An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15961 entries, 13944 authors and 1935 subjects. Updated: April 29, 2024

CHAIN, Sir Ernst Boris

5 entries
  • 1933.3

An enzyme from bacteria able to destroy penicillin.

Nature (Lond.), 146, 837, 1940.


Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 1934

Penicillin as a chemotherapeutic agent.

Lancet, 2, 226-28, 1940.

Proof of the therapeutic action in vivo of penicillin against streptococcal and other bacterial infections. Building upon Fleming’s work (No. 1933 and 10784), the consequences of which had originally been widely unappreciated, even by Fleming himself, Chain and his co-workers concentrated penicillin and showed that it was probably the most effective chemotherapeutic drug known, and that it was relatively non-toxic. This led to mass production of the drug, which has saved untold millions of lives. 

Chain and Florey shared the Nobel Prize with Fleming (No. 1933) in 1945. Biography of Florey by G. Macfarlane, 1979.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 1934.1

Further observations on penicillin.

Lancet, 2, 177-89, 1941.

First report of the chemotherapeutic action of penicillin on humans (10 cases). 

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 1934.2

Penicillamine, a characteristic degradation product of penicillin.

Nature (Lond.), 151, 107 (only), 1943.

With W. Baker.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Antibiotics › Penicillin
  • 12613

Antibiotics: A survey of penicillin, streptomycin, and other antimicrobial substances from fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria, and plants. 2 vols.

London & New York & Toronto, Canada: Oxford University Press, 1949.

Order of authorship of the original set: H. W. Florey, Chain, Heatley, Jennings, Sanders, Abraham, M. E. Florey.