plasmid, in 1983 Chilton and her collaborators produced the first genetically modified plants.



Subjects: BOTANY, Biotechnology › Genetic Engineering / Genetic Modification
  • 6996

Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Science, 220, 868-71, 1983.

Isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1).

In 2008 Barré-Sinoussi and Montagnier shared half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus." The other half of the prize was awarded to Harald zur Hausen "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer."

With J. C. ChermannF. ReyM.T. NugeyreS. ChamaretJ. GruestC. DauguetC. Axler-Blin ]F. Vezinet-BrunC. RouziouxW. Rozenbaum. Bibcode:1983Sci...220..868B. doi:10.1126/science.6189183. PMID 6189183.i

See also Nos. 11059 and 12600.



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae › HIV-1, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11191

Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease)?

Lancet, 1 (for 1983), 1378, 1983.

This single page document was published as a Letter to the Editor of The Lancet. Order of authorship of the letter: Anderson, Jones, Fisher-Hoch.... Identification of human parvovirus as the cause of "Fifth disease".  [The Lancet also designates the volume number as 321.]

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Parvovirus Diseases, PEDIATRICS, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11376

Hemorrhagic colitis associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype.

New Eng. J. Med., 308, 681-85, 1983.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Riley, Remis, Helgerson. First description in print of a particularly virulent E.coli (0157-H7) infection, for which no antibiotics were effective; the only treatment being aggressive hydration.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases
  • 11814

U.S. cancer mortality rates and trends, 1950-1979. 4 vols.

Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, Environmental Epidemiology Branch, 1983.

Riggan supervised this long-term project of calculating and publishing cancer mortality rates and trends for every county in the United States over several decades. The last 30 of the 40 years of the underlying data base includes every death record in the country, not just those which indicate a cancer as a cause of death. This data remains valuable for researching the relationships between exposure to environmental factors and causes of death. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.



Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 12632

Ivermectin: A potent new antiparasitic agent.

Science, 221, 823-828, 1983.

Abstract

"Ivermectin is the 22,23-dihydro derivative of avermectin B1, a macrocyclic lactone produced by an actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis. It is active at extremely low dosage against a wide variety of nematode and arthropod parasites, apparently by virtue of its action on the mediation of neurotransmission by gamma-aminobutyric acid. It is now in commercial use in various countries for the treatment and control of parasites in cattle, horses, and sheep, and is expected to become available for use in swine and dogs. Since studies with the drug in man are in a preliminary stage, it is not yet known whether ivermectin will be useful in human medicine."

In 2015 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015 was divided, one half jointly to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites," and the other half to Tu Youyou "for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antiparasitic Drugs, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 13989

Expression of chimaeric genes transferred into plant cells using a Ti-plasmid-derived vector.

Nature, 303, 209-213, 1983.

Schell and Montagu discovered the gene transfer mechanism between Agrobacterium and plants, which resulted in the development of methods to alter Agrobacterium into an efficient delivery system for gene engineering in plants.

Abstract of the paper: "Foreign genes introduced into plant cells with Ti-plasmid vectors are not expressed. We have constructed an expression vector derived from the promoter sequence of nopaline synthase, and have inserted the coding sequences of the octopine synthase gene and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene into this vector. These chimaeric genes are functionally expressed in plant cells after their transfer via a Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens."



Subjects: BOTANY, Biotechnology
  • 14212

Evidence for plasmid mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis.

Infection and Immunity, 39, 371-376, 1983.

The authors illustrated and proved that “heating V770-NPI-R containing anthrax strains, to exactly 42.5 degrees centigrade, as Pasteur and colleagues reported in GM 14211, essentially ‘cured’ these strains of their plasmid and caused a loss of detectable lethal toxin.” Near the end of their paper they stated, “In assessing Pasteur’s experimental regimen, and by utilizing modern techniques, we are able to offer a reasonable explanation for a century old molecular event which has had such a significant impact in the field of medical microbiology and it is
very likely that his attenuation of the anthrax bacillus occurred as a result of curing the strain of plasmid
component which encoded for toxin structural and regulatory proteins.”

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mikesell, Ivins, Ristroph.... Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

See also: Mikesell, Ivins, Ristroph et all, "Plasmids, Pasteur, and anthrax," ASM News (1984) 320-322.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, VIROLOGY
  • 6997

Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS.

Science, 224, 497–500, 1984.

Gallo, Popovic, and colleagues demonstrated that a retrovirus they had isolated, called HTLV-III, was the cause of AIDS.  M. G. Sarngadharan, and E. Read. Bibcode:1984Sci...224..497P. doi:10.1126/science.6200935. PMID 6200935. This is the first of 4 related papers that Gallo's team published in Science in May 1984. In 1986 Gallo received his second Lasker Award, “For determining that the retrovirus now known as HIV-1 is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)."



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae
  • 11059

A new type of retrovirus isolated from patients presenting with lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Structural and antigenic relatedness with equine infectious anemia virus.

Annales de l'Institut Pasteur / Virologie, 135E, 119-134, 1984.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Montagnier, Dauguet,... Barré-Sinoussi. In this paper Montagnier and colleagues showed that, contrary to the views of Gallo and his group, LAV (Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus) was not antigenically related to HTLV, that it was very antigenically and morphologically related to EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus), a lentivirus, and that the p25 protein of LAV is not related to the p24 protein of HTLV. They also showed that the EM morphology of LAV is very similar to EIAV, as are its dimensions, that LAV has a strict tropism for OKT4 helper lymphocytes (See No. 11042). They also showed that when LAV infects a cell line it is lytic for those cells, whereas HTLVs immortalize the cells.

See also the following paper by the authors presented at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories on September 15, 1983: "A new human lymphotropic retrovirus: Characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes," published as pp.363-369 in Gallo, R.C.; Essex, M., Gross, L., eds., Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1984.

(Thanks for Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 12600

Antibodies to the core protein of lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) in patients with AIDS.

Science, 225, 321-322, 1984.

The authors mentioned in a footnote added at the end of the paper that "A specific ELISA test with total LAV proteins detects LAV-speciic antibodies in 95% of LAS patients and 70-95% of AIDS depending on the risk group and the stage of the disease."  This was the first announcement of the development of the ELISA HIV/AIDS antibody test. This remains the first test for HIV/AIDs given to patients who show signs of the disease.
(Order of authorship in the original publication: Kalytanaraman, Cabradilla,...Barré-Sinousi, Montagnier....).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS
  • 14184

Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses.

Nature, 308, 34-36, 1984.

Dubochet and colleagues introduced "Dubochet's vitrification method" to vitrify water by cooling it so rapidly that it solidified to form a glass instead of crystals. Using this method, the authors published the first images of a number of different viruses, round and hexagonal.

In 2017 Dubochet shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson "for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, Microscopy › Cryogenic electron microscopy
  • 10785

Enzymatic amplication of B-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia.

Science, 230, 1350-1354, 1985.

Polymerase chain reaction first published. With Randall K. Saiki, Stephen Scharf, Fred Faloona et al. Order of authorship in the original paper was Saiki, Scharf, Faloona, Mullis....

In 1993 the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993 was awarded "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry." Mullis received half "for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method," and the other half was awarded to Michael Smith "for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies."

See also No. 7213.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Polymerase Chain Reaction, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Blood Disorders › Sickle-Cell Disease, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 10789

Serological evidence for virus related to Simian T-Lymphotropic retrovirus III in residents of West Africa.

Lancet, 326, 1387-1389, 1985.

First report of the discovery of what became known as HIV-2 by the U.S. research group led by Kanki. This group published before the French group, but the French group had reported their data one day prior to the U.S. team. Order of authorship in the original publication was Barin, M'Boup, F. Denis, Kanki....

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Senegal, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae
  • 10965

Serologic identification and characterization of a macaque T-lymphotropic retrovirus closely related to HTLV-III.

Science, 228, 1199-1201, 1985.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Kanki, McLane... Essex. This paper was followed in the issue of Science by: Daniel, M., Letvi, N. L., King, N.W., "Isolation of T-cell tropic HTLV-3 - like retrovirus from macaques", Science, 228 (1985) 1201-1204. 

Discovery of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVs), a species of retrovirus that cause peristent infections in "at least 45 species of African non-human primates."

"Virus strains from two of these primate species, SIVsmm in sooty mangabeys and SIVcpz in chimpanzees, are believed to have crossed the species barrier into humans, resulting in HIV-2 and HIV-1 respectively, the two human immunodeficiency viruses. The most likely route of transmission of HIV-1 to humans involves contact with the blood of chimps that are often hunted for bushmeat in Africa.[3] It is theorized SIV may have previously crossed the species barrier into human hosts multiple times throughout history, but it was not until recently, after the advent of modern transportation and global commuterism, that it finally took hold, spreading beyond localized decimations of a few individuals or single small tribal populations" (Wikipedia).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: VETERINARY MEDICINE, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae
  • 11060

Structure of the protein subunit in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3 Å resolution.

Nature, 318, 618-624, 1985.

Discovery of the three-dimensional structure of a protein complex found in certain photosynthetic bacteria, called the photosynthetic reaction center. This was the first elucidation of the 3D crystal structure of any membrane protein complex. The authors used X-ray crystallography to determine the exact arrangement of the 10,000 atoms in this protein complex. Photosynthesis has been called "the most important chemical reaction in the biosphere."

For the first time understanding of processes in bacterial cells elucidated a complex chemical reaction that had hitherto only been studied in plant cells.

In 1988 Deisenhofer, Huber and Michel shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation).



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Photosynthesis, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 11377

The association between idiopathic hemolytic uremic syndrome and infection by Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli.

J. infect. Dis., 151, 775-182, 1985.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Karmali, Petric, Lim. The authors discovered that a hemolytic uremic syndrome, associated with E. coli 0157-H7 (first described in No. 11376), and which could not be cured by antibiotics, was caused by an unusually potent toxin in the intestine produced by the E. coli 0157-H7. This toxin they identified as Verotoxin. Discovery that a toxin caused hemolytic uremic syndrome explained why this particular bacterial illness could not be treated by antibiotics.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Escherichia coli, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases, TOXICOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 10788

Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients with AIDS.

Science, 233, 2343-346, 1986.

HIV-2 was discovered essentially simultaneously by French and U.S. teams. This was the first publication by the French team. Order of authorship of the original publication was Clavel, Guettard, Brun-Vezinet.  See their expanded report: Clavel, F., Mansinho, K. Chamaret, S.,et al with Montagnier, Luc. "Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection associated with AIDS in West Africa," New Eng. J. Med. 316 (1987) 1180-1185.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Senegal, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 10843

Fatal familial insomnia and dysautonomia with selective degeneration of thalamic nuclei.

New Eng. J. Med., 315, 997-1003., 1986.

The authors coined the name Fatal Familial Insomnia to describe a family cohort of individuals who were dying from a prion illness causing an inability to sleep. This disease has been characterized as one of the most cruel illnesses to affect mankind. Order of authorship in the original publication was Lugaresi, Medori, ... Gambetti.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Prion Diseases
  • 11042

The T4 glycoprotein is a cell-surface receptor for the AIDS virus.

Cold Spring Harbor Symp. quant. Biol., 51, 703-711, 1986.

Order of authorship in the original paper: McDougal, Maddon, Dalgleish. The authors discovered that the T4 lymphocyte cell has an outer glycoprotein on its surface that specifically acts as the receptor for HIV. Without first attaching to this receptor HIV cannot dock onto and penetrate the T4 lymphocyte.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, VIROLOGY
  • 11106

Administration of 3'-Azido-3'-Deoxythmymidine, an inhibitor of HTLV-III/LAV replication, to patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex.

Lancet, 1, 575-580, 1986.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Yarchoan, Weinhold, Lyerly. The first antiviral AIDS drug, later named "Retrovir"/ Zidovudine/AZT.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antiviral Drugs, VIROLOGY
  • 9047

Bibliographia médica hispánica. 1475-1950. 9 vols.

Valencia: Instituto de Estudios Documentales e Históricos sobre la Ciencia, Univ. de Valencia,, 19871991.


Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain
  • 10899

Human infection with Ehrlichia canis, a leukocytic rickettsia.

New Eng. J. Med., 316, 853-856, 1987.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Maeda, Markowitz, Hawley. First description of Ehrlichiosis in humans, description of the organism, and successful drug treatment with doxycycline. The pathogen was later identified as Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales, BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis
  • 12237

Compensatory enlargement of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

New Eng. J. Med., 22, 1371-1375, 1987.

"Glagov remodeling" or the "Glagov phenomenon." In 1987 Glagov showed that as atherosclerotic plaque began to build up within an artery, the arterial wall would expand enough to maintain normal blood flow. Only after the blockage reached about 40 percent was the artery unable to keep pace and blood flow began to decrease.



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Coronary Artery Disease
  • 13940

Targeted correction of a mutant HPRT gene in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Nature, 330, 576-578, 1987.

Smithies discovered, simultaneously with Mario Capecchi and Martin Evans, the technique of homologous recombination of transgenic DNA with genomic DNA, a much more reliable method of altering animal genomes than previously used, and the technique behind gene targeting and knockout mice.

In 2007 Smithies shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Mario R. Capecchi and Martin J. Evans "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."
Order of authorship of the original publication: Doetschman, Gregg...Smithies.



Subjects: Biotechnology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14116

Cognitive and neurologic findings in subjects with diffuse white matter lucencies on computed tomographic scan (Leuko-Araiosis).

Arch. Neurol., 44, 32-35, 1987.

"Abstract: As part of a prospective clinicopathologic study, a cohort of 105 "normal" elderly volunteers was investigated with computed tomographic scans, psychometric testing (Extended Scale for Dementia [ESD]) and neurologic examination. Computed tomographic scans were evaluated for the presence or absence of white matter lucencies, termed leuko-araiosis. These are defined as patchy or diffuse areas of decreased attenuation involving only white matter and with no change in adjacent ventricles or sulci. The nine controls with leuko-araiosis had lower scores on the ESD than the 96 controls without leuko-araiosis (mean ESD with leuko-araiosis, 227.1 +/- 14; without leuko-araiosis, 237.1 +/- 8), and the difference remains significant even after adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, education, and infarct detected on computed tomography. Significant differences were also found comparing subjects with leuko-araiosis and those without in respect to abnormal gait, limb power, plantar response, and the rooting and palmomental reflexes. Leuko-araiosis may represent a marker for early dementia. The pathophysiology of this finding remains uncertain. Our results suggest that white matter abnormalities play a role in the development of intellectual impairment in the elderly."

Order of authorship in the original publication: Steingart, Hachinski, ... Merskey.



Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders › Presenile or Senile Dementia
  • 11247

Capnocytophaga canimorsus sp. nov. (formerly CDC group DF-2), a cause of septicemia following dog bite, and C. cynodegmi sp. nov., a cause of localized wound infection following dog bite.

J. Clin. Microbiol., 27, 231-235, 1989.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Brenner, Hollis, Fanning....The authors defined the genus and species of previously unclassified bacteria that infect dog and cat bites, previous identified as DF-2, and provided its scientific name, Capnocytophaga canimorsus.  They also identified a second species, C. cynodegmi. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections
  • 13568

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Chromosome walking and jumping.

Science, 245, 1059-1065, 1989.

Utilizing the chromosome "walking and and jumping" technique developed by Collins, the authors showed how they cloned the cystic fibrosis locus on the basis of its chromosomal location without the benefit of genomic rearrangements. They showed that the CF gene spans approximately 250,000 base pairs of genomic DNA. This was the first gene for a human disease discovered without a known protein sequence.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Rommens, Iannuzzi, et al..., Riordan, Tsui, Collins.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis
  • 13569

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Cloning and characterization of complimentary DNA.

Science, 245, 1066-1072, 1989.

The authors first published a ‘map’ of the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene and on p. 1071, they published an illustration/schematic model of the predicted CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance
regulator). They first described a deletion mutation DeltaF508  (ΔF508) that was detected in both CF clones, which would result in a ‘loss’ of a phenyalanine residue at position 508 in the CF polypeptide.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Riordan, Rommens, et al, Collins, Tsui.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis
  • 13570

Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: Genetic analysis.

Science, 245, 1073-1080, 1989.

The authors demonstrated that about 70% of the crucial mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients corresponds to the specific deletion of 3 base pairs, which results in the loss of a phenylalanine residue at A.A. position 508. This discovery provided a target for pharmacologists, molecular biologists and molecular geneticists to develop a biologic drug for the benefit of the majority of those afflicted with CF.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Kerem, Rommens, et al, Tsui.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis
  • 7135

Laser in situ keratomileusis.

Lasers Surg. Med., 10, 463-468, 1990.

Though several researchers developed the procedures for using an excimer laser to perform in situ karatomileusis (LASIK), "Pallikaris also independently conceived of a hinged flap using a microkeratome he had specifically designed for rabbit studies and performed the ablation with an excimer laser on the exposed bed followed by replacement of the flap without sutures. The term LASIK was first used to describe this procedure in his 1990 paper. Pallikaris treated his first patients in October 1990 and published his results on 10 high myopic human eyes with one year-follow-up in 1994" (Reinstein, Archer, Gobbe, "Birth of Lasik" IN: Goes (ed.) The eye in history [2013] 436).



Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Lasers, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Corneal Transplant
  • 11929

The agent of bacillary angiomatosis - An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens.

New Eng. J. Med., 323, 1573-1580, 1990.

To identify an uncultured and unidentified pathogen that was often visualized in tissue sections of lesions of bacillary angiomatosis with Warthin-Starry staining, the authors utilized two different techniques that were innovative at the time: 16S ribosomal RNA analysis and PCR. This was seen as a milestone in the molecular identification of pathogens that could be "seen" but not cultured. The authors indicated in their abstract that "this bacillus may also cause cat scratch disease." They concluded that "The cause of bacillary angiomatosis is a previously uncharacterized rickettsia-like organism, closedly related to R. quintana. This method for the identification of an cultured pathogen may be applicable to other infectious diseases of unknown cause." Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

 



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Bartonella, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Cat Scratch Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Angiomatosis
  • 11930

A newly recognized fastidious gram-negative pathogen as a cause of fever and bacteremia.

New Eng. J. Med., 323, 1587-1592, 1990.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Slater, Welch, Hensel.... Hensel, a medical technologist working in the clinical microbiology laboratory, University Hospitals, Oklahoma City, used innovative culture methods to discover a previously unknown gram negative bacillus in blood cultures of two HIV patients with persistent fever and bacteremia. They stated that the organism most closely resembled "Rochalimaea quintana" (now named Bartonella quintana).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Bartonella › Bartonella henselae, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Angiomatosis
  • 6886

Complementary DNA sequencing: "expressed sequence tags" and the human genome project.

Science, 252, 1651-1656 , 1991.

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) for DNA sequencing. By Adams, M.D., Kelley, J.M., Gocayne, J.D., Dubnick, M., Polymeropoulos, M.H., Xiao, H., Merril, C.R., Wu, A., Olde, B., Moreno, R., Kerlavage, A.R., McCombie, W.R., and Venter, J.C.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 14208

Chicxulub Crater: A possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

Geology, 19, 867-871, 1991.

Eleven years after publication of No. 14207, Alan Hildebrand, working with Luis and Walter Alvarez, proposed that the Chicxulub Crater, discovered by Antonio-Camargo-Zanoguera and Glen T. Penfield during the 1970s, was the C-T boundary impact crater posited in No. 14207.

"ABSTRACT: We suggest that a buried 180-km-diameter circular structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is an impact crater. Its size and shape are revealed by magnetic and gravity-field anomalies, as well as by oil wells drilled inside and near the structure. The stratigraphy of the crater includes a sequence of andesitic igneous rocks and glass interbedded with, and overlain by, breccias that contain evidence of shock metamorphism. The andesitic rocks have chemical and isotopic compositions similar to those of tektites found in Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) ejecta. A 90-m-thick K/T boundary breccia, also containing evidence of shock metamorphism, is present 50 km outside the crater's edge. This breccia probably represents the crater's ejecta blanket. The age of the crater is not precisely known, but a K/T boundary age is indicated. Because the crater is in a thick carbonate sequence, shock-produced CO 2 from the impact may have caused a severe greenhouse warming."

Order of authorship in the original publication: Hildebrand, Penfield, Kring...Camargo et al.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change, BIOLOGY › Evolution, Geology, Medical & Biological
  • 11931

Characterization of a novel Rochalimaea species, R. henselae sp. nov., isolated from blood of a febrile, human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient.

J. Clin. Microbiol., 30, 265-274, 1992.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Regnery, Anderson, Clarridge....The authors paid homage to the innovative work of medical technologist Diane Hensel by naming the species after her. It was initially grouped into the Rochalimea genus, later reclassified to Bartonella.

The abstract read:

"Isolation of a Rochalimaea-like organism from a febrile patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus was confirmed. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease length polymorphism analysis of a portion of the citrate synthase gene, demonstrated that the agent is closely related to members of the genus Rochalimaea and that the isolate is genotypically identical to the presumptive etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis. However, the same genotypic analyses readily differentiated the new isolate from isolates of other recognized Rochalimaea species as well as other genera of bacteria previously suggested as putative etiologic agents of bacillary angiomatosis and related syndromes. We propose that the novel species be referred to as Rochalimaea henselae sp. nov."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Bartonella › Bartonella henselae, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Angiomatosis
  • 11980

Identification of the uncultured bacillus of Whipple's disease.

New Eng. J. Med., 327, 293-301, 1992.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Relman, Schmidt, MacDermott....The authors used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to identify the bacillus associated with Whipple's disease that had resisted culturing methods for more than 80 years. Based on its unique characteristics and its association with an illness that leads to emaciation by interferring with intestinal absorption of nutrients they named it "Tropheryma whippelii gen. nov. sp. nov."  Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Whipple's Disease
  • 14009

Unusual resistance to peptidyl transferase to protein extraction procedures.

Science, 256,1416-1419, 1992.

Noller demonstrated that the ribosome is a ribozyme, a critical step in understanding how ribosomes translate the genetic information in DNA into the language of proteins.
 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis
  • 11932

Syndrome of Rochalimea henselae adenitis suggesting cat scratch disease.

Ann. intern. Med., 118, 331-336, 1993.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Dolan, Wong, Regnery....The authors demonstrated that Rochalimea henselae (now Bartonella henselae) is the infectious agent causing cat scratch fever.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Bartonella › Bartonella henselae, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Cat Scratch Fever
  • 12435

Cyclospora species - A new protozoan pathogen of humans.

New Eng. J. Med., 328, 1308-1312, 1993.

Ortega and colleagues identified a novel parasite resembling C. muris in the feces of Peruvian patients and 2 U.S. patients, with symptoms resembling those of infections with Cryptosporidium. The parasite infected both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, but stained parasitic photos and electron microscope images revealed a parasite distinct from Cryptosporidium. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Ortega, Sterling, Gilman...) Available from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, PARASITOLOGY › Cyclospora
  • 14008

A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes.

Cell, 72, 971-983, 1993.

Identification by the many scientists in The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group, including Gusella, of the single defective gene on chromosome 4 that causes the progressive brain disorder, Huntington's disease. The defect is dominant, meaning that anyone who inherits it from a parent with Huntington's will eventually develop the disease. The defective gene codes for a protein called huntingtin. Since identification of the defective gene, a diagnostic genetic test has been developed that can detect the defective gene in people who do not yet have symptoms of the disease.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Inherited Neurological Disorders › Huntington's Chorea
  • 10880

Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.

Science, 266, 1865-1869, 1994.

Dated December 16, 1994. Order of authorship in the original paper was Chang, Cesarman, Pessin,...Moore. The authors reported a new human herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, and gave it the descriptive name KSHV (Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpes Virus). Digital facsimile from tumorvirology.pitt.edu at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kaposi's Sarcoma / HHV-8, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Herpesviridae › Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)
  • 10901

Human granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in the Upper Midwest United States. A new species emerging?

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 272, 212-218, 1994.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Bakken, Dumler, Chen. First description of the Ehrlichia ewingii species of Ehrlichiosis (HGE) from a patient in Duluth, Minnesota, though the infectious agent was not yet named. The authors stated that early treatment with doxyclycline provided the best chance of recovery.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Minnesota
  • 14015

A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1.

Science, 266, 66-71, 1994.

Discovery of the BRCA1 gene using the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Personalized Medicine, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Hereditary Cancers › Breast Cancer 1 & 2, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma
  • 14016

Location of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRACA2, to chromosome 13q12-13.

Science, 265, 2088-2090, 1994.

Stratton and colleagues discovered the BRCA2 gene. Oder of authorship in the original publication: Wooster, Neuhausen, Mangion....Stratton.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Personalized Medicine, GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Hereditary Cancers › Breast Cancer 1 & 2
  • 7018

Ethnobotany: Evolution of a discipline. Edited by Richard Schultes and Siri Sylvia von Reis.

Portland, OR: Dioscorides Press, 1995.


Subjects: BOTANY › Ethnobotany, BOTANY › History of Botany, PHARMACOLOGY › History of Pharmacology & Pharmaceuticals
  • 10889

Infection with a Babesia-like organism in Northern California.

New Eng. J. Med., 332, 298-303, 1995.

Order of authorship in the original paper was Persing, Herwaldt, Glaser. First report of a Basisa duncani infection in humans (4 patients). The authors designated the infection as Babesia (WA1) strain transmitted by Ixodes pacificus, the west coast species name for Ixodes dammini, vector of babesiosis on the East coast. Available from nejm.org at this link

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Babesiosis, PARASITOLOGY, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 10902

Ixodes dammini as a potential vector of human granulocytic Ehrlichiosis.

J. infect. Dis., 172, 1007-1012, 1995.

Order of authorship in the original paper was Pancholi,Kolbert, Mitchell. The authors provided convincing evidence that the tick Ixodes dammini is a common vector for the transmission of HGE (Ehrlichia ewingii).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis
  • 10914

Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas.

New Eng. J. Med., 332, 1186-1191, 1995.

Chang, Moore and colleagues showed that the virus causing Kaposi's Sarcoma also causes body cavity lymphomas and  lymphomatous effusions in humans.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kaposi's Sarcoma / HHV-8, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Herpesviridae › Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11343

Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd.

Science, 269, 496-512, 1995.

First sequence of the complete genome of a free-living non-viral organism—Haemophilus influenzae—the bacterium that causes lower respiratory tract infections and meningitis in infants and young children. This genome consisted of 1,830,137 base pairs. Order of authorship in the original publication: Fleischmann, Adams, White....Smith, Venter. 

Digital facsimile from biology.iupui.edu at this link.



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Haemophilus, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza, NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Cerebrospinal Meningitis, PEDIATRICS
  • 11997

Purification and characterization of a low-molecular-mass T-cell antigen secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Infection and Immunity, 63, 1710-1717, 1995.

Andersen and colleagues found that a protein fraction obtained from M. tuberculosis was immunologically active in mice, suggesting that it was one of the proteins recognized by T cells. In this paper the authors identified and purified the active protein, ESAT-6, and showed that it consists of 95 amino acids. This work and that of Mahairas and colleagues (No. 11995) led to a new test called the Interferon gamma release assay.

(Thanks to Ron Cox for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium tuberculosis, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis
  • 7015

The history of ophthalmology.

Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific, 1996.


Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › History of Ophthalmology
  • 8660

The cigarette papers. Edited by Stanton A. Glantz, John Slade, Lisa A. Bero, Peter Hanauer, and Deborah E. Barnes.

Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996.

Analysis and selective reproduction of 4000 pages of internal tobacco industry documents proving that a tobacco company was fully aware that it was promoting and marketing a highly addictive carcinogenic substance. Electronic version of the book and 8,000 pages of source documents, as well as millions of related documents at https://www.library.ucsf.edu/industry-documents/.



Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE , OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE › History of Occupational Health & Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Tobacco
  • 8872

Sildenafil: an orally active type 5 cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the treatment of penile erectile dysfunction.

Int. J. Impot. Res., 8 (2) 47-52, 1996.

Osterloh and team working at Pfizer's Sandwich, Kent research facility in England, demonstrated that sildenafil citrate (Viagra) initally studied for use in hypertension and angina pectoris, is effective in the treatment of penile erectile disfunction. (With 6 co-authors).

"Abstract:

"Sildenafil (Viagra, UK-92,480) is a novel oral agent under development for the treatment of penile erectile dysfunction. Erection is dependent on nitric oxide and its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). However, the relative importance of phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes is not clear. We have identified both cGMP- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in human corpora cavernosa in vitro. The main PDE activity in this tissue was due to PDE5, with PDE2 and 3 also identified. Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of PDE5 with a mean IC50 of 0.0039 microM. In human volunteers, we have shown sildenafil to have suitable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties (rapid absorption, relatively short half-life, no significant effect on heart rate and blood pressure) for an oral agent to be taken, as required, prior to sexual activity. Moreover, in a clinical study of 12 patients with erectile dysfunction without an established organic cause, we have shown sildenafil to enhance the erectile response (duration and rigidity of erection) to visual sexual stimulation, thus highlighting the important role of PDE5 in human penile erection. Sildenafil holds promise as a new effective oral treatment for penile erectile dysfunction."

 

 


Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Hypertension (High Blood Pressure), PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Erectile Dysfunction Medication, SEXUALITY / Sexology, UROLOGY
  • 10844

A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the UK.

Lancet, 347, 921-925., 1996.

During the 1990s England was plagued with cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) seen in cows, popularly known as "Mad Cow Disease." Then physicians in England started noticing an uptick in cases of what looked like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Will and Ironside noticed distinct pathological differences between classic CJD and what they called  variant CJD (vCJD). They then made the terrifying connection between it and ingestion of tainted beef, leading to panic in some regions and avoidance of beef consumption in others. In the process the wider public became aware of prion diseases. Order of authorship in the original publication was, Will, Ironside, Zeidler....

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Prion Diseases, NEUROLOGY › Degenerative Disorders, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 10882

Human herpesvirus 8 Is present in the lymphoid system of healthy persons and can reactivate in the course of AIDS.

J. infect. Dis., 173, 542-549, 1996.

Dated June 22, 1995. Order of authorship in the original paper was Bigoni, Dolcetti, de Lellis....By this time Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was also known as human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8).

The authors wrote in their introduction: "Therefore, HHV-8 is fairly common in the population, and the lymphoid system could represent a reservoir of latently infected cells from which the virus may reactivate in conditions of immunodepression....In conclusion, the relatively common finding of HHV-8DNA sequences in the human population suggests a general exposure to the virus...." 

Available from watermark.silverchair.com at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kaposi's Sarcoma / HHV-8, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Herpesviridae › Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)
  • 11365

Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1.

Nature, 381, 661-666, 1996.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Deng, Liu, Ellmeier.... This paper was immediately followed in the same issue of Nature by:

Tatjana Dragic, Virginia Litwin, Graham P. Allaway et al. "HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5," Nature, 381, 667-673.

What was called CC-CKR-5 in the Dragic, Litwin, Allaway paper was later named CCR5. These two papers laid the theory and the foundation behind the purposeful and targeted search for bone marrow donors with this mutation that finally achieved success 13 years later in Gero Hütter et al GM 10775 ("Long-term control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 stem-cell transplantation", 2009). 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
  • 11933

Experimenal transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea.

J. Clin. Microbiol., 34, 1952-1956, 1996.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Chomel, Kasten, Floyd-Hawkins.... Chomel and colleagues studied 47 cattery cats from a private home for 12 months. They found that such cats typically are bacteremic. Since fleas feed on the cats' blood they studied the fleas that were biting the cats (132 fleas) and found that 34% of those fleas were positive for the bacterium. This explained why people who were not actually scratched by a cat, but were instead bitten by a flea that had bitten an infected cat, could catch cat scratch fever.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Bartonella › Bartonella henselae, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Cat Scratch Fever
  • 11995

Molecular analysis of genetic differences between Mycobacterium bovis BCG and virulent M. bovis.

J. Bacteriol., 178, 1274-1282, 1996.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mahairas, Sabo, Hickey.... From the Abstract:

"The live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine for the prevention of disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was derived from the closely related virulent tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis. Although the BCG vaccine has been one of the most widely used vaccines in the world for over 40 years, the genetic basis of BCG's attenuation has never been elucidated. We employed subtractive genomic hybridization to identify genetic differences between virulent M. bovis and M. tuberculosis and avirulent BCG. Three distinct genomic regions of difference (designated RD1 to RD3) were found to be deleted from BCG, and the precise junctions and DNA sequence of each deletion were determined."

Mahairas and colleagues showed that the BCG bacterium had a deletion in its DNA called the RD1 deletion, which was not present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because of this deletion the protein ESAT-6 could be expressed by M. tuberculosis, but not by BCG. This paved the way for a new and more accurate diagnostic test for TB based on detection of the ESAT-6 protein. This was particularly useful since it had been discovered that the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) had a major drawback--it tested positive in individuals who had received the BCG vaccine but were not infected with TB.

(Thanks to Ron Cox for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium tuberculosis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis
  • 12111

The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults.

Cell, 86, 973-983, 1996.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Lemaitre, Nicolas,... Hoffmann.  This paper represented the foundation of molecular immunology. Hoffmann and colleagues found that flies with mutated Toll genes were unable to mount an immune response when infected with Aspergillus fungus. They realized that Toll genes that code for a receptor complex (Toll-like receptor) are responsible for sensing pathogens, and that in mutant flies which cannot produce the receptor complex, the Aspergillus fungi are not sensed, and the immune system is not activated, causing the fly to be overwhelmed with a massive infection and die. The authors elucidated a very complex molecular cellular pathway activated by Toll once a pathogen is sensed, leading to gene transcription encoding a novel peptide antifungal protein named Drosomycin made by the fly.

Full text available from cell.com at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology
  • 12835

Evidence for the conformation of the pathologic isoform of the prion protein enciphering and propagating prion diversity.

Science, 274, 2079-2082, 1996.

The authors showed that the " 'normal prion protein' in the brains of living mice can be converted into different forms depending on the type of abnormal human prion that initiated the conversion. The result is different patterns of pathological changes in the host, as would be expected for different prion strains." Prusiner proposed that "infection with one of the misfolded proteins can induce disease by forcing healthy PrP molecules to refold themselves into abnormal prions." 

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Telling, Parchi De Armond...Prusiner.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Prion Diseases
  • 13565

Crystal structure of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein.

Science, 273, 1392-1395, 1996.

Tsien and colleagues published the crystal structure of the 238 A.A. long green fluorescent protein (GFP).
With this data, the authors could determine what had to be modified within the protein in such a way that the protein would be able to absorb and emit light in other areas of the spectrum, i.e. these protein variants of GFP would not only shine much stronger, but in quite a few different colors such as cyan, blue, and yellow, eventually expanding the color palette to red and orange, etc. The variants also became more photostable, and excited at a wavelength that matched that of conventional microscopes filter sets, remarkably increasing the practical useability of GFP. The authors created a powerful protein tool that allowed researchers to perform imaging experiments that could easily discriminate between and follow multiple tagged proteins in cells and higher organisms. Order of authorship in the original publication: Ormö, Cubitt, Kallio, et al, Tsien, Remington.

In 1998 Tsien authored a much longer report on GFP: "The green fluorescent protein," Ann. Rev. Biochem., 67, 509-544.

In 2008 Tsien shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie  "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Bioluminescence, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 14129

"From proteins to proteomes: Large scale protein identification by two-dimensional electrophoresis and amino acid analysis.

Nature Biotechnology, 14, 61-65, 1996.

Foundation of Proteomics. Order of authorship in the original publication: Wilkins, Pasquali, ...Hochstrasser.

"Abstract: Separation and identification of proteins by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis can be used for protein-based gene expression analysis. In this report single protein spots, from polyvinylidene difluoride blots of micropreparative E. coli 2-D gels, were rapidly and economically identified by matching their amino acid composition, estimated pI and molecular weight against all E. coli entries in the SWISS-PROT database. Thirty proteins from an E. coli 2-D map were analyzed and identities assigned. Three of the proteins were unknown. By protein sequencing analysis, 20 of the 27 proteins were correctly identified. Importantly, correct identifications showed unambiguous "correct" score patterns. While incorrect protein identifications also showed distinctive score patterns, indicating that protein must be identified by other means. These techniques allow large-scale screening of the protein complement of simple organisms, or tissues in normal and disease states. The computer program described here is accessible via the World Wide Web at URL address (http:@expasy.hcuge.ch/)."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Proteomics
  • 7285

A hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: possible ancestor to Neandertals and modern humans.

Science, 276, 1392-1395, 1997.

Homo antecessoran extinct human species (or subspecies) dating from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago, discovered in the Sierra de Atapuerca region of Northern Spain. With A. Rosas, I Martinez and M. Mosquera.



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Physical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 11408

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.

Science, 277, 1453-1462, 1997.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Blattner, Plunkett, Bloch....
Complete genome sequence of E. coli, the first complete genome sequence of an organism. Following p. 1462 there are two large, unpaginated, folding genome maps, each containing 3 pages of content.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases
  • 13541

Transmission of hepatitis C by intrahepatic inoculation with transcribed RNA.

Science, 277, 570-74, 1997.

Rice and colleagues constructed a viral RNA genome with the 3’ region and a consensus region to exclude potential inactivating mutations, which was then injected into the liver of chimps. That RNA, specifically encoded for the Hepatitis C virus (HVC), established a productive infection, and a clinical hepatitis resulted. Infectious virus was found in chimps' blood for several months from this "non mutation prone and ultrapure" RNA genome, which coded bonafide virus and also provoked the specifically expected antibody response. 

In 2020 Rice shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Harvey J. Alter and Michael Houghton  "for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus."

Order of authorship in the original publication:  Kolyphalov, Agapov..., Rice.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Hepadnaviridae › Hepatitis C Virus
  • 10900

Ehrlichia chaffeensis in Missouri ticks.

Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg., 59, 641-643, 1998.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Roland, Everett, Cyr. Using PCR, the authors demonstrated that the tick Amblyoma americanum (the Lone Star Tick) was the insect vector of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Digital facsimile from citeseerx.ist.psu.edu at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Missouri, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11079

Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: Clinical description of the first 50 cases.

Am. J. Psychiatry, 155, 264-271, 1998.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Swedo, Leonard, Garvey.... Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), "an hypothesis that there exists a subset of children with rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders and these symptoms are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections.[1] The proposed link between infection and these disorders is that an initial autoimmune reaction to a GABHS infection produces antibodies that interfere with basal ganglia function, causing symptom exacerbations. It has been proposed that this autoimmune response can result in a broad range of neuropsychiatric symptoms.[2][3] PANDAS is a subset of the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) hypothesis." (Wikipedia aritlce on PANDAS).



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, PEDIATRICS, PSYCHIATRY › Child Psychiatry, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11342

Complete genome sequence of treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete.

Science, 281, 375-388, 1998.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Fraser, Norris, Weinstock....Smith, Venter.  Sequence of the genome of the bacterium that causes syphilis.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Treponema , BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › Syphilis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11998

Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence.

Nature, 396, 537-44, 1998.

Abstract: "Countless millions of people have died from tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus. The complete genome sequence of the best-characterized strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, has been determined and analysed in order to improve our understanding of the biology of this slow-growing pathogen and to help the conception of new prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. The genome comprises 4,411,529 base pairs, contains around 4,000 genes, and has a very high guanine + cytosine content that is reflected in the biased amino-acid content of the proteins. M. tuberculosis differs radically from other bacteria in that a very large portion of its coding capacity is devoted to the production of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis, and to two new families of glycine-rich proteins with a repetitive structure that may represent a source of antigenic variation."

(Thanks to Ron Cox for this reference.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium › Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis
  • 12112

Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: Mutations in the Tlr4 gene.

Science, 282, 2085-2088, 1998.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Poltorak, Smirnova...Beutler. The authors, led by Beutler, showed that mice that harbor a mutation of the gene which codes for the production of the Toll-like receptor TLR4 quickly die of sepsis if challenged with a Gram-negative pathogen because they cannot sense the Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and, for that reason, cannot mount an adequate immune response. 

In 2011 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011 was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity," and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 13286

Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts.

Science, 282, 1145-1147, 1998.

Thomson and collaborators first isolated embryonic stem cells from human blastocysts. Order of authorship in original publication: Thomson, Itskovitz-Eldor, Shapiro et al. Available online from science.sciencemag.org at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, EMBRYOLOGY, Regenerative Medicine
  • 13957

Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Nature, 391, 806-811, 1998.

The authors reported that tiny snippets of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) effectively shut down specific genes, driving the destruction of messenger RNA (mRNA) with sequences matching the dsRNA. As a result, the mRNA cannot be translated into protein. Fire and Mello found that dsRNA was much more effective in gene silencing than the previously described method of RNA interference (RNAi) with single-stranded RNA. Because only small numbers of dsRNA molecules were required for the observed effect, Fire and Mello proposed that a catalytic process was involved. This hypothesis was confirmed by subsequent research.
Order of authorship in the original publication: Fire, XU....Mello.  

In 2006 Fire and Mello shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 13977

Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 95, 13726-13731, 1998.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Shamblott, Axelman,... Gearheart. Gearheart led the team that successfully developed human embryonic germ cells, pluripotent stem cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGCs). Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, Regenerative Medicine
  • 14251

DARPP-32: Regulator of the efficacy of dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Science, 281, 838-842, 1998.

"Greengard's research focused on events inside the neuron caused by neurotransmitters. Specifically, Greengard and his fellow researchers studied the behavior of second messenger cascades that transform the docking of a neurotransmitter with a receptor into permanent changes in the neuron. In a series of experiments, Greengard and his colleagues showed that when dopamine interacts with a receptor on the cell membrane of a neuron, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP inside the cell. This increase of cyclic AMP, in turn activates a protein called protein kinase A, which turns other proteins on or off by adding phosphate groups in a reaction known as phosphorylation. The proteins activated by phosphorylation can then perform a number of changes in the cell: transcribing DNA to make new proteins, moving more receptors to the synapse (and thus increasing the neuron's sensitivity), or moving ion channels to the cell surface (and thus increasing the cell's excitability)" (Wikipedia article on Paul Greengard). 
Greengard's work focused on the central regulatory protein DARPP-32. The above paper was the culmination of decades of research. There were 22 co-authors.

In 2000 Paul Greengard shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Eric R. Kandel "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system."  



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 10903

Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human Ehrlichiosis.

New Eng. J. Med., 341, 148-155, 1999.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Buller, Arens, Hmiel. The authors confirmed that the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is Ehrlichia ewingii, a pathogen carried by dogs and known in that form as E. canis. Available from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Missouri
  • 11040

Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes.

Nature, 397, 436-440, 1999.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Gao, Bailes, Robertson, Hahn. Demonstration, led by Hahn, that HIV-1 originated specifically in the chimpanzee--a mutant of the chimp SIV (SIV-cpz) which acquired mutations sufficient to allow it to jump from chimpanzee to humans.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11234

Microbiology: A centenary perspective. Edited by Wolfgang K. Joklik, Lars G. Ljungdahl, Alison D. O'Brien, Alexander von Graevenitz, Charles Yanofsky.

Washington, DC, 1999.

Classic 20th century papers presented with introductory notes and Prefaces to the following 5 sections: 1. Diagnostic Microbiology and Epidemiology, 2. Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms, 3. General and Applied Microbiology, 4. Molecular Biology and Physiology, and 5. Virology.



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY › History of Microbiology
  • 11981

Cultivation of the bacillus of Whipple's disease.

New Eng. J. Med., 342, 620-625, 2000.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Raoult, Birg, La Scola. Raoult and colleagues cultured the bacterium causing the systemic digestive tract infection Whipple's disease from a mitral valve of a patient with endocarditis due to the disease. This was the first time that the bacterium causing Whipple's disease was cultured since the Whipple first described the disease in 1907. Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Whipple's Disease
  • 13952

Structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit.

Nature, 407, 327-339, 2000.

Ramakrishnan and colleagues determined the complete molecular structure of the 30S subunit of the ribosome and its complexes with several antibiotics. "
The Abstract:
"Genetic information encoded in messenger RNA is translated into protein by the ribosome, which is a large nucleoprotein complex comprising two subunits, denoted 30S and 50S in bacteria. Here we report the crystal structure of the 30S subunit from Thermus thermophilus, refined to 3Å resolution. The final atomic model rationalizes over four decades of biochemical data on the ribosome, and provides a wealth of information about RNA and protein structure, protein-RNA interactions and ribosome assembly. It is also a structural basis for analysis of the functions of the 30S subunit, such as decoding, and for understanding the action of antibiotics. The structure will facilitate the interpretation in molecular terms of lower resolution structural data on several functional states of the ribosome from electron microscopy and crystallography." With Wimberly, Brian T.,  Brodersen, Ditlev E., Clemons, William M.,  Morgan-Warren, Robert J.,  Carter, Andrew P., Vonrhein, Clemens,  Hartsch, Thomas. 

See also:
Ramakirshan, V., Wimberly, Brian T., Carter, et al, "Functional insights from the structure of the 20S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics," Nature, 407 (2000) 340-348. And, Ramakirschan, Venki. Gene machine: The race to decipher the secrets of the ribsome (2018).

In 2009 Ramakrishnan shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome."






Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 14073

Three dimensional structure of the Tn5 synaptic complex transposition intermediate.

Science, 289, 77-85, 2000.

The authors provided a molecular framework for understanding transposition phenomena at the molecular level, including molecular images at 2.3Å resolution of the Tn5 transposase complexed to its respective Tn5 transposon end DNA, its cleavage and subsequent transposition by a transposase.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Molecular Biology
  • 6892

The sequence of the human genome.

Science, 291, 1304-1351, 2001.

Initial draft sequence of the human genome by Venter and the staff at Celera Genomics. The full text is available from Science at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 14111

Efficacy and safety of a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia.

New Eng. J. Med., 344, 1031-1037, 2001.

The authors showed that the experimental drug (STI571) Imatinib, sold under the brand names Gleevec and Glivec,
1) was well tolerated and had very significant antileukemic activity in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). 
2) Adverse effects were minimal.
3) Complete hematologic responses were observed in 53 of 54 pts. treated with doses of 300 mg. or more. Cytogenetic responses occurred in 29, and 7 of those had complete cytogenetic remissions.
4) At the end of the paper they stated, “These results show that the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase is critical to the development of CML and demonstrate the potential for the development of anticancer drugs based on the specific
molecular abnormality in a human cancer. “

Order of authorship in the original publication: Drucker, Talpaz, Resta. Full text available from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 14273

HIFalpha targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing.

Science, 292, 464-468, 2001.

Kaelin and colleagues identified aspects of the molecular machinery in Von Hippel-Landau disease that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen.

In 2019 Kaelin shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza "for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability."

See also: Jaakkola, P., Mole, D., Tian, Y., Wilson, M., Gielbert, J., Gaskell, S., Kriegsheim, A., Hebestreit, H., Mukherji, M., Schofield, C., Maxwell, P., Pugh, C. & Ratcliffe, P. 2001. Targeting of HIF-alpha to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex by O2-regulated prolyl hydroxylation. Science, 292, 468–72.

Ratcliffe and colleagues made essentially the same discovery simultaneously with Kaelin and colleagues.



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHYSIOLOGY › Physiology
  • 11336

Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Nature, 419, 498-511, 2002.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Gardner, Hall, Fung.... Genome of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite carried by the mosquito that causes malaria in humans.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PARASITOLOGY › Molecular Parasitology, PARASITOLOGY › Plasmodia › P. vivax, P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11337

The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

Science, 298, 129-149, 2002.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Holt, Subramanian, Halpern.... Sequence of the genome of Anopheles gambiae, the mosquito that carries the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, PARASITOLOGY › Plasmodia, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 12439

Microarray-based detection and genotyping of viral pathogens.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 99, 15687-15692, 2002.

First publication of DeRisi's microarray assay for the detection and genotyping of viral pathogens. "To address the limitations of existing viral detection methodologies, we have developed a genomic approach to virus identification. Using available sequence data from more than 140 sequenced viral genomes, we have designed a long oligonucleotide (70-mer) DNA microarray with the potential to simultaneously detect hundreds of viruses, including essentially all respiratory tract viruses" (from the Abstract). 

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Wang, Coscoy, Zylberberg....DeRisi.) 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Available from pnas.org at this link.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Computing / Mathematics in Medicine & Biology, VIROLOGY
  • 10860

Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Lancet, 361, 1319-1325, 2003.

 Dated April 19, 2003, this paper identified and reproduced microscopic images of the novel viral agent. It was the first official journal publication on SARS. Order of authorship in the published paper was Peiris, Lai, Poon,...SARS study group.

 (Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS
  • 10861

A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

New Eng. J. Med., 348, 1953-1966, 2003.

Ksiazek and over 40 co-authors around the world published the lead article in the May 15, 2003 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine that was nearly entirely devoted to SARS. Order of authorship in the published paper was Ksiazek, Erdman, Goldsmith,...SARS Working Group. Available from nejm.org at this link.

In an editorial entitled "SARS, the Internet, and the Journal" J. M. Drazen and E.W. Campion explained how the Internet enabled prior publication online of the papers, and that extremely fast electronic publication speeded scientific collaboration, and rapid suppression of the epidemic.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS
  • 10862

Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Science, 300, 1394-1399, 2003.

Dated May 30, 2003. Rota and team at the CDC determined the sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV, and characterized the viral genome. Order of authorship in the published paper was Rota, Oberste, Monroe....DeRisi...

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)

 



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS
  • 14217

Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin A cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

Nature, 423, 293-298, 2003.

The authors showed that mutations in lamin A (LMNA) are the cause of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria sundrom (HGPS). At the end of their abstract they stated that "The discovery of the molecular basis of this disease may shed light on the general phenomenon of human aging."

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.
Order of authorship in the original publication: Eriksson, Brown, Gordon... Collins.

See Also:
Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli, Rafaelle Bernard, Perre Cau et al…..  "Lamin A truncation in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria," Science, 300, No. 5626, 2003, page 2055.  Digital facsimile from science.org at this link. This paper was accepted by the journal Science on the same day that the Collins paper was accepted by the journal Nature.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for these references and their interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Molecular Biology, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Progeria
  • 12836

Synthetic mammalian prions.

Science, 305, 673-676, 2004.

The authors modified Koch's Postulates within the context of prion disease. To do so the followed these steps:

1) They created recombinant mouse prion proteins in an E. coli and polymerized them.
2) They proved that these prion proteins were pure, and could not have any extraneous contaminating cellular or DNA/RNA material.
3) They injected these prion proteins aseptically into the brains of normal mice, fed them, reared them, and waited.
4) The mice developed neurologic dysfunction typical of a prion disease between 380 and 660 days after the injection.
5) Extracts from the brains of the mice were confirmed by Western blot analytic technique to be prionic in nature.
6) These abnormal prion proteins extracted from the mouse brains, when inoculated into and transmitted to other healthy mice, induced the typical neuropathological findings of the same prion illness.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Legname, Baskakov, Nguyen....Prusiner.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Prion Diseases
  • 13657

The history of ophthalmology in Japan.

Oostende, Belgium: J. P. Wayenborgh, 2004.


Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, OPHTHALMOLOGY › History of Ophthalmology
  • 14205

Evidence of a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell line derived from a cloned blastocyst.

Science, 303, 1669-1674, 2004.

The authors in Korea, led by Woo-suk Hwang, reported the cloning of a human blastocyst using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and deriving pluripotent embryonic stem cells from that cloned blastocyst. In doing so they claimed to have cloned the first human being. Numerous extensive scientific investigations resulting from testimony of the second author, Young June Ryu, resulted in an official "Editorial Retraction" published in Science, 311, 2006, p.335.  At that time only 7 of the 12 co-authors of the paper agreed to retract their claims.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: Crimes / Frauds / Hoaxes, EMBRYOLOGY
  • 7146

Medieval Chinese medicine. The Dunhuang medical manuscripts, edited by Vivienne Lo and Christopher Cullen.

London: Routledge-Curzon, 2005.


Subjects: Chinese Medicine › History of Chinese Medicine, Chinese Medicine › Medieval Chinese Medicine, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10864

Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses.

Science, 310, 676-679, 2005.

Dated October 28, 2005, roughly two years after the outbreak of SARS, the natural reservoirs of this class of coronaviruses was discovered.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS
  • 10927

Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus.

Nature, 438, 575-576, 2005.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Leroy, Kumulungui, Pourrut. The authors showed that fruit bats, while asymptomatic, act as reservoirs and potential carriers of Ebola virus in Africa. These bats are eaten by people in Central Africa.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.).



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Filoviridae › Ebolavirus
  • 11193

Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet, 365, 2116-2121, 2005.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Taylor, Makunde, McGarry.... The authors treated infection by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti, cause of elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis), by killing the Wolbachia bacteria inside the worm with the antibiotic doxycycline. Since the worm requires the Wolbachia (a symbiont) to live, killing the Wolbachia bacteria eliminates the worm and cures the disease.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Wolbachia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis), PARASITOLOGY, PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Filaria, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11335

Characterization of the reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic virus.

Science, 310, 77-80, 2005.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Tumpey, Basler, Aguilar... Taubenberger. Reconstruction of the genome of the 1918 Spanish Influenza virus from frozen tissue samples from a mass grave of victims of the 1918 epidemic unearthed from the permafrost at Brevig Mission, Alaska. This and the following paper published in Nature were the culmination of a series of papers published on the pathogenomics of this exceptionally virulent virus by Taubenberger and colleagues from 1997 to 2005.

The authors published a paper in Nature simultaneously with the above-cited 2005 paper in Science: Taubenberger, Ann H. Reid, Rain M. Lourens et al, "Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase gene," Nature, 437 (2005) 889-893.

In January 2005 Taubenberger, Ann H. Reid, and Thomas G. Fanning also published a paper in Scientific American recounting the unusual history of this research, entitled  "Capturing a killer flu virus." 

The CDC provided an informative history of this research by Douglas Jordan with contributions from Terrence Tumpey and Barbara Jester: "The deadliest flu: The complete story of the discovery and reconstruction of the 1918 pandemic virus," https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/reconstruction-1918-virus.html

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza › 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 virus), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Orthomyxoviridae › Influenza A Virus › Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11339

The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei.

Science, 309, 416-422, 2005.

Genome of the parasite that causes Sleeping Sickness.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tsetse Fly-Borne Diseases › Sleeping Sickness (African Trypanosomiasis), PARASITOLOGY › Molecular Parasitology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11481

Glycan foraging in vivo by an intestine adapted bacterial symbiont.

Science, 307, 1955-1959, 2005.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Sonnenberg, Xu, Leip....The authors showed that complex plant carbohydrates (glycans), which the human body cannot digest, provide food for benign bacteria in the microbiome, and that feeding them appropriately maintains our symbiotic relationship with these benign bacteria. This glycan material that provides food for benign bacteria in the microbiome was later called Prebiotics. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Prebiotics, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Probiotics
  • 12113

Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 102, 7994-7999, 2005.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wolfe, Heniene, Carr ...Birx.... 

"As of 2016, 301 terrestrial mammals were threatened with extinction due to hunting for bushmeat including primateseven-toed ungulatesbats, diprotodont marsupialsrodents and carnivores occurring in developing countries.[5]Killing and processing bushmeat has created an increased opportunity for transmission of  "several zoonotic viruses from animal hosts to humans, such as EbolavirusHIV,[6][7][8] and various species of coronavirus including SARS-CoV-2.[9]" (Wikipedia article on Bushmeat, accessed 4-2020). 

Wolfe and colleagues analyzed blood of bushmeat hunters in Cameroon and discovered two novel viruses previously unknown: Human T-lymphopic virus-3 HTLV-3 and HTLV-4. They also reported that HTLV-3 is genetically similar to STLV-3 of monkeys and posited that this virus mutated and jumped from humans to monkeys. Available from pnas.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Cameroon, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HTLV-3, HTLV-4, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae
  • 12720

Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 102, 12891-12896, 2005.

Discovery of the first Human Bocavirus (HBoV1), a new virus species associated with lower respiratory infection almost always in children. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Allander, Tammi, Eriksson).

"Allander and colleagues at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, first cloned the coding sequence of this new member of the family of Parvoviridae in 2005 from pooled nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA, collection of aspirated fluid from the back of the nasal cavity).[3] They used a novel technique called molecular virus screening, based on random cloning and bioinformatical analysis. This technique has led to the discovery of new viruses such as polyomavirus KI (Karolinska Institute)[4] and WU (Washington University),[5] which are closely related to each other and have been isolated from respiratory secretions.
"Several groups of scientists have since then found that HBoV is the fourth most common virus in respiratory samples,[6][7] behind rhinovirusesrespiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses.[8]
"The name bocavirus is derived from bovine and canine, referring to the two known hosts for the founder members of this genus; bovine parvovirus which infects cattle, and minute virus of canines which infects dogs.[9] " (Wikipedia article on Human bocavirus, accessed 5-2020).

Digital facsimile from pnas.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)


Subjects: PEDIATRICS, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Parvoviridae › Human Bocavirus (HBoV)
  • 11041

Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1.

Science, 313, 523-526, 2006.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Keele, Van Heuverswyn, Li, Hahn. Definitive proof that SIVcpz circulated and existed in wild chimps in a given area of Africa, and that a mutation of this specific SIV in Africa ignited the epidemic/pandemic of HIV-AIDs.

Digital text from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11338

Genome sequence of Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector.

Science, 316, 1718-1722, 2007.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Nene, Wortman, Lawson....

Sequence of the genome of the mosquito that transmits Zika, Yellow fever, Dengue, Chikungunya, etc.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Dengue Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Yellow Fever, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Yellow Fever Virus, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 11478

Bacteriocin production as a mechanism for the antiinfective activity of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 104, 7617-7621, 2007.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Corr, Li, Reidel...Hill. The authors discovered that Lactobacilli produce a bacteriocin, a peptidic toxin that inhibits the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. This particular bacteriocin, identified as Abp118, provides the protective value of Lactobacillus salivarius against pathogenic bacteria in the human microbiome.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Probiotics
  • 11934

Bacteremia, fever, and splenomegaly caused by a newly recognized Bartonella species.

New Eng. J. Med., 356, 2382-2387, 2007.

The authors described an organism resembling, but different from, Bartonella bacilliformis (Oroya fever) on a patient returning from Peru. The patient recalled numerous insect bites on her legs and feet during her trip to Peru. The authors identified a "Bartonella isolate BMGH DQ683199" nearly identiical to a Bartonella species identified in a pulex flea from Cuzco, Peru, and posited this as the probable vector. The organism was named Bartonella Rochalimaea Eremeeva in honor of the first author. Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Bartonella, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru
  • 12965

The diploid genome sequence of an individual human.

PLoS Biology, 5, 2113-2144, 2007.

The first genome sequence of a single human (Craig Venter), including analysis and comments on his genetic markers, and their possible medical and prognosticating implications. 
(Order of authorship in the original publication: Levy, Sutton, Ng....Venter).
It has been estimated that the cost of sequencing the first human genome using first generation machines may have reached $100 million. Within a year the costs of sequencing a genome declined substantially. James Watson's genome, the second human genome sequenced, was accomplished in 2008 at a cost of $1.5 million. 
(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics
  • 10775

Long-term control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 stem-cell transplantation.

New Engl. J. Med., 360, 692-698, 2009.

Gero Hütter and co-authors reported the first long-term remission or "cure" of HIV/AIDS in a human. The patient, Timothy Ray Brown also known as "The Berlin Patient" also suffered from myeloid leukemia and underwent stem-cell transplanation (bone marrow transplant) as treatment for his leukemia. The stem-cell donor lacked the CCR5 HIV virus receptor on his cells. When these cells were transplanted into the "The Berlin Patient" the donor's cells totally replaced the patient's bone marrow cells with cells that lacked the CCR5 HIV virus receptor and made the recipient "immune" to HIV. Thus "The Berlin Patient" was "cured" of both AIDS and leukemia. Digital edition of this paper from nejm.org at this link.

The first replication of cure of HIV/AIDS by this method was accomplished 10 years later in March 2019 by a team lead by Ravindra Gupta: "HIV-1 remission following CCR5Δ32/Δ32 haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation," Nature, 568, 244–248 (2019).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this addition to the bibliography.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, Regenerative Medicine
  • 13335

Single Lgr5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche.

Nature, 459, 262-265, 2009.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Sato, de Vries, .... Clevers. Clevers and postdoc Toshiro Sato took adult stem cells from the mouse intestine and created the first mini-guts they called organoids—three-dimensional organized clusters of cells.

Abstract:
"The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently demonstrated the presence of about six cycling Lgr5+ stem cells at the bottoms of small-intestinal crypts1. Here we describe the establishment of long-term culture conditions under which single crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, while simultanously generating villus-like epithelial domains in which all differentiated cell types are present. Single sorted Lgr5+ stem cells can also initiate these crypt-villus organoids. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5+ stem-cell hierarchy is maintained in organoids. We conclude that intestinal crypt-villus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial cellular niche."



Subjects: Regenerative Medicine
  • 13728

Detecting influenza epidemics using search engine query data.

Nature, 457, 1012-1014, 2009.

Abstract
"Seasonal influenza epidemics are a major public health concern, causing tens of millions of respiratory illnesses and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year1. In addition to seasonal influenza, a new strain of influenza virus against which no previous immunity exists and that demonstrates human-to-human transmission could result in a pandemic with millions of fatalities2. Early detection of disease activity, when followed by a rapid response, can reduce the impact of both seasonal and pandemic influenza3,4. One way to improve early detection is to monitor health-seeking behaviour in the form of queries to online search engines, which are submitted by millions of users around the world each day. Here we present a method of analysing large numbers of Google search queries to track influenza-like illness in a population. Because the relative frequency of certain queries is highly correlated with the percentage of physician visits in which a patient presents with influenza-like symptoms, we can accurately estimate the current level of weekly influenza activity in each region of the United States, with a reporting lag of about one day. This approach may make it possible to use search queries to detect influenza epidemics in areas with a large population of web search users."

Full text available from Nature.com at this link. Order of authorship in the original publication: Ginsburg, Mohebbi, ... Brilliant.



Subjects: Biomedical Informatics, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology, EPIDEMIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza
  • 14083

Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids.

Science, 326, 75-86, 2009.

The authors provide evidence that Ardipithecus may be the beginning of the evolutionary pathway that eventually led to hominids. This pathway was distinct from the evolutionary pathway that led to extant African apes.

"Ar. ramidus, first described in 1994 from teeth and jaw fragments, is now represented by 110 specimens, including a partial female skeleton rescued from erosional degradation. This individual weighed about 50 kg and stood about 120 cm tall. In the context of the many other recovered individuals of this species, this suggests little body size difference between males and females. Brain size was as small as in living chimpanzees. The numerous recovered teeth and a largely complete skull show that Ar. ramidus had a small face and a reduced canine/premolar complex, indicative of minimal social aggression. Its hands, arms, feet, pelvis, and legs collectively reveal that it moved capably in the trees, supported on its feet and palms (palmigrade clambering), but lacked any characteristics typical of the suspension, vertical climbing, or knuckle-walking of modern gorillas and chimps. Terrestrially, it engaged in a form of bipedality more primitive than that of Australopithecus, and it lacked adaptation to “heavy” chewing related to open environments (seen in later Australopithecus). Ar. ramidus thus indicates that the last common ancestors of humans and African apes were not chimpanzee-like and that both hominids and extant African apes are each highly specialized, but through very different evolutionary pathways" (Conclusion of the authors' introduction). Digital facsimile from academia.edu at this link.

Order of authorship in the original publication: White, Asfaw, Beyene, Haile-Selassie...

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Paleoanthropology, EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 14137

Delayed anaphylaxis, angioedema, or urticaria after consumption of red meat in patients with IgE antibodies specific for galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.

J. Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 123, 426-433, 2009.

Discovery of mammalian meat allergy (MMA) or Alpha-gal syndrome (AGS), also called Alpha-gal allergy, a type of meat allergy characterized by delayed onset of symptoms (3-8 hours) after ingesting mammalian meat. The allergy is a reaction to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose ("alpha-gal") in which the body is overloaded with immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies on contact with the carbohydrate. Bites from specific tick species, such as the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) in the US, and the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) in Australia have been implicated in the development of this delayed allergic response.

Full text available from PubMedCentral at this link.
Order of authorship in the original publication: Commins, Sharma,....Platts-Mills.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 11076

Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

Nature, 464, 66-71, 2010.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Carey, Wang, ... Carlson. The authors showed that besides CO2, the odorant receptors in the malaria mosquistoes Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to other "mostly sweat" organic compounds like "1-octen-3-ol", which is very common in human and animal odor. These receptors play a central role in human recognition in the human host-seeking behavior of these mosquitoes.

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 14275

Piezo1 and Piezo2 are essential components of distinct mechanically activated cation channels.

Science, 330, 55-60, 2010.

Patapoutian and colleagues characterized the PIEZO1PIEZO2, and TRPM8 receptors that detect pressure, menthol, and temperature.  With Mathur, J.; Schmidt, M.; Earley, T. J.; Ranade, S.; Petrus, M. J.; Dubin, A. E.

See also:

Coste, Bertrand; Xiao, Bailong; Santos, Jose S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Grandl, Jörg; Spencer, Kathryn S.; Kim, Sung Eun; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Montal, Mauricio; Patapoutian, Ardem (February 19, 2012). "Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels"Nature483, 2012, 176-181.

Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A. J. "Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice"Nature516, 2014, 121–125.

In 2021 Patapoutian shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with David Julius “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.”



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 10904

Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009.

New Eng. J. Med., 365, 422-429, 2011.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Pritt, Sloan, Johnson. Discovery of a new species of Ehrlichia, initially denoted as "Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009," that was not related to E. chaffeensiis or E. ewingii but is similar to E.muris. Digital text from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Minnesota, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Wisconsin, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10918

Fever with thrombocytopenia associated with a novel Bunyavirus in China.

New Eng. J. Med., 364, 1523-1532., 2011.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Yu, Liang, Zhang. Discovery of a new virus, suspected by the authors to be tick-borne. The authors named the virus, "severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus" (SFTSV Bunyavirus). Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › SFTSV Bunyavirus Disease, VIROLOGY
  • 12719

Ultrastructural, immunofluorescence, and RNA evidence support the hypothesis of a "new" virus associated with Kawasaki disease.

J. infect. Dis., 203, 1021-1030, 2011.

The authors concluded that a very common infectious agent, one that usually results in an asymptomatic infection, causes Kawasaki disease in a subset of genetically predisposed children. They argued that the available data supported the theory of a new RNA virus, without substantial homology to known viruses, will eventually be shown to be the infectious agent of Kawasaki disease. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kawasaki Disease (MLNS), PEDIATRICS
  • 13571

Correction of the 508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 108, 18843-18848, 2011.

Negulescu and colleagues published a "proof of concept" experiment showing that the novel molecule called VX-809 could correct in vitro the very common and critical 508del-CFTR mutation identified by Collins. (See GM 13570). When undergoing trials in humans this drug, manufactured under the trade name Lumacaftor by Vertex Pharmaceuticals, failed to perform as well as expected. Vertex then developed other combination drugs that enhanced the in vivo effect of VX-809, leading to the duel combination drug they called Orkambi. These drugs led to long term remissions, greatly improved quality of life, and a longer life span for CF patients. Regrettably, in 2018 the cost of Orkambi for a single CF patient was around $275,000 per year. Order of authorship in the original publication: Van Goor, Hadida, Grottenhuis, et al, Negulescu. Digital text from pnas.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Cystic Fibrosis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Anti-Cystic Fibrosis Drugs
  • 14112

Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia.

New Eng. J. Med., 365, 725-733, 2011.

Carl H. June and colleagues proved that the ‘concept’ of CAR T-cell therapy developed by them, was a very promising and viable alternative in specific recalcitrant cancers. They showed that their novel in-vitro-created molecular cocktail of agents including T-cells, chimeric antigen receptors and other esoteric ingredients (T-cells engineered in the lab to target the specific CD19 in cancerous B cells delivered into the patient in a HIV lentiviral vector), met the following requirements:
1) The one patient treated had basically two severe adverse reactions: tumor lysis and lymphopenia. Both were then treatable.
2) The one patient treated had a remission still ongoing at 10 months after treatment.
3) The novel engineered cells given to the patient persisted at high levels for 6 months after therapy.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Porter, Levine, Kalos, June. Full text available from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia
  • 14134

Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor–Gs protein complex.

Nature, 477, 549-555, 2011.

Kobilka and colleagues published the crystal structure of a beta-2 receptor forming a complex with the G protein coupled receptor. This was the first time that a complete complex of an active receptor and it's Gs protein partner were crystallized.They also described some’of the basic molecular interactions of a beta receptor and G protein coupled receptors. The image of this crystallographic complex that they published was described by more romantic molecular biologists as “the first image of the receptor locked in an embrace with its protein partner.” Order of authorship in the original publication: Rasmussen, Devree....Kobilka.

In 2012 Kobilka shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert J. Lefkowitz "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors."

See also No. 14135.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Receptors, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry
  • 14135

Conformational changes in the G protein Gs induced by the β2 adrenergic receptor.

Nature, 477, 611-615, 2011.

Using X ray crystallographic techniques and electron microscopy, Kobilka (Nobel Prize 2012) and colleagues described the very complex nucleotide exchange and interactions at the molecular level of the alpha subunit of a Gs at the moment of its activation by an adrenergic receptor. 
The authors showed that the structural links between the receptor binding surface and the nucleotide binding pocket of the Gs undergo higher levels of hydrogen deuterium exchange than would have been predicted from the crystal structure of the beta 2 adrenergic receptor-Gs complex. Then the team, using advanced computer techology, explained the complex molecular interactions between these two molecules, revealing many details that were neither expected nor predicted before this achievement.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Chung, Rasmussen, ...Kobilka....

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Receptors
  • 10877

Brief Report: Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia.

New Eng. J. Med., 367, 1814-1820, 2012.

This paper, dated November 8, 2012, characterized the virus up to and including its genome sequence, including radiology and imaging findings, lab findings, diagnosis and management. The authors tentatively named the virus "HCoV-EMC" for Human and the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, where the lead author, Zaki, sent the virus to be sequenced. Taxonomists later renamed the virus MERS-CoV.  Available from nejm.org at this link.

Remarkably, for political reasons Zaki lost his job at a private hospital in Saudi Arabia immediately after he sent the disease sample to Rotterdam. He also had to flee the country immediately. Details of this firing were reported on FluTrackers.com at this link. Further details were reported in Nature Middle East on June 2, 2014 at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Saudi Arabia, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) , VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › MERS
  • 10915

A new phlebovirus associated with severe febrile illness in Missouri.

New Eng. J. Med., 367, 834-841, 2012.

Order of authorship in the original paper: McMullan, Folk, Kelly. Discovery of a new Phlebovirus, which the authors name the "Heartland virus" and with high probability that Amblyoma is the tick vector. Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Heartland Virus, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Missouri, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 13209

Il Museo di storia naturale dell'Università degli studi di Firenze. Vol. 4, Le collezioni mineralogiche e litologiche.

Florence: Firenze University Press, 2012.


Subjects: MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern
  • 8151

3D printed bionic ears.

Nano Letters, 13, 2634-2639, 2013.

Description and illustration of the first 3D printed bionic organ: an ear.  From the Abstract: "The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements.' The abstract and two color images are available from acs.org at this link.



Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology
  • 8513

BabMed - Babylonian medicine: Corpora

Berlin: Frei Universität Berlin, 2013.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Mesopotamia, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Cuneiform, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Online Access Catalogues & Bibliographic Databases, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries
  • 11045

A novel prion disease associated with diarrhea and autonomic neuropathy.

New Eng. J. Med., 369, 1904-1914, 2013.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Mead, Gandhi, Beck, Collinge. Collinge was the main author. Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Prion Diseases, NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11459

Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile.

New Eng. J. Med., 368, 407-415, 2013.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Nood, Vrieze, Nieuwdorp....This research provided convincing evidence that fecal donation (faecal microbiota transplantation) is more effective therapy for virulent C. difficile infections than the previous drug of choice, Vancomycin.

Digital facsimile from NEJM.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Clostridium, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile) Infections, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome
  • 11845

RNA-programmed genome editing in human cells.

eLIFE, 2, e00471, 2013.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Jinek, East, Cheng...Doudna. Doudna and colleagues presented the first demonstration that the CRISPR Cas/Cas9 bacterial editing tool functions could be applied in human cells. The DNA of cells modified in this research were human embryonic kidney cells called HEK-293. The authors summarized the consequences of this paper in the last sentence of their Abstract, which read, "These results show that RNA-programmed genome editing is a facile strategy for introducing site-specific genetic changes in human cells." Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11846

Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems.

Science, 339, 819-823, 2013.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Cong, Ran, Cox....Zhang. Zhang and colleagues edited the genome of human and mouse cells (mammalian cells). Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing
  • 11847

RNA-guided human genome engineering via Cas9.

Science, 339, 823-826, 2013.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mali, Yang, Esvelt....Church. Church and colleagues reported genome editing in human cells. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 14101

The haplotype-resolved genome and epigenome of the aneuploidy HeLa cancer cell line.

Nature, 500, 207-211, 2013.

Adey and colleagues sequenced the haplotype-resolved whole genome of the HeLa cancer cell line. This showed a highly rearranged region at chromosome 8q24.21, where an integration locus of the HPV (human papillomavirus, type 18) was found, making it responsible both for her cervical carcinoma and death, and the immortalizing properties of this cell line. The authors also showed that this integrated HPV-18 genome caused a strong activation of the common proto-oncogene now known as Myc which is responsible for the carcinogenic action of the virus.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)




Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Carcinoma
  • 10778

The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations.

Science, 346, 56-61, 2014.

Using the viral genome isolated from the archival serum of the "Kinshasa patient", Lemey, Faria and colleagues deduced that the prototype African viral strain first crossed from monkeys to humans about 1920 in the area of Kinshasa in Africa. This was about forty years before it was first detected in a stored human blood sample collected in 1959 from a hospitalized patient it in Kinshasa. Order of authorship in the original publication was Faria, Rambaut, Suchard...Lemey.

Full text and images from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Africa, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS › History of HIV / AIDS
  • 10879

Brief report: Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus.

New Eng. J. Med., 370, 2499-2505, 2014.

Dated June 26, 2014. Using viral genomics and PCR, the Saudi authors demonstrated that full genome sequences of a man, and the camel he had contact with, were identical. Available from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Saudi Arabia, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) , VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › MERS
  • 10928

Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

New Eng. J. Med., 371, 1418-1425, 2014.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Baize, Pannetier, Oestereich. The authors used PCR, viral sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis to track down the index case, a two-year-old child in Meliandou village, Guékédou Prefecture, southern Guinea. This case, in which the child died on December 6, 2013, sparked the Ebola Zaire epidemic of 2014. The authors tracked down all contacts with the child to a point of unstoppable spread and dissemination. In a multi-country collaboration the virus was sequenced and characterized.

Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Guinea, Republic of, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Filoviridae › Ebolavirus, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10929

Clinical illness and outcomes in patients with Ebola in Sierra Leone.

New Eng. J. Med., 371, 2092-2100, 2014.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Schieffelin, Shaffer, Goba. The authors used "quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays to assess the load of Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) in a subgroup of patients." Includes data on patient clinical characteristics and presentation of the illness, describes clinical pathology and lab abnormalities observed in the hot zone, presents management recommendations, special precautions and infection control advice. Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

With: Chertow, Daniel S., Kleine, Christian, Edwards, Jeffrey K., "Ebola virus disease in West Africa--Clinical manifestations and management," New Eng. J. Med., 371 (2014) 2054-2057. Authors present a system of "phases of the illness", and practical information on the logistics of fighting it.

"In resource-limited areas, isolation of the sick from the population at large has been the cornerstone of control of Ebola virus disease (EVD) since the virus was discovered in 1976.1 Although this strategy by itself may be effective in controlling small outbreaks in remote settings, it has offered little hope to infected people and their families in the absence of medical care. In the current West African outbreak, infection control and clinical management efforts are necessarily being implemented on a larger scale than in any previous outbreak, and it is therefore appropriate to reassess traditional efforts at disease management. Having cared for more than 700 patients with EVD between August 23 and October 4, 2014, in the largest Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia, Liberia (see diagrams), we believe that our cumulative clinical observations support a rational approach to EVD management in resource-limited settings." Digital facsimile of the paper from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Liberia, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sierra Leone, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Filoviridae › Ebolavirus
  • 10930

Clinical care of two patients with Ebola virus disease in the United States.

New Eng. J. Med., 371, 2402-2409, 2014.

Report on Ebola virus disease management from the Emory University unit and its specialists detailing the diagnosis, management, complications and expectations of this illness for infectious disease physicians. The authors emphasized the key role that intensive fluid management played in patient outcome.

"The largest outbreak of EVD in history began in December 2013 in Guinea, a country in West Africa.1 By late March, Liberia had reported seven cases. By the end of May, the epidemic had spread to Sierra Leone. As of November 5, 2014, a total of 13,042 cases of EVD (including 4818 deaths) had been reported in six countries in West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, and Senegal), the United States, and Spain.2"

Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

 



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Filoviridae › Ebolavirus
  • 11341

Presence of extensive Wolbachia symbiont insertions discovered in the genome of its host Glossina morsitans morsitans.

PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 8, doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002728, 2014.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Brelsfoard, Tsiamis, Falchetto....The authors suggested that infection by Wolbachia may give a reproductive advantage to the fly that carries the parasite causing Sleeping Sickness and nagana. Digital edition avalable from PubMedCentral PMCID: PMC3998919.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

 



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Wolbachia, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tsetse Fly-Borne Diseases › Sleeping Sickness (African Trypanosomiasis), PARASITOLOGY › Molecular Parasitology, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology
  • 11397

Actionable diagnosis of neuroleptospirosis by next-generation sequencing.

New Eng. J. Med., 370, 2408-2416, 2014.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wilson, Naccache, Samayoa...Chiu. This research demonstrated the value of "next-generation-sequencing" in the diagnosis of a specific meningoencephalitis, a disease which can be caused by more than 100 different infectious agents.

"Summary: A 14-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency presented three times to a medical facility over a period of 4 months with fever and headache that progressed to hydrocephalus and status epilepticus necessitating a medically induced coma. Diagnostic workup including brain biopsy was unrevealing. Unbiased next-generation sequencing of the cerebrospinal fluid identified 475 of 3,063,784 sequence reads (0.016%) corresponding to leptospira infection. Clinical assays for leptospirosis were negative. Targeted antimicrobial agents were administered, and the patient was discharged home 32 days later with a status close to his premorbid condition. Polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and serologic testing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) subsequently confirmed evidence of Leptospira santarosai infection."

Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, Biomedical Informatics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Encephalitis
  • 11863

Generation of gene-modified Cynomolgus monkey via CAS9/RNA-mediated gene targeting in one-cell embryos.

Cell, 156, 836-843, 2014.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Niu, Shen, Cui. The authors presented the first evidence that CRISPR can work in primates. Open Archive version available from Cell at this link. "Summary

"Monkeys serve as important model species for studying human diseases and developing therapeutic strategies, yet the application of monkeys in biomedical researches has been significantly hindered by the difficulties in producing animals genetically modified at the desired target sites. Here, we first applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system, a versatile tool for editing the genes of different organisms, to target monkey genomes. By coinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs into one-cell-stage embryos, we successfully achieve precise gene targeting in cynomolgus monkeys. We also show that this system enables simultaneous disruption of two target genes (Ppar-γ and Rag1) in one step, and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. Thus, coinjection of one-cell-stage embryos with Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs is an efficient and reliable approach for gene-modified cynomolgus monkey generation."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing
  • 12713

Acute neurologic illness of unknown etiology in children - Colorado, August-September 2014.

Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. (MMWR) 63, 901-902, 2014.

The authors reported a cluster of 9 children seen at Colorado Children's Hospital with an acute neurologic illness characterized by extremity weakness, cranial nerve dysfunction, diplopia (double vision), facial droop, dysphagia (swallowing difficulties) dysarthria (weak or slurred speech) or both. Median age was 8 years. All had a preceding febrile illness with cold-like symptoms. Four had enterovrus (EV) D68 isolated from the nasopharynx. Polio virus was excluded. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Pastula, Aliabadi...Miller.) Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

Related to this case cluster:

Patrick Ayscue, Keith Van Haren,....C. Glaser, "Acute flaccid paralysis with anterior myelitis- California, June 2012," MMWR, 63, 903-906. These authors reported on a case of classic Acute Flaccid Myelitis dating to August 2012 in the San Francisco Bay Area. The patient was 29 years old. Polio virus was excluded. They noted that a total of 23 cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis with myelitis were identified between December 2012 and February 2014. For this cluster the mean age was 10 years, and only 2 of those patients had EV D68. Once again polio was excluded. At this time the diagnosis of these cases was "Acute flaccid paralysis with anterior myelitis." Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for these references and their interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Acute Flaccid Myelitis, NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Colorado
  • 10905

Human infection with Ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, United States, 2007-2013.

New Eng. J. Med., 365, 422-429, 2015.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Johnson, Schiffman, Davis, Pritt. The authors, found some commonality in this pathogen, originally designated generally as "Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009" with the mouse strain, and identified the vector of what appeared to be a new species as the Ixodes scapularis tick. Available from www.nc.cdc.gov at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this entry and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10917

Novel thogotovirus associated with febrile illness and death, United States, 2014.

Emerg. Infect. Dis., 21, 760-64, 2015.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Kosoy, Lambert, Hawkinson, Staples. Discovery of a new tick-borne Thogotovirus named by the authors "Bourbon virus" after Bourbon County, Kansas.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Bourbon Virus, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Kansas, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10919

Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks as reservoir and vector of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in China.

Emerg. Infect. Dis., 21, 1770-1776, 2015.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Luo, Zhao, Wen. Discovery that the tick H longicornis can transmit the SFTSV transstadially and transovarially, and could potentially be both the reservoir and vector of the virus.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › SFTSV Bunyavirus Disease, VIROLOGY
  • 11848

Gene-edited pigs are protected from porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

Nature Biotechnology, 34, 20-22, 2015.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Whitworth, Rowland, Ewen, ... Prather. Using the CRISPR Cas molecular gene-editing tool, Prather and colleagues edited the gene that codes for the CD163 protein in adult male and female pigs gametes (sperm and egg) that acts similar to a receptor to which the Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) attaches. This artificial genetic mutation created offsprint piglets that were resistant and immune to this panzootic infection which was previously lethal and incurable.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR , BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, IMMUNOLOGY, VETERINARY MEDICINE, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Panzootics, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11864

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes.

Protein and Cell, 6, 363-372, 2015.

This paper was rejected by both Nature and Science partly for "ethical objections." When published it immediately triggered worldwide controversy among scientists and the public. This was the first application of the CRISPR gene-editing tool to human embryos. The authors used human embryos from fertility clinics which had been created for in vitro fertilization but had an extra set of chromosomes (tripronuclear) which was the result of anomalous fertilization by two sperm instead of one. Such  embryos could undergo only a few stages of development but could not result in a live birth. Of 84 initial embryos, 71 went on to the early stages of division and 54 were chosen for genetic evaluation, leaving 28 of them acceptable. However, a surprising number of "off target" mutations were introduced by the CRISPR/Cas complex acting on other parts of the cell's genome with catastrophic results. This led the authors to stop the experiment.

Open access: available from link.springer.com at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12714

Acute flaccid myelitis of unknown etiology in California, 2012-2015

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 314, 2663-2671, 2015.

The authors presented a retrospective study based on demographics, race, ethnicity, signs, lab results, MRI results of 59 patients identified between June 2012 and July 2015 who presented symptoms that they characterized as Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM). Of 45 tested only 9 had EV D68; certain others had other enterviruses. Polio was excluded in all patients, but almost all had limb weakness or paralysis and typical prodromal upper respiratory or gastrointestinal illness, and clinically, and by MRI, this illness was essentially indistinguishable from polio. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Van Haren, Ayscue, Waubant.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Acute Flaccid Myelitis, NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 14067

Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing.

Science, 518, 371-375, 2015.

The authors sequenced the genome of 120 individuals representing all of Darwin’s finches. They found that a 240 kilobase haplotype encompassing the ALX1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor affecting craniofacial development, is strongly associated with beak shape diversity across Darwin’s finch species, as well as the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis), a species that the Grants observed undergoing rapid evolution of beak morphology in response to the environmental changes described in their 2006 paper.
The authors saw variants of this gene in the finches, each of which encoded for a different type of beak morphology. These variants had arisen during natural selection processes.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Lamichhaney, Berglund, .... Grant, Grant.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, EVOLUTION, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 10779

1970s and 'Patient 0' HIV-1 genomes illuminate early HIV/AIDS history in North America.

Nature, 539, 98-101., 2016.

By genetic analysis of HIV, Worobey, Lemey and colleagues from the social sciences "cleared" Gaëtan Dugas, a Canadian air steward, who previously had been identified by name as Patient Zero--the source of the epidemic. Unfortunately Dugas was cleared of his responsibility only after his death. One lesson that researchers drew from this was not to identify patients by name in contexts like this. Full text available from PubMedCentral at this link. Order of authorship in the original publication was Worobey, Watts, McKay...Lemey....

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS › History of HIV / AIDS
  • 10922

Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetemia: A descriptive study.

Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5, 556-564, 2016.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Pritt, Mead, Johnson. Discovery of Lyme Borreliosis or Borrelia mayonii, a new variant of B. burgdorferi.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Lyme Disease, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Minnesota, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10925

Discovery and description of Ebola Zaire virus in 1976 and relevance to the West African epidemic during 2013-2016.

J. infect. Dis., 214, (Suppl. 3) S93-S101, 2016.

A first hand account of events as they occurred in Yambuku in 1976, including the causes and reasons for the spread of Ebola within the Yambuku Mission hospital, the probable index event/patient (not identified), and the extreme shortage of syringes and needles in this small village hospital. The paper also relates these details to the three-country (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia) West African epidemic of 2013-2016.

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this liink.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this paper and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Guinea, Republic of, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Liberia, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Sierra Leone, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Filoviridae › Ebolavirus
  • 10941

The 3.8Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika Virus.

Science, 352, 467-470, 2016.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Sirohi, Rossmann, Kuhn. Using cryogenic-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), the authors presented the molecular structure of the Zika virus at 3.8Å resolution. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Zika Virus, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10942

Wolbachia blocks currently circulating Zika virus isololates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

Cell Host Microbe, 19, 771-774, 2016.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Dutra, Rocha, Moreira. The authors infected lab populations of mosquitos with Wolbachia pipientis, a common parasitic microbe that infects a high proportion of insects. They then released the infected mosquitos into native populations of wild mosquitos, infecting the Aedes aegypti mosquitos. It was found that the infected mosquitos did not transmit the Zika virus because the Wolbachia stops or blocks Zika virus transmission in the mosquitos. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Wolbachia, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease, PARASITOLOGY, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Zika Virus
  • 11375

Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody.

Science, 351, 1339-1342, 2016.

The cited paper was immediately followed in the same issue of Science by: John Misasi, Morgan A. Gilman, Masaru Kanekiyo et al, "Structural and molecular basis for Ebola virus neutralization by protective human antibodies," Science, 351, 1343-1346. This paper illustrates crystal structures at 2Å resolution of the Ebola viral epitopes that are being recognized and targeted by monoclonal antibodies from a particular human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit (Congo) Ebola outbreak, who happened to mount an unusual and very robust and potent immune response.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Congo, Democratic Republic of the, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Biological Medical Product (Biologic)
  • 11409

Whole-genome characterization and strain comparison of VT2f-producing Escherichia coli causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Emerg. Infect. Dis., 22, 2078-2085, 2016.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Grande, Michelacci, Bondi.... Demonstration that a phage infecting E. coli conveys the genes into the E. coli that code for the production of the verotoxin that causes hemolytic uremic syndrome. The authors also discovered that the reservoirs of this toxin-producing strain are pigeons.

Available from cdc.gov at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10906

Proposal to reclassify Ehrlichia muris as Ehrlichia muris subsp. muris subsp. nov. and description of Ehrlichia muris subsp. eauclairensis subsp. nov., a newly recognized tick borne pathogen of humans.

Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 67, 2121-2126, 2017.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Pritt, Allderdice, Sloan. By extremely complex genotyping methods and fine electron microscopic analysis of the organism, the authors showed that the infectious agent is a new human subspecies similar to the murine pathogen that is conveyed from the murine reservoirs to humans by the tick vector. The pathogen was named for Eau Claire, a city in Wisconsin, where the patient was infected. Full text available from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Rickettsiales › Ehrlichia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Ehrlichiosis, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Wisconsin, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10945

Genomic epidemiology reveals multiple introductions of Zika virus into the United States.

Nature, 546, 401-405, 2017.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Grubaugh, Ladner, Kraemer. The authors found that the Zika virus was introduced into Florida at least 4 times, but perhaps as many as 40 times, before it was detected, that it entered Florida from the Carribean (probably Puerto Rico) and most likely from cruise ship travel.

Follow-up papers published immediately after this in the same journal issue:

Faria, N.R.; Quick, J., Claro, I. M.; et al. "Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas," Nature, 546 (2017) 406-410. The authors generated data from a travelling genomics laboratory sequencing Zika virus (ZIKV) genomes around the country. They found that the virus was first detected in Brazil in May 2015, about a year after it was first introducted.

Metsky, Hayden C.; Matranga, Christian B.; Wohl, Shirlee, et al. "Virus evolution and spread in the Americas," Nature, 546 (2017) 411-415. The authors showed the spread of Zika in the Americas using genomes of people and mosquitoes (110 ZIKV genomes from 10 countries), tracing the common ancestor of ZIKV in the Americas to about late 2013 and pinpointing it to the NE/Bahia region of Brazil.

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for these references and their interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Brazil, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Florida, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Zika Virus
  • 11194

Development and use of personalized bacteriophage-therapeutic cocktails to treat a patient with a disseminated resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 61, e00954-17, 2017.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Schooley, Biswas, Gill .... Successful experimental treatment of a highly antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection by bacteriophage therapy.

"In 2016, while serving as the Head of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the UC San Diego School of Medicine, Schooley was approached by his colleague, Dr. Steffanie Strathdee, to help save her husband's life by using bacteriophages (phages). Strathdee's husband, Dr. Tom Patterson, was suffering from a life-threatening multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection, that he had acquired while on vacation in Egypt. Schooley, acting as the primary infectious disease physician, along with Strathdee and a team of researchers and physicians from Texas A&M UniversityAdaptive Phage Therapeutics, the US Navy, UC San Diego School of Medicine, and San Diego State University, worked together to source, purify and administer phages that were active against the strain of bacteria with which Patterson was infected. Schooley was responsible for successfully navigating the Food and Drug Administration's emergency investigational new drug process, to obtain approval to administer the experimental therapy. After multiple phage cocktail administrations, provided from the partnering laboratories and companies, Patterson was cured of his infection and eventually made a full recovery" (Wikipedia article on Robert T. Schooley).

Steffanie Strathdee and Thomas L. Patterson published a book on this case and its cure: The perfect predator: A scientist's race to save her husband from a deadly superbug. New York: Hachette Books, 2019.

Digital facsimile of the 2017 paper from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Drug Resistance, PHARMACOLOGY › Phage Therapy
  • 11865

Programmable base editing of A-T to G-C.

Nature, 551, 464-480, 2017.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Gaudelli, Komor, Rees....Liu. 

Liu and colleagues developed an advanced CRISPR system that can edit pairings of DNA nucleotide bases Adenine and Thymine into Guanine and Cytosine. In order to achieve this they created a new enzyme in the lab to chemically convert and work on the above pairings. They called this enzyme a "base editor."  In theory this tool would enable this improved CRISPR able to target a substantial fraction of SNPs (Single-nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with human genetic diseases.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 14201

Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination.

Nature, 543, 248-251, 2017.

Prior to their development of the mRNA vaccine for Covid-19, Karikó and Weissman (Nobel Prize 2023) and colleagues used a novel mRNA vaccine, with base modifications created in their laboratory, to generate a protective Zika vaccine. 

From the abstract: “....Here we demonstrate that a single low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside modified mRNA (mRNA-LPN), encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of a strain from the ZIKV outbreak in 2013, elicited potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primates....” In 2023 the full text of this paper was available from nature.com at this link.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Pardi....Karikō....Weissman.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)




Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Zika Virus
  • 11461

Temporal development of the gut microbiome in early childhood from the TEDDY study.

Nature, 562, 583-588, 2018.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Stewart, Ajami, O'Brien....This study confirmed that "breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of Bididofacterium species" (a very desirable organism), and that "infants delivered vaginally had higher levels of Bacteroides species" (another common and very desirable/healthy microbe). 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome, PEDIATRICS
  • 11480

Pathogen elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signaling interference.

Nature, 562, 532-537, 2018.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Piewngam, Zheng, Nguygen....The authors discovered a mechanism by which probiotics help maintain a healthy microbiome. They showed that Bacillus subtilis can produce a bioactive lipopeptide called Fengycin that inhibits quorum sensing of pathogens-- a vital signaling mechanism of some bacteria, which helps them regulate gene transcription. Quorum sensing is tied to and responsive to the population density of that bacteria. In this study the Bacillus fengycin eradicated Staphylococcus aureus. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Bacillus , MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Probiotics
  • 14099

The genome of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father.

Nature, 561, 113-116, 2018.

Paleogenomic study of a single bone fragment from a female hominin found in the Denisova Cave in the Altai mountains of Russia provided "direct evidence for genetic mixture between Neanderthals and Denisovans on at least two occasions: once between her Neanderthal mother and her Denisovan father and at least once in the ancestry of her Denisovan father.”

The authors indicated that finding a 1st generation Neanderthal Denisovan offspring among the small number of archaic specimens sequenced to date suggests that mixing between late Pleistocene hominin groups was common when they met.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Slon, Mafessoni, Vernot...Pääbo. Available from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Paleoanthropology, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Paleogenomics
  • 14146

Cloning of Macaque monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Cell, 172, 881-887, 2018.

The authors at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai reported the first cloning of a non-human primate.
Full text available from cell.com at this link.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Liu, Cai...Sun.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY, Regenerative Medicine
  • 14151

Dynamic basis for dG•dT misincorporation via tautomerization and ionization.

Nature, 554, 195-201, 2018.

In 1953 Watson and Crick proposed that rarely formed isomers of DNA bases cause spontaneous mutations to occur during the copying of DNA. Such mutations would be easily accommodated because tautomeric mispairs do not distort the helical DNA structure. The disfavored-tautomer model for spontaneous mutation formation (mutagenesis) was rapidly adopted by biologists and included in textbooks, despite the absence of supporting experimental evidence. In 2018 Kimsey, Al-Hashimi and colleagues showed that Watson's and Crick's prediction was correct.
Digital text from PubMedCentral at this link.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Kimsey, Szymanski....Al-Hashimi.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
  • 10912

Novel virus related to Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus from Colobus monkey.

Emerg. Infect. Dis., 25, 1548-1551, 2019.

Discovery of a new Karposi's Sarcoma virus in monkeys, named CbGHV1. Autopsy showed that the monkey died from a "primary effusion lymphoma" similar to the deaths of humans from human Karposi Sarcoma virus.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kaposi's Sarcoma / HHV-8, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10913

Kaposi sarcoma in mantled guereza.

Emerg. Infect. Dis., 25, 1552-1555, 2019.

Order of authorship in original publication: Grewer, Bleyer, Matz-Rensing. Further work on the CBGHV1 (Colobine gammherpesvirus 1) which causes a pathology in the Colobus monkey very similar to that seen humans. 

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

 



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Kaposi's Sarcoma / HHV-8, ONCOLOGY & CANCER, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 10916

A new segmented virus associated with human febrile illness in China.

New Eng. J. Med., 380, 2116-2125, 2019.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Wang, Ze-Dong; Wang, Bo; Wei, Feng. Discovery of a new tick-borne virus that the authors name the "Alongshan virus" (ALSV) in the family Flaviridae. Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Tick-Borne Diseases › Alongshan Virus, VIROLOGY
  • 11374

A randomized, controlled trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics.

New Engl. J. Med., 381, 2293-2303, 2019.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mulangu, Dodd, Davey.... One synthetic drug (Remdesivir, an antiviral) and 3 biologicals were used in this trial. The 3 biologicals were: REGN-EB3, a triple monoclonal antibody biologic, and Mab114, a single monoclonal antibody biologic, and ZMapp, another triple monoclonal antibody biologic. REGN-EB3, and Mab114 outperformed the other two, reducing mortality from up to 90% in the untreated to 33.5% for the REGN group and 35.1% for the Mab114 group. This was the first randomized, controlled trial of biopharmaceuticals that had significant success in curing Ebola. Digital text from nejm.org at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antiviral Drugs, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Biological Medical Product (Biologic), WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11398

Pathogen genomics in public health.

New Eng. J. Med., 381, 2569-2580, 2019.

"An important transformation is under way in public health. Next-generation sequencing (also called “high-throughput sequencing”) is reshaping communicable disease surveillance, allowing for earlier detection and more precise investigation of outbreaks. Next-generation sequencing helps characterize microbes more effectively and offers new insights into their ecology and transmission. The plethora of sequence data provides raw material for the research and development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. This article describes how pathogen genomics has been changing public health in the United States and globally." (editor).

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, Biomedical Informatics, PUBLIC HEALTH, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11460

Stunted microbiota and opportunistic pathogen colonization in caearian-section birth.

Nature, 574, 117-121, 2019.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Shao, Forster, Tsaliki....The authors used whole genome sequencing to characterize the microbiota of caesarian babies, demonstrating that caesarian babies were not colonized with healthy mothers' microbiomic species, but by opportunistic pathogens from the hospital environment. "This analysis demonstrates that the mode of delivery is a significant factor that affects the composition of the gut microbiota throughout the neonatal period and into infancy."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome, OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS
  • 11462

A new genomic blueprint of the human gut microbiota.

Nature, 568, 499-510, 2019.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Almeida, Mitchell, Boland....

Abstract:

"The composition of the human gut microbiota is linked to health and disease, but knowledge of individual microbial species is needed to decipher their biological roles. Despite extensive culturing and sequencing efforts, the complete bacterial repertoire of the human gut microbiota remains undefined. Here we identify 1,952 uncultured candidate bacterial species by reconstructing 92,143 metagenome-assembled genomes from 11,850 human gut microbiomes. These uncultured genomes substantially expand the known species repertoire of the collective human gut microbiota, with a 281% increase in phylogenetic diversity. Although the newly identified species are less prevalent in well-studied populations compared to reference isolate genomes, they improve classification of understudied African and South American samples by more than 200%. These candidate species encode hundreds of newly identified biosynthetic gene clusters and possess a distinctive functional capacity that might explain their elusive nature. Our work expands the known diversity of uncultured gut bacteria, which provides unprecedented resolution for taxonomic and functional characterization of the intestinal microbiota." 

When we wrote this entry in January 2020 this paper was available from nature.com at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics › Pathogenomics, Biomedical Informatics, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome
  • 11482

Mapping human microbiome drug metabolism by gut bacteria and their genes.

Nature, 570, 462-467, 2019.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Zimmermann, Simmerman-Kogadeeva, Wegmann....The authors looked at 271 drugs and 68 different species from the main taxonomic microbiome groups. Of the 271 drugs, 176 underwent a substantial metabolic change caused by at least one bacterial strain which resulted in a reduction of the level of the active drug. Every bacterial strain tested metabolized some of the drugs. 

Using a practical example drug like Diltiazem (for the treatment of hypertension) the authors found that a specific gene (bt4096) in the common microbiome species Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is required for the human body to metabolize the drug, and that this specific bacteria is needed to metabolize that drug because only the metabolite of that drug is active in the body as a blood pressure medicine. 

The paper drew three conclusions:

1. Bacteria can metabolize a drug and convert it to its active and useful molecular version.

2. Bacteria can metabolize a drug and inactivate it.

3. Bacteria can metabolize a drug and convert it into a toxic product.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE › Hypertension (High Blood Pressure), MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders, PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacodynamics
  • 11866

Search-and-replace genome editing without double-stranded breaks or donor DNA.

Nature, 576, 149-157, 2019.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Anzalone, Randolph, Davis....Liu.

Liu and colleagues modified the CRISPR tool to create the "prime editing" or precise genome editing technique. Working with human and mouse cells, the authors used a heavily modified Cas9 protein and the guide RNA. The new guide called "pegRNA" contains an RNA template with a reverse transcriptase which makes DNA for a new "desired/normal" DNA sequence from and on the blueprint carried in the pegRNA that is added to the genome at the abnormal / target location. With this new tool they performed 175 different edits, and as proof of principle, they created and then corrected the mutations that cause sicle cell anemia and Tay Sachs.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing
  • 12407

Can artificial intelligence reliably report chest x-rays? Radiologist validation of an algorithm trained on 2.3 million x-rays.

arXiv:1807.07455 , 2019.

"Background: Chest X-rays are the most commonly performed, cost-effective diagnostic imaging tests ordered by physicians. A clinically validated AI system that can reliably separate normals from abnormals can be invaluble particularly in low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a deep learning system to detect various abnormalities seen on a chest X-ray. Methods: A deep learning system was trained on 2.3 million chest X-rays and their corresponding radiology reports to identify various abnormalities seen on a Chest X-ray. The system was tested against - 1. A three-radiologist majority on an independent, retrospectively collected set of 2000 X-rays(CQ2000) 2. Radiologist reports on a separate validation set of 100,000 scans(CQ100k). The primary accuracy measure was area under the ROC curve (AUC), estimated separately for each abnormality and for normal versus abnormal scans. Results: On the CQ2000 dataset, the deep learning system demonstrated an AUC of 0.92(CI 0.91-0.94) for detection of abnormal scans, and AUC(CI) of 0.96(0.94-0.98), 0.96(0.94-0.98), 0.95(0.87-1), 0.95(0.92-0.98), 0.93(0.90-0.96), 0.89(0.83-0.94), 0.91(0.87-0.96), 0.94(0.93-0.96), 0.98(0.97-1) for the detection of blunted costophrenic angle, cardiomegaly, cavity, consolidation, fibrosis, hilar enlargement, nodule, opacity and pleural effusion. The AUCs were similar on the larger CQ100k dataset except for detecting normals where the AUC was 0.86(0.85-0.86). Interpretation: Our study demonstrates that a deep learning algorithm trained on a large, well-labelled dataset can accurately detect multiple abnormalities on chest X-rays. As these systems improve in accuracy, applying deep learning to widen the reach of chest X-ray interpretation and improve reporting efficiency will add tremendous value in radiology workflows and public health screenings globally."

Full text available from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1807.07455.pdf



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , PULMONOLOGY, RADIOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12715

Association of enterovirus D68 with Acute flaccid myelitis, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2009-2018.

Emerg. Infect. Dis., 25, 1676-1682, 2019.

The authors correlated increases of Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM) with EV-D68 outbreaks. They noted that EV-D68 infected mice exhibited paralyzed limbs, and they reported that EV-D68 had undergone genome evolutiion that enabled viral neurotropism. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Uprety, Curtis, Elkan...Graf.) Digital facsimile from cdc.gov at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Acute Flaccid Myelitis, NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Pennsylvania
  • 12970

Whole-animal connectomes of both Caenorhabditis elegans sexes.

Nature, 571, 63-71, 2019.

The first whole-animal connectomes for both adult sexes of a single species. "As none of the EM series cover an entire single animal, to generate whole animal connectomes, data from different  reconstruction series were combined and the remaining gaps were filled by extrapolating known connectivity across repetitive regions." The editorial introducing the paper also credited artificial intelligence with key input in the completion and integration of all the data to elucidate all the connections. The graphic displays of highly complex information in the printed version and interactive online version of this paper are particularly remarkable. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Cook, Jarrell...Emmons.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information, NEUROSCIENCE › Computational Neuroscience › Connectomics
  • 14014

Machine learning identification of surgical and operative factors associated with surgical expertise in virtual reality simulation.

JAMA Network Open, 2 (8): e198363., 2019.
"Abstract

"Importance  Despite advances in the assessment of technical skills in surgery, a clear understanding of the composites of technical expertise is lacking. Surgical simulation allows for the quantitation of psychomotor skills, generating data sets that can be analyzed using machine learning algorithms.

"Objective  To identify surgical and operative factors selected by a machine learning algorithm to accurately classify participants by level of expertise in a virtual reality surgical procedure.

"Design, Setting, and Participants  Fifty participants from a single university were recruited between March 1, 2015, and May 31, 2016, to participate in a case series study at McGill University Neurosurgical Simulation and Artificial Intelligence Learning Centre. Data were collected at a single time point and no follow-up data were collected. Individuals were classified a priori as expert (neurosurgery staff), seniors (neurosurgical fellows and senior residents), juniors (neurosurgical junior residents), and medical students, all of whom participated in 250 simulated tumor resections.

"Exposures  All individuals participated in a virtual reality neurosurgical tumor resection scenario. Each scenario was repeated 5 times.

"Main Outcomes and Measures  Through an iterative process, performance metrics associated with instrument movement and force, resection of tissues, and bleeding generated from the raw simulator data output were selected by K-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes, discriminant analysis, and support vector machine algorithms to most accurately determine group membership.

"Results  A total of 50 individuals (9 women and 41 men; mean [SD] age, 33.6 [9.5] years; 14 neurosurgeons, 4 fellows, 10 senior residents, 10 junior residents, and 12 medical students) participated. Neurosurgeons were in practice between 1 and 25 years, with 9 (64%) involving a predominantly cranial practice. The K-nearest neighbor algorithm had an accuracy of 90% (45 of 50), the naive Bayes algorithm had an accuracy of 84% (42 of 50), the discriminant analysis algorithm had an accuracy of 78% (39 of 50), and the support vector machine algorithm had an accuracy of 76% (38 of 50). The K-nearest neighbor algorithm used 6 performance metrics to classify participants, the naive Bayes algorithm used 9 performance metrics, the discriminant analysis algorithm used 8 performance metrics, and the support vector machine algorithm used 8 performance metrics. Two neurosurgeons, 1 fellow or senior resident, 1 junior resident, and 1 medical student were misclassified.

"Conclusions and Relevance  In a virtual reality neurosurgical tumor resection study, a machine learning algorithm successfully classified participants into 4 levels of expertise with 90% accuracy. These findings suggest that algorithms may be capable of classifying surgical expertise with greater granularity and precision than has been previously demonstrated in surgery."

Available at  doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8363.


Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Computer Simulation, COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Visualization, Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession, NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 11876

A bacteriophage nucleus like compartment shields DNA from CRISPR nucleases.

Nature, 577, 244-248, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mendoza, Nieweglowska, Govindarajan. The authors showed that the large phage that specifically infects a Pseudomonas bacterium segregates its DNA, which the phage CRISPR would attack and destroy, by building a proteinaceous compartment or wall around its DNA. This protein barrier makes its DNA inaccessible to the CRISPR nuclease attack and destruction. This could be called the operation of natural selection at the molecular level.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR , VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11877

Clades of huge phages from across Earth's ecosystems.

Nature, 578, 425-431, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Al-Shayeb, Sachdeva, Chen.... Doudna.  Open access, available from nature.com at this link.

This paper was a collaboration of about 50 scientists of diverse regions and specialities, assembled to advance knowledge of the bacteriophage evolutionary response and the tools huge phages possess against the onslaught of the bacterial immune system. The authors reconstructed 351 phage sequences and derived metagenomics datasets acquired from human feces, buccal areas, animal fecal samples, freshwater lakes and rivers, marine ecosystems sediments, hot springs soils, deep subsurface habitats, etc., mirroring most aspects of the earth's ecosystems. The main findings of this research were:

1. Many of the genomes of large phages have a length that rivals those of small celled bacteria.

2. These expanded genomes of large phages include diverse and previously undescribed CRISPR-Cas systems, TRNA's, tRNA synthases, tRNA modification enzymes, ribosomal proteins and others.

3. CRISPR-Cas systems of phages have the capacity to silence host transcriptional factors and translational genes, potentially as part of a larger interaction network that intercepts translation to redirect biosynthesis to phage encoded functions.

4. Some phages may repurpose bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems to eliminate competing phages.

5. The number of huge genome phages was far higher than expected.

6. Some phages that lack genes for interference and spacer integration have similar CRISPR repeats as their hosts and may therefore use the Cas proteins of the host.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

 

 



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR , BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12073

First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States.

New Eng. J. Med., 382, 929-936, 2020.

Published on March 5, 2020. 

Order of authorship in the original publication: Holshue, DeBolt, Lindquist....Cohn. 

"Summary

"An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient’s initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection.

"On December 31, 2019, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in people associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, Hubei Province.1On January 7, 2020, Chinese health authorities confirmed that this cluster was associated with a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV.2 Although cases were originally reported to be associated with exposure to the seafood market in Wuhan, current epidemiologic data indicate that person-to-person transmission of 2019-nCoV is occurring.3-6 As of January 30, 2020, a total of 9976 cases had been reported in at least 21 countries,7 including the first confirmed case of 2019-nCoV infection in the United States, reported on January 20, 2020. Investigations are under way worldwide to better understand transmission dynamics and the spectrum of clinical illness. This report describes the epidemiologic and clinical features of the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States."

Digital facsimile from nejm.org at this link.



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12105

Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus,and early Homo erectus in South Africa.

Science, 368, Issue 6486, 1-19, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Herries, Martin, Leece....Menter.

Summary:

"Understanding the extinction of Australopithecus and origins of Paranthropus and Homo in South Africa has been hampered by the perceived complex geological context of hominin fossils, poor chronological resolution, and a lack of well-preserved early Homo specimens. We describe, date, and contextualize the discovery of two hominin crania from Drimolen Main Quarry in South Africa. At ~2.04 million to 1.95 million years old, DNH 152 represents the earliest definitive occurrence of Paranthropus robustus, and DNH 134 represents the earliest occurrence of a cranium with clear affinities to Homo erectus. These crania also show that Homo, Paranthropus, and Australopithecus were contemporaneous at ~2 million years ago. This high taxonomic diversity is also reflected in non-hominin species and provides evidence of endemic evolution and dispersal during a period of climatic variability."

Available online from science.sciencemag.org at this link.

 



Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 12119

A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China.

Nature, 579, 265-269, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wu, Zhao...Holmes, Zang. This was the first paper written in China, and published in a Western language, on the first COVID-19 patient admitted to any Wuhan hospital on December 26, 2019. Nature received the paper on January 7, 2020, but did not publish it until February 3, 2020.

Abstract:

"Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1,2,3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans."

Open access from nature.com at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12181

Direct evidence of Neanderthal fibre technology and its cognitive and behavioral implications.

Nature, Scientific Reports, 10, Article 4889, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61839-w, 2020.

"Abstract

"Neanderthals are often considered as less technologically advanced than modern humans. However, we typically only find faunal remains or stone tools at Paleolithic sites. Perishable materials, comprising the vast majority of material culture items, are typically missing. Individual twisted fibres on stone tools from the Abri du Maras led to the hypothesis of Neanderthal string production in the past, but conclusive evidence was lacking. Here we show direct evidence of fibre technology in the form of a 3-ply cord fragment made from inner bark fibres on a stone tool recovered in situ from the same site. Twisted fibres provide the basis for clothing, rope, bags, nets, mats, boats, etc. which, once discovered, would have become an indispensable part of daily life. Understanding and use of twisted fibres implies the use of complex multi-component technology as well as a mathematical understanding of pairs, sets, and numbers. Added to recent evidence of birch bark tar, art, and shell beads, the idea that Neanderthals were cognitively inferior to modern humans is becoming increasingly untenable."

Open access; available from nature.com at this link.



Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 12302

Isolation of an archeon at the prokaryote eukaryote interface.

Nature, 577, 519-525, 2020.

(Order of authorship in the original publication: Imachi, Nobu, Nakahara...Takai.) The authors report that after 12 years of research they have cultured a microorganism that may be the transitional species between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The organism, obtained from deep ocean sediments, they named Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum. It has a large number of genes that encode eukaryotic signature proteins only found in eurkaryotes. This bacterium has long tentacle-like protrusions emanating from its surface, and its metabolism characteristics prompted the authors to propose a new model for the emergence of the first eukaryotic cell. Instead of the classic phagocytosis concept of one cell eating another, the authors proposed that this host archaeon connected to the metabolic partner using the newly discovered tentacular extracellular structures and simultaneously formed a primitive chromosome surrounding structure that is topologically similar to the nuclear membrane.

"On the basis of the available data obtained from cultivation and genomics, and reasoned interpretations of the existing literature, we propose a hypothetical model for eukaryogenesis, termed the entangle–engulf–endogenize (also known as E3) model." (From the abstract.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Open source from Nature.com at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, BIOLOGY › TAXONOMY › Classification of Cellular Life, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 12596

A sensory appendage protein protects malaria vectors from pyrethroids.

Nature, 577, 376-380, 2020.

Researching how the malarial mosquito A. gambiae developed resistance to common pyrethroid insecticides, the authors discovered how natural selection had enabled this insect population to develop resistance. They analyzed the gene-expression profiles of insecticide resistant A. gambiae populations from Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire, finding higher than normal expression of genes that encode a family of chemosensory proteins, called sensory appendage proteins (SAPs). This protein specifically binds to pyrethroids that penetrate the moquito's hard exterior when it lands on a bed net (mosquito net), and thus prevents the insecticide from exerting its toxic effect by sequestering it and preventing its action on the mosquito's nervous system by promoting the breakdown of the pyrethrin. The authors also found that the expression of this protein is enhanced in the legs of the mosquito and mostly at the tips where the legs come in contact with the bed net. (Order of authorship in the original paper: Ingham, Anthousi, Douris, et al.)

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Burkina Faso, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Côte d'Ivoire, EVOLUTION, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria
  • 13106

Improved protein structure prediction using potentials from deep learning.

Nature, 577, 706-710, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Senior, Evans, Jumper. ABSTRACT: "Protein structure prediction can be used to determine the three-dimensional shape of a protein from its amino acid sequence. This problem is of fundamental importance as the structure of a protein largely determines its function; however, protein structures can be difficult to determine experimentally. Considerable progress has recently been made by leveraging genetic information. It is possible to infer which amino acid residues are in contact by analysing covariation in homologous sequences, which aids in the prediction of protein structures. Here we show that we can train a neural network to make accurate predictions of the distances between pairs of residues, which convey more information about the structure than contact predictions. Using this information, we construct a potential of mean force4 that can accurately describe the shape of a protein. We find that the resulting potential can be optimized by a simple gradient descent algorithm to generate structures without complex sampling procedures. The resulting system, named AlphaFold, achieves high accuracy, even for sequences with fewer homologous sequences. In the recent Critical Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction5 (CASP13)—a blind assessment of the state of the field—AlphaFold created high-accuracy structures (with template modelling (TM) scores6 of 0.7 or higher) for 24 out of 43 free modelling domains, whereas the next best method, which used sampling and contact information, achieved such accuracy for only 14 out of 43 domains. AlphaFold represents a considerable advance in protein-structure prediction. We expect this increased accuracy to enable insights into the function and malfunction of proteins, especially in cases for which no structures for homologous proteins have been experimentally determined."



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Structure
  • 13479

Distinct viral reservoirs in individuals with spontaneous control of HIV-1.

Nature, 585, 261-267, 2020.

The authors describe a mechanism for the observed natural viral "immunity" of individuals with spontaneous control of HIV-1. A very few exceptional people have the molecular ability to steer the incoming/infecting cellular virus into the "heterochromatin" areas of their cellular genome where the virus genome is totally segregated, locked in and dormant. Consequentially, over time, most of these patients do not have any detectable virus in the blood. Of the patients reported here, one had no functional HIV viral copies in 1.5 billion cells counted, although a few "non-functional" copies were found. Another had just one functional viral copy of HIV in more than 1 billion blood cells analyzed. Order of authorship in the original paper: Jiang, Lian, Gao....

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › HIV / AIDS, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Retroviridae › HIV-1
  • 13483

Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation.

Science, 367, 1260-1263, 2020.

Posted online on February 17, 2020. 2019-nCoV was an interim name for the Novel Coronavirus. These studies, which included the 3D structure of the RBD (receptor binding domain) within the S protein, provided information fundamental to the development of the mRNA vaccines for Covid-19.

From the commentary at the begining of the paper:

"The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) to be a public health emergency of international concern. The virus binds to host cells through its trimeric spike glycoprotein, making this protein a key target for potential therapies and diagnostics. Wrapp et al. determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution structure of the 2019-nCoV trimeric spike protein by cryo–electron microscopy. Using biophysical assays, the authors show that this protein binds at least 10 times more tightly than the corresponding spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–CoV to their common host cell receptor. They also tested three antibodies known to bind to the SARS-CoV spike protein but did not detect binding to the 2019-nCoV spike protein. These studies provide valuable information to guide the development of medical counter-measures for 2019-nCoV."  Order of authorship in the original publication: Wrapp, Wang, Corbett....Graham... Available from PubMedCentral at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13484

COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward.

Nature Nanotechology, 15, 646-655, 2020.

Published 15 July 2020. Order of authorship in original publication: Shin, Shukla, Chung....Steinmetz. Probably the first publication on the type of nanotechnology involved in production of the Moderna and Pfizer mRNA vaccines for Covid-19 — vaccines developed within unprecedented short periods of time and manufactured on unprecedented scale.

"Abstract

"The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions of people with no clear signs of abatement owing to the high prevalence, long incubation period and lack of established treatments or vaccines. Vaccines are the most promising solution to mitigate new viral strains. The genome sequence and protein structure of the 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) were made available in record time, allowing the development of inactivated or attenuated viral vaccines along with subunit vaccines for prophylaxis and treatment. Nanotechnology benefits modern vaccine design since nanomaterials are ideal for antigen delivery, as adjuvants, and as mimics of viral structures. In fact, the first vaccine candidate launched into clinical trials is an mRNA vaccine delivered via lipid nanoparticles. To eradicate pandemics, present and future, a successful vaccine platform must enable rapid discovery, scalable manufacturing and global distribution. Here, we review current approaches to COVID-19 vaccine development and highlight the role of nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), Nanotechnology in Medicine, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13506

Safety and efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine.

New Eng. J. Med., 383, 2603-2615, 2020.

BNT162b2 is synonomous with the Pfizer BioNTech mRNA Covid-19 vaccine. The Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine was produced from theoretical design to finished product and distribution in less than one year. This was the first published paper on that vaccine. It was posted online on 12-10-2020, with updates on 12-16-2020. It first appeared in print on 12-31-2020.

This paper was also the first appearance in print of a paper describing a vaccine fabricated using the mRNA platform. The vaccine was initially administered under "emergency use authorization" granted by the U.S. FDA until the FDA granted full approval for this vaccine on August 23, 2021.

This vaccine delivers the mRNA needed to code for the membrane anchored S (spike) protein to the inside of the host cell inside an encapsulating hollow lipid nanoparticle. That mRNA then instructs the host cell to produce S protein molecules, which are then ferried out of the host cell, and act as the antigen/immunogen for this vaccine once outside of the cell.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Polack, Thomas, Kitchin.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19), Nanotechnology in Medicine, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 13519

Correspondence. Transmission of 2019 nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany.

New Eng. J. Med., 382, 970-971, 2020.

Posted online 1-30-20, updated 2-6-20, and published in print on March 5, 2020. First report of the "asymptomatic transmission" of Covid-19. The authors wrote, “The fact that asymptomatic persons are potential sources of 2019-nCoV infection may warrant a reassessment of transmission dynamics of the current outbreak”. Available from PubMedCentral