An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15875 entries, 13820 authors and 1929 subjects. Updated: March 30, 2023


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Harnessing wearable device data to improve state-level real-time surveillance of influenza-like illness in the USA: A population-based study.

Lancet Digital Health, 2, PE85-E93, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Radin, Wineinger, Topol, Steinhubl.


"Acute infections can cause an individual to have an elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and change their routine daily activities due to the physiological response to the inflammatory insult. Consequently, we aimed to evaluate if population trends of seasonal respiratory infections, such as influenza, could be identified through wearable sensors that collect RHR and sleep data.


"We obtained de-identified sensor data from 200 000 individuals who used a Fitbit wearable device from March 1, 2016, to March 1, 2018, in the USA. We included users who wore a Fitbit for at least 60 days and used the same wearable throughout the entire period, and focused on the top five states with the most Fitbit users in the dataset: California, Texas, New York, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Inclusion criteria included having a self-reported birth year between 1930 and 2004, height greater than 1 m, and weight greater than 20 kg. We excluded daily measurements with missing RHR, missing wear time, and wear time less than 1000 min per day. We compared sensor data with weekly estimates of influenza-like illness (ILI) rates at the state level, as reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by identifying weeks in which Fitbit users displayed elevated RHRs and increased sleep levels. For each state, we modelled ILI case counts with a negative binomial model that included 3-week lagged CDC ILI rate data (null model) and the proportion of weekly Fitbit users with elevated RHR and increased sleep duration above a specified threshold (full model). We also evaluated weekly change in ILI rate by linear regression using change in proportion of elevated Fitbit data. Pearson correlation was used to compare predicted versus CDC reported ILI rates.


"We identified 47 249 users in the top five states who wore a Fitbit consistently during the study period, including more than 13·3 million total RHR and sleep measures. We found the Fitbit data significantly improved ILI predictions in all five states, with an average increase in Pearson correlation of 0·12 (SD 0·07) over baseline models, corresponding to an improvement of 6·3–32·9%. Correlations of the final models with the CDC ILI rates ranged from 0·84 to 0·97. Week-to-week changes in the proportion of Fitbit users with abnormal data were associated with week-to-week changes in ILI rates in most cases.


"Activity and physiological trackers are increasingly used in the USA and globally to monitor individual health. By accessing these data, it could be possible to improve real-time and geographically refined influenza surveillance. This information could be vital to enact timely outbreak response measures to prevent further transmission of influenza cases during outbreaks."

Open access from at this link.

Subjects: Digital Health & Medicine , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza