An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 14, 2024

CUSHING, Harvey Williams

32 entries
  • 4875

A method of total extirpation of the Gasserian ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia, by a route through the temporal fossa and beneath the middle meningeal artery.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 34, 1035-41, 1900.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 5689

On the avoidance of shock in major amputations by cocainization of large nerve-trunks preliminary to their division.

Ann. Surg., 36, 321-45, 1902.

William S. Halsted was first to use infiltration anesthesia (see No. 5679) and it was later developed by  Cushing.

  • 11573

Some experimental and clinical observations concerning states of increased intracranial tension.

Am. J. med. Sci., 124, 375-400, 1902.

According to Theodore Janeway (No. 11572), Cushing was the first to recommend routine measurement of blood pressure during surgery using the Riva Rocci sphygmomanometer.(See No. 2804). Cushing visited Riva Rocci at Pavia in 1901, made drawings, and was given an example of the device. Along with George Crile, Cushing played a major role in popularizing Riva Rocci's mercury sphygmomanometer. In this paper Cushing wrote, "For the proper estimation of gradual alterations in arterial pressure in clinical cases reliance should not be placed alone on the palpating finger any more than the hand should be depended upon for the determination of a patient's temperature."

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Sphygmomanometer, NEUROSURGERY
  • 4877.1

Pneumatic tourniquets: With especial reference to their use in craniotomies.

Med. News, 84, 577-80, 1904.

First report of tourniquet with pneumatic pressure of measurable degree. This inflatable cuff was the forerunner of the modern pneumatic tournequet cuff. 

  • 4878

Concerning surgical intervention for the intracranial hemorrhages of the new-born.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 130, 563-81, 1905.

Successful operative intervention in intracranial hemorrhage of the new-born.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • 4879

The establishment of cerebral hernia as a decompressive measure for inaccessible brain tumors.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 1, 297-314, 1905.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 3890

Sexual infantilism with optic atrophy in cases of tumor affecting the hypophysis cerebri.

J. nerv. ment. Dis., 33, 704-16, 1906.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors
  • 4880.1

Surgery of the head. In: Surgery: its principles and practice, edited by William Williams Keen, 3, 17-276.

Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1908.

Cushing’s first treatise on neurosurgery. “As a result of this detailed monograph, neurological surgery became almost at once recognized as a clear-cut field of surgical endeavor” (J.F. Fulton, Harvey Cushing [1947] 268).

  • 10591

Experimental and clinical notes on chronic valvular lesions in the dog and their possible relation to a future surgery of cardiac valves.

J. Med. Res., 17, 471-486.5., 1908.

Cushing and Branch's work was a key step in the early development of surgery of the mitral valves, later realized by Cushing's students Elliot Carr Cutler and Claude Beck in 1924. "Experiments on canine heart valves were performed repeatedly during the last quarter of the 19th century.... Most of the experimenters had attempted to study the physiologic and anatomic effects of artificial lesions....With the contribution by Cushing and Branch there is evidence of a new phase. The possibility of a surgical attack on valvular disease in man is now envisioned clearly and discussed overtly in a purposeful manner. The valvular lesion that figures most prominently in the discussion is metral stenosis.... Cushing and Branch used direct transthoracic exposure of the heart, the instrument (McCallum's valvulotome) being passed through the myocardium... The intention was to procure long-term survival of the animals and to observe long-term effects" (Jarcho, "Experiments on heart valves (1908) by Harvey Cushing and J.R.B. Branch," Am. J. Cardiol., 36 (1975) 506-508).

"The contribution of Cushing and Branch is of particular importance because it was the first real proof that operative creation of valvular defects could be carried out with a high degree of certainty, that each attempt would be successful and with a sufficiently low mortality (they reported 11 recoveries in 25 attempts) to hope that, with improvements in technique, the risk could be almost negligible." (Cutler, Levine and Beck, "The surgical treatment of mitral stenosis," 1924).

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

  • 10720

Observations on choked disc, with especial reference to decompressive cranial operations.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 52, 353-360., 1909.

The diagnostic value for neurosurgery of changes in the optic nerve caused by increased intracranial pressure.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Neuro-ophthalmology
  • 1160
  • 3894

Experimental hypophysectomy.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull, 21,127-69, 1910.

First experimental evidence of the relationship between the pituitary and the reproductive system; demonstration that hypophysectomy causes genital atrophy. 

Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 1161

The functions of the pituitary body.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 139,473-84, 1910.

See No. 3896.

Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary
  • 10719

The control of bleeding in operations for brain tumors. With the description of silver "clips" for the occlusion of vessels inaccessible to the ligature.

Annals of Surgery, 54, 1-19, 1911.

Cushing introduced the use of silver clips in neurosurgery to control bleeding.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Vascular & Endovascular
  • 3896
  • 4883.1

The pituitary body and its disorders.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1912.

The first clinical monograph on the hypophysis. Cushing, outstanding neurological surgeon of the early 20th century, added much to our knowledge of the pituitary body and its disorders. The above work includes a description of his own method of operating on the pituitary. He assumed that in diabetes insipidus the pituitary was involved. Cushing also described obesity caused by basophil pituitary tumor. See No. 1161.


Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROSURGERY, Obesity Research
  • 4601

Tumors of the nervus acusticus and the syndrome of the cerebello-pontile angle.

Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1917.

Reprinted 1963.

  • 11011

The story of U.S. Army Base Hospital No. 5. By a member of the unit.

Cambridge, MA: The University Press, 1919.

An account of the Base Hospital in which Cushing served in World War I, based upon his wartime diaries. Limited to 250 copies, some of which were issued in cloth-backed printed boards, and others in printed wrappers. Cushing issued this work anonymously, though he personally inscribed and signed various copies for presentation.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 11006

The life of Sir William Osler. 2 vols.

Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925.

Cushing received the Pulitzer Prize for this masterful biography, which remains the essential account of Osler's life, work, and selections from his correspondence. Cushing donated his very extensive research material for this book to the Osler Library at McGill University. Cushing's source material was arranged in a separate file for virtually every week in Osler's life for which Cushing had data.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals
  • 4608

A classification of the tumors of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a correlated study of prognosis.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1926.

From 1922 to 1925 Bailey undertook extensive pathological and histological studies of brain tumors, and based on cellular configuration, he created a classification system of thirteen categories. In 1927 he reduced the number of categories to ten. German translation, 1930. Ferguson, Sherise and Maciej S. Lesniak. "Percival Bailey and the Classification of Brain Tumors," Neurosurgical Focus, 18. No. 4. (April 2005).


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors, NEUROLOGY › Diseases of the Nervous System, NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 4897.1

Electro-surgery as an aid to the removal of intracranial tumors. With a preliminary note on a new surgical-current generator by W.T. Bovie.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 47, 751-84, 1928.

Introduction of electrocoagulation in neurosurgery.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Electrosurgery, NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 13778

Tumors arising from the blood-vessels of the brain. Angiomatous malformations and hemangioblastomas.

Springfield, IL & Baltimore, MD: Charles C Thomas, 1928.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology, NEUROSURGERY › Vascular & Endovascular
  • 11188

Experiences with the cerebellar astrocytomas. A critical review of seventy-six cases.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 52, 129-204, 1931.

Cushing's most extensive contribution to pediatric neurosurgery concerned his operative experience with these tumors (often benign) that most frequently occur in childhood.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Pediatric Neurosurgery, ONCOLOGY & CANCER
  • 3552

Papers relating to the pituitary body, hypothalamus, and para-sympathetic nervous system.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1932.

Cushing advanced the theory that the hypothalamus is responsible for the development of peptic ulcer (see p. 175 et seq.). This work contains his four principal contributions to pituitary-hypothalamic interrelationships, including a reprint of his description of pituitary basphilism (No. 3904).

Subjects: Ductless Glands: Internal Secretion › Pituitary, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Diseases of the Digestive System › Gastric / Duodenal Ulcer, NEUROLOGY
  • 3904

The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism).

Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp., 50, 137-95, 1932.

“Cushing’s syndrome”.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors
  • 4900

Intracranial tumours.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1932.

Cushing’s operating technique reduced the mortality rate dramatically in intracranial surgery. This was his last published report on the statistical results of his operations on brain tumors-- essentially a summation of his life work.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4612
  • 4909.01

Meningiomas: Their classification, regional behavior, life history, and surgical end results.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1938.

Begun in 1915, soon after Cushing's monograph on pituitary disorders, this represents 25 years of work, and is, by common consent, regarded as Cushing’s greatest clinical monograph. Reprint, 2 vols., New York, Hafner, 1962.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Brain & Spinal Tumors, NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 11189

A bibliography of the writings of Harvey Cushing prepared on the occasion of his seventieth birthday April 8, 1939 by The Harvey Cushing Society.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1939.

Revised and best third edition, Park Ridge, IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1993. This includes a photographic essay, with extensive captions, by Richard Upjohn Light.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, NEUROSURGERY
  • 6779

The Harvey Cushing collection of books and manuscripts.

New York: Schuman's, 1943.

Catalogue, without annotations, of the books and manuscripts bequeathed by Cushing to the Historical Library in the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University School of Medicine. Much like Osler, Cushing collected science as well as medicine.

Regarding Cushing as a collector see:

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Book Collecting, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Physicians' / Scientists' Libraries
  • 8096

A bio-bibliography of Andreas Vesalius.

New York: Schuman's, 1943.

The standard annotated bibliography of Vesalius's works, known for its unusual system of numbering entries. Posthumously edited for publication by John F. Fulton and Arturo Castiglioni. Digital facsimile of the 1943 edition from at this link. Second edition with addenda, Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1962. See also Elly Cockx-Indestege, Andreas Vesalius: A Belgian census: Contribution towards a new edition of H.W. Cushing's Bibliography (Brussels, 1994).


Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Individual Authors, Renaissance Medicine › History of Renaissance Medicine
  • 11018

Harvey Cushing: A biography.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1946.

Remains the most comprehensive biography of Cushing, by his student Fulton.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, NEUROSURGERY › History of Neurosurgery
  • 11635

The life and letters of Dr. Henry Vining Ogden, 1857-1931 by Leonard Weistrop.

Milwaukee, WI: Wilwaukee Academy of Medicine Press, 1986.

Ogden was one of William Osler's closest life-long friends and correspondents. Weistrop was able to find and reproduce 334 letters between Ogden, Osler, and Cushing.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals
  • 9425

The legacy of Harvey Cushing: Profiles of patient care. Edited by Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol and Dennis D. Spencer.

New York: Thieme & Rolling Meadows, IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 2007.

"... features 800 of Cushing's surgical drawings and photographs of patients and tumor specimens. Preserved untouched for sixty years in the Yale University Library, the images provide the earliest catalog of neurological and neuropathological disease and reveal the techniques employed by the founder of modern neurosurgery. The editors have carefully integrated these high-quality photographs and illustrations into a compelling narrative constructed from patients' hospital records and Cushing's meticulous notes at preoperative and postoperative stages of management. Discharge notes, letters from the family of patients, photographs of patients years after surgery, and death reports further humanize each clinical case and speak to Cushing's lasting dedication to his patients" (publisher).

Subjects: ART & Medicine & Biology, NEUROSURGERY
  • 11030

Harvey Cushing: A life in surgery.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

A less idolatrous biography of Cushing than Fulton's work of 1946.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, NEUROSURGERY › History of Neurosurgery