An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 14, 2024

Browse by Publication Year 1680–1689

78 entries
  • 580

Physiologia Kircheriana experimentalis.

Amsterdam: J. Waesberg, 1680.

Includes the first recorded experiment in hypnotism in animals.

  • 3669.3
  • 762

De motu animalium. 2 pts.

Rome: A. Bemabo, 16801681.

Borelli originated the neurogenic theory of the heart’s action and first suggested that the circulation resembled a simple hydraulic system. He was the first to insist that the heart beat was a simple muscular contraction. One of the founders of biomechanics, Borelli was a representative of the Iatro-Mathematical School, which treated all physiological happenings as rigid consequences of the laws of physics and mechanics.

Borelli’s experiments included what are probably the first measurements of masticatory force.

English translation by P. Maquet from the 1743 edition as On the movement of animalsBerlin: Springer, 1989. 

Digital facsimile of the 1743 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

  • 3761

Esperienze del Dottor Giuseppe Zambeccari intorno a diverse viscere tagliate a diversi animali viventi.

Florence: F. Onofri, 1680.

Proof that the spleen is not essential to life. For a translation and notes on the book, see Bull. Hist. Med., 1941, 9, 144-76, 311-31 (S. Jarcho).

Subjects: Spleen: Lymphatics
  • 3350

Didascalocophus or the deaf and dumb mans tutor, to which is added a discourse of the nature and number of double consonants: both which tracts being the first (for what the author knows) that have been published upon either of the subjects.

Oxford: T. Halton, 1680.

Dalgarno considered that the deaf had an advantage over the blind in opportunities of learning languages. He invented an alphabet for the use of deaf-mutes.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Deaf-Mute Education
  • 9698

Praxis catholica: or the countryman's universal remedy wherein is plainly and briefly laid down the nature, matter, manner, place and cure of most diseases, incident to the body of man, not hitherto discovered, whereby any one of an ordinary capacity may apprehend the true cause of his distempers, wherein his cure consists, and the means to effect it : together with rules how to order children in that most violent disease of vomiting and looseness, &c. : useful likewise for seamen and travellers : also an account of an imcomparable powder for wounds or hurts which cure any ordinary ones at once dressing. Written by Robert Couch, sometime practitioner in physick and chyrurgery, at Boston in New-England. Now published with divers useful additions (for public benefit) by Chr. Pack, operator in chymistry.

London: Printed for Robert Harford, 1680.

The first medical book written in the British colonies of North America. The introduction, "To all ingenious students and practitioners in physick and chyrurgery", is signed Robert Couch, but the extent of additions in the rest of the book by the book's London editor and publisher, the chemist Christopher Packe, is difficult to determine. Couch emigrated from England to Boston in 1663 and spent the remainder of his life in the colonies. After his death prior to 1680 his manuscript was acquired by Francis Willis of Ware River, Virginia, who sent it to Packe, who arranged for its publication with a dedication to Willis.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States , COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American Northeast
  • 5161

Epistola… qua simul de anthrace, carbunculo, bubone et altauna, philologice disseritur.

Jena: typ. vid. Krebsianae, 1681.

  • 296

Anatome animalium, terrestrium variorum, volatilium, aquatilium, serpentum, insectorum, ovorumque, structuram naturalem, ex veterum, recentiorum, propriisque observationibus proponens, figuris variis illustrata.

Amsterdam: Johannes à Someren, 1681.

“The first comprehensive manual of comparative anatomy based on the original and literary researches of a working anatomist” (Cole). Blaes anticipated Cowper in finding the Cowper’s glands, which he illustrated in his plate of the genitalia and os penis of the rat. The 85 pages devoted to the anatomy of the dog was the first comprehensive and original treatise on a vertebrate since Ruini (No. 285).

Blasius first published much of the material in this work, including the treatise on the anatomy of the dog, in his Miscellanea anatomica, hominis, brutorumque variorum, fabricam diversam magna parte exhibentia‎ (Amsterdam: Caspar Commelin, 1673.). In that work the Anatome canis appeared on pp. 168-252. Other material previously appeared in Blasius's Observata anatomica in homine, simia, equo, virtulo, ovo....(Leiden, 1674). Digital facsimile of the Anatome animalium from Google Books at this link; of the Miscellanea anatomica from Google Books at this link.

  • 297

Musaeum Regalis Societatis, or a catalogue and description of the natural and artificial rarities belonging to the Royal Society and preserved at Gresham College. Whereunto is subjoyned the comparative anatomy of stomachs and guts.

London: H. Newman, 1681.

Grew, secretary to the Royal Society, compiled this illustrated catalogue of its museum, then housed at Gresham College. Published with the catalogue is Grew’s study of the stomach organs, which is the first zoological book to have the term “comparative anatomy” on the title page, and also the first attempt to deal with one system of organs only by the comparative method. Digital facsimile from the Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological , MUSEUMS › Natural History Museums / Wunderkammern, ZOOLOGY
  • 13139

Pharmacopoea persica ex idiomate persico in latinum conversa. Tafsir-i murakkabat-i qarabadin-i parsi [-i Muzaffar b. Muhammad as-Sifa`i] ba-dast-i Angelus Karmelit.

Paris: Etienne Michallet, 1681.

The editor, Joseph Labrosse, "was born in Toulouse in 1636 and entered a Carmelite order, taking the name of Fr. Angelus of St Joseph. In 1662 he went to Rome and studied Arabic for two years before travelling to Isfahan to study Persian. While in Iran, he used medicine as a means of propagating Christianity and in the process read many Arabic and Persian books on medicine and 'visited the houses of the learned people of Isfahan and paid hundreds of visits to the shops of the druggists, the pharmacists, and the chemists.' After returning to France in 1678 he published his 'Pharmacopoea persica', which consisted of a Latin translation of a Persian book on compound remedies written in the previous century by Muzaffar ibn Muhammad al-Husayni (d. 1556), with additional comments by Labrosse" (in: I. Loudon [ed.], Western Medicine [1997], p. 52f.). 
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacopeias › Dispensatories or Formularies, Persian (Iranian) Islamic Medicine
  • 13752

Recreatione dell'occhio e della mente nell'osservation ' delle chiocciole, proposta a curiosi delle opere dell natura.

Rome: per il Varese, 1681.

The first treatise devoted entirely to molluscs, and the first practical guide for shell collectors.
"Bonanni's work is significant for his careful attempts to precisely describe shell morphology. Unfortunately, due to the printing and engraving process, the spirals shown on the shells were reversed from dextral to sinistral, a mirror image problem that later books avoided. Zoological taxonomies of the time were based on visual characteristics, and Bonanni paid special attention to both form and color, and showed details (sometimes fanciful) of the creatures inside the shells. Although his work predated the adoption of Linnaeus' system of binomial nomenclature (genus + species), Bonanni laid the foundation for the new discipline of conchology.[1] Several later Linnaean names were based on Bonanni's work, including the name of the class Bivalvia, which he introduced." (Wikipedia article on Filippo Bonanni, accessed 12-2021).

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 1481.3

Nova visionis theoria.

Philosophical Collections, No. 6,167-78, 1682.

Briggs’ treatise on the physiology of vision influenced Sir Isaac Newton, who reprinted it in book form with his own introduction, London, 1685.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 6492

Specimen medicinae Sinicae.

Frankfurt: J. P. Zubrodt, 1682.

One of the earliest studies of Chinese medicine published in the West. (See also Nos. 6472.10 et seq.). Cleyer edited these translations of Chinese medical texts, reproducing a series of 30 plates dealing with Chinese pulse-lore. Acu-tracts are illustrated but no acu-points. The book concerns Chinese doctrines of the pulse rather than acupuncture. Abridged English translation in No. 2670.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Acupressure, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, Chinese Medicine
  • 8836

Wounds of the brain proved curable, not only by the opinion and experience of many (the best) authors, but the remarkable history of a child four years old cured of two very large depressions, with the loss of a great part of the skull, a portion of the brain also issuing thorough a penetrating wound of the dura and pia mater…

London: Printed by J. M. for Henry Faithorn..., 1682.

Probably the first monograph in English on surgery of the head and brain. Yonge was a naval surgeon who set up in practice in Plymouth after he gave up the sea. He had just performed the operation for an injury of the head outlined in the title of his book when a local physician, Dr. Durston, asserted that wounds of the brain were always fatal. To prove this was untrue, Yonge published this book, which includes details of the operation in great detail, followed by extracts from and references to 65 earlier authors, five of whom are English.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), NEUROSURGERY, NEUROSURGERY › Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • 9198

Dissertatio epistolaris . . . de observationibus nuperis circa curationem variolarum confluentium nec non de affectione hysterica.

London: M.C. for Walter Kettilby, 1682.

"Sydenham so precisely describes the symptoms of hysteria that even today little can be added to what he said. He maintained that is was the most common chronic disease, and he recognized that in spite of the fact that hysteria refers to the uterus (Greek, hysteron, uterus), males suffer form this disease also... Sydenham recognized for the first time that hysterical symptoms may simulate almost all forms of organic diseases" (Alexander & Selesnick, History of psychiatry, pp. 94-95).

  • 10017

Mercurius compitalitius, sive, Index medico-practicus.per decisiones, cautiones, animadversiones, castigationes & observationes in sugulis affectibus praeter naturam et praesidiis medicis, deaeteticis, cheirurgicis & pharmaceuticis... Accessit appendix de medici munere.

Geneva: Leonard Chovët, 1682.

Discusses 63 topics on medical ethics and decorum, patient behavior, medical diagnosis, prognosis, and practice guidelines, including how to relate to the patient in all matters, including extreme old age and death. "Momentously, Theophile Bonet set for his carefully considered views about how fatally ill persons should be related to, cared for and treated...."(Vanderpool, Palliative care [2015] 15-17).Translated into English as A guide to the practical physician: Shewing from the most approved authors, both ancient and modern, the truest and safest way of curing all diseases, internal and external, whether by medicine, surgery, or diet (London: Printed for Thomas Flesher..., 1684). Digital facsimile of the 1682 edition from Google Books at this link. Full English text available from at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING, Ethics, Biomedical, Medicine: General Works
  • 12612

A treatise of cleanness in meats and drinks of the preparation of food, the excellency of good airs and the benefits of clean sweet beds also of the generation of bugs and their cure : to which is added, a short discourse of the pain in the teeth shewing from what cause it does chiefly proceed, and also how to prevent it.

London: For the author and sold by L. Curtis, 1682.

Digital text from Early English Books Online at this link.

Subjects: DENTISTRY, Household or Self-Help Medicine, Hygiene
  • 4486

Tractatus de podagra et hydrope.

London: G. Kettilby, 1683.

Of the many great works of Sydenham, this is considered his masterpiece. He clearly differentiated gout from rheumatism. For an English translation, see his Works, published by the Sydenham Society, 1850, 2, 123-84.

Subjects: RHEUMATOLOGY › Gout (Podagra)
  • 4162
  • 762.1

De urinis et pulsibus de missione sanguinis de febribus de morbis capitis, et pectoris.

Bologna: Ex typographia Antonii Pisarii, 1683.

Bellini began to develop his hydraulic iatromechanics in this work, in which he considered the blood as a physical fluid with simple mechanical and mathematicizable properties.  He realized the value of the urine as an aid to diagnosis and insisted on its chemical analysis in pathological conditions.

  • 1545
  • 3351

Traité de l’organe de l’ouie; contenant la structure, les usages et les maladies de toutes les parties de l’oreille.

Paris: E. Michallet, 1683.

The first scientific account of the structure, function and diseases of the ear. Du Verney showed that the bony external meatus develops from the tympanic ring and that the mastoid air cells communicate with the tympanic cavity. He it was who first suggested the theory of hearing later developed by, and accredited to, Helmholtz. Du Verney also identified a temporal bone tumor, which is believed to be the earliest description of cholesteatoma. English translation, 1737. See also A bibliography of editions of Du Verney’s Traité … published between 1683 and 1750, compiled by N. Asherson, J. Laryng. Otol., 1979, Suppl. No. 2, and book-form edition, London, H. K. Lewis, 1979. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ONCOLOGY & CANCER, OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Diseases of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 2448

Lumbricus teres, or some anatomical observations on the round worm bred in human bodies.

Phil. Trans., 13, 133-61, 1683.

Tyson gave one of the first descriptions of the anatomy of Ascaris lumbricoides.

Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Ascaris
  • 1761

The conclave of physicians, detecting their intrigues, frauds, and plots, against their patients.

London: J. Partridge, 1683.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical
  • 3927

Experimenta nova circa pancreas.

Amsterdam: apud. H. Wetstenium, 1683.

Brunner came near to discovering pancreatic diabetes. His experiments on the dog represent pioneer work on internal secretion. Following excision of the pancreas, he recorded extreme thirst and polyuria. Translated in Ann. med. Hist., 1941, 3, 91-100.

Subjects: Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 6374.1

Dissertatio de arthritide: mantissa schematica: de acupunctura: et orationes tres…

London: R. Chiswell, 1683.

This work by the resident physician at Deshima, the Dutch East India Company’s trading station in Nagasaki Bay, Japan, contains the first detailed description of acupuncture, and the first illustration of acu-points published in the West. Ten Rhijne correctly described fourteen acu-tracts but confused them with blood-vessels, a misidentification that persisted in later Western studies of acupuncture.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Acupuncture (Western References), COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Japan, Japanese Medicine
  • 298

The anatomy of an horse.

London: M. Flesher, 1683.

First book in English on equine anatomy, largely a translation of Ruini (No. 285).

  • 8934

Trattado unico das bexigas, e sarampo, offerecido a D. João de Sousa, composto por Romaõ Mõsia Reinhipo.

Lisbon: Joaõ Galraõ, 1683.

One of the first works on medicine practiced in Brazil, published by Mourão under the pseudonym Romaõ Mõsia Reinhipo. Mourão distinguished clearly between smallpox and measles. There was still much confusion in the seventeenth century about the clear individualization of these diseases. Digital facsimile from Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal at this link.

  • 9308

The way to health, long life and happiness, or, a discourse of temperance and the particular nature of all things requisit for the life of man as all sorts of meats, drinks, air, exercise, &c. with special directions how to use each of them to be the best advantage of the body and mind. Shewing from the true ground of nature whence most diseases proceed, and how to prevent them. To which is added, a treatise of most sorts of English herbs ... the like never before published / communicated to the world for a general good, by Philotheos Physiologus.

London: Printed and Sold by Andrew Sowle, 1683.

Tryon, an English merchant, was the author of popular self-help books and an early advocate of vegetarianism. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › England (United Kingdom), Household or Self-Help Medicine, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 12045

Description générale de l'Hostel Royal des Invalides établi par Louis le Grand dans la Plaine de Prennelle près Paris. Avec les plans, profils & elevations de ses faces, coupes & appartemens.

Paris: chez l'Auteur dans l'Hostel Royal des Invalides, 1683.

A deluxe folio work with numerous full-page engravings illustrating the architecture, floor plans etc. of the Hôtel des Invalides by its administrator, who signed the dedication "L.J.D.B." Designed by Libéral Bruant, and built to house wounded military veterans, the hospital was modelled on El Escorial. It was was commissioned by Louis XIV in 1670. Digital facsimile from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.

The work was translated into English by James Fraser and published in the much smaller 8vo format, with some new material, but only one folding plate, as A pattern of a well-constituted and well-governed hospital: Or, a brief description of building, and full relation of the establishment, constitution, discipline, oeconomy and administration of the government of the Royal Hospital of the Invalids near Paris. Partly translated from a large book printed some years ago in French; and partly extracted out of some manuscriptions never before published. London: Richard Baldwin, 1695.

  • 13076

Hortus medicus Edinburgensis, or, A catalogue of the plants in the Physical Garden at Edinburgh: Containing their most proper Latin and English names; with an English alphabetical index.

Edinburgh: Printed by the Heir of Andrew Anderson, 1683.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Scotland
  • 974.2

Du ductu salivati hactenus non descriptio.

Copenhagen: typ. J. P. Bockenhoffer, 1684.

“Bartholin’s duct” and “gland”, the sublingual salivary gland and ducts.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 861

Memoirs for the natural history of humane blood, especially the spirit of that liquor.

London: S. Smith, 1684.

The first analysis of blood, Boyle’s Memoirs may be considered the first scientific study in physiological chemistry, exhibiting methods which have become universally adopted. This is Boyle’s most important medical work.

  • 1379

Neurographia universalis.

Lyon: J. Certe, 1684.

Vieussens, professor at Montpellier, was the first to describe the centrum ovale correctly. The publication of the above work threw new light on the subject of the configuration and structure of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. With numerous large folding copperplates, it is considered the best illustrated work on the nervous system published in the 17th century. Second issue, identical except dated 1685. Both issues have the words, “editio nova” on the title page. Digital facsimile of the 1584 issue from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • 1212

Observations anatomiques.

J. Sçavans, 129, 1684.

Includes a brief description of “Cowper’s glands”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Genito-Urinary System
  • 1545.1

De auditu liber unus.

Leiden: P. de Graaf, 1684.

An early account of the anatomy, physics and physiology of hearing, preceded by a historical summary of earlier work.

Subjects: OTOLOGY › Anatomy of the Ear, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 2448.1

Osservazioni … intomo agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi.

Florence: per P. Matini, 1684.

Redi was among the first of the parasitologists. He demonstrated the reproductive organs of Ascaris lumbricoides and also ascaris eggs. The results of his experiments appear in the above work, which also records his study and description of 108 different species.

Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths › Parasitic Worms › Ascaris
  • 1725

La doctrine des rapports de chirurgie, fondées sur les maximes d’usage et sur la disposition des nouvelles ordonnances.

Lyon: T. Amaubry, 1684.

De Blégny explained the obligation of surgeons to report any suspicion of crime, and explained how to prepare expert opinion for presentation before the court.

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 1762

Medicus peccans, sive tractatus de peccatis medicorum.

Nuremberg: apud Wolfgangum Mauritium Endterum, 1684.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: Ethics, Biomedical
  • 2375

Tuta, ac efficax luis venereae, saepe absque mercurio, ac semper absque salivatione mercuriali curando methodus.

London: S. Smith, 1684.

Abercromby advanced the idea that syphilis was caused by a parasite, and promoted mercury as a treatment. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 2464.1
  • 3669.4

An abstract of a letter…Sep. 17, 1683. Containing some microscopical observations, about animals in the scurf of the teeth.

Phil. Trans., 14, 568-74, 1684.

Records discovery of bacteria in the mouth, with the first illustrations of the basic types – what were much later called cocci (round or oval), bacilli (rod-shaped) and spiriillum (spiral) forms. Although Leeuwenhoek had observed bacteria earlier, calling them animalcules, this paper is usually considered the first memoir on what were later called bacteria. At this early date the concept of microbiome did not yet exist; however, this paper also marks the beginning of our understanding of how parts of the human body are normally populated by bacteria. Digital facsimile from the Royal Society at this link.

  • 5822

Two remarkable cases relating to vision.

Phil. Trans., 14, 561-65, London, 1684.

Includes the first known description of nyctalopia.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Diseases of the Eye
  • 6797

A physical dictionary; in which all the terms relating either to anatomy, chirurgery, pharmacy, or chemistry, are very accurately explain’d.

London: J. D. Crouch, 1684.

The English translation of Blankaart’s dictionary was the first medical dictionary to be printed in the British Isles. The original Greek-Latin text was published in Amsterdam, 1679.

Subjects: Dictionaries, Biomedical › Lexicography, Biomedical
  • 7030

Aristoteles master-piece, or the secrets of generation displayed in all the parts thereof . . .

London: J. How, 1684.

The first sex manual in English, neither by Aristotle or a "masterpiece", provided its readers with practical advice on copulation, conception, pregnancy and birth.This anonymous, inexpensively printed work proved to be enormously popular: At least three editions were issued by J. How in 1684, and literally hundreds of editions and translations followed, right up to the early decades of the 20th century. 

  • 1311
  • 3165
  • 4673
  • 8104

Dr. Willis's practice of physick.

London: T. Dring, C. Harper & J. Leigh, 1684.

The only complete edition of Willis's works in English, translated by the poet Samuel Pordage. It contains the translations of all his works except his Affectionum quae dicuntur hystericae (1671). The collection includes the First Edition in English of Willis's De anima brutorum. The volume is divided into six separately paginated sections, each with its own title-leaf. Included are English versions of Willis's three great works on the brain--Cerebri anatome, Pathologiae cerebri and De anima brutorum--as well as his clinical and pharmaceutical treatises. In Treatise III, pp. 128-158 Willis’s described the intercostal and spinal nerves. He described the ganglion chain as the “intercostal nerve” and thought it came from the head.

In addition to his invaluable work in the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, Willis was the first to distinguish true diabetes mellitus, and showed that the polyuria was not due to any disease of the kidneys. He anticipated the recognition of hormones in the circulation of his suggestion that the phenomena of puberty were due to a ferment distributed through the body from the genitals. He discovered the superficial lymphatics of the lungs, distinguished acute tuberculosis from the chronic fibroid type and gave the first clinical and pathological account of emphysema.  The modern treatment of asthma really begins with Willis, who considered it to be of nervous origin. ("Of the convulsive cough and asthma," Treatise VIII, pp. 92-96; No. 3165). Willis was probably the first to report an epidemic of cerebrospinal fever" ("A description of an epidemical feaver, Treatise VIII, pp. 46-54; No. 4673). Transcription of the complete text from Early English Books Online at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS
  • 11684

Myographia nova, or a graphical description of all the muscles in the human body; with one and forty copper-plates.

London, 1684.

Browne's treatise on the muscles consisted of six lectures, illustrated by copperplates. It was, however, a plagiarism, as was pointed out by James Yonge: it put together text from the Muskotomia by William Molins with illustrations from the Tabula anatomicae of Giulio Casseri. Nevertheless, Browne's book was popular, and underwent ten editions. 

The fifth edition of Browne's book, published in 1697, included on pp. 99-105 the first posthumous publication of Richard Lower's An appendix of the heart and its use; With the circulation of the blood, and the parts of which the sanguinary mass is made, etc.

Digital facsimile of a c. 1970 facsimile edition of the 5th edition (1697) from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 12044

Verhandelinge van de opvoedinge en ziekten der kinderen. Vertoonende op wat wyse de kinderen gezond konnen blyven, en ziek zijnde, bequamelyk konnen herstelt werden. Zeer nodig voor alle huyshoudende lieden.

Amsterdam: Hieronymus Sweerts, 1684.

A book intended for a popular audience on raising, educating, and caring for health problems of children. Blankaart offered advice and instructions to parents for treating all sorts of children's illnesses as well as tips on the prevention of disease. He provided detailed descriptions and instructions for many home recipes that parents could prepare and administer to children. Two appendices follow the three main parts: the first called "Verscheide aanmerkingen aangaande de kinder-ziekten" (Various notes on children's diseases) with 23 numbered case studies, including a description of a child whose body was covered with scales except for his head (gossips blamed his mother for thinking about fish when she was pregnant!); the second, translated from English, called "Historie der Japanse campher" (History of Japanese camphor). Camphor was widely used as a decongestant.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 385

Anatomia humani corporis, centum et quinque tabulis, per artificiosiss. G. de Lairesse ad vivum delineatis.

Amsterdam: vid. J. à Someren, 1685.

This large folio by Dutch physician, anatomist, poet, and playwright Govert Bidloo contains an engraved title, engraved portrait of Bidloo by Abraham Bloteling after Gérard de Lairesse and 105 engraved plates after Lairesse, probably by Bloteling and Peter and Philip van Gunst. Notably, the work of de Lairesse was featured on the title page.

Lairesse displayed his figures with everyday realism and sensuality, contrasting the raw dissected parts of the body with the full, soft surfaces of undissected flesh surrounding them; placing flayed, bound figures in ordinary nightclothes or bedding; setting objects such as a book, a jar, a crawling fly in the same space as a dissected limb or torso. He thus brought the qualities of Dutch still-life painting into anatomical illustration, and gave a new, darker expression to the significance of dissection. De Lairesse’s images of dissected pregnancies and premature infants also reflect compassion—a quality unusual in art that was intended primarily to be scientific. In 1690 Bidloo's publishers issued an edition in Dutch, and in 1698 William Cowper issued an expanded English with new text using Bidloo's original plates, crediting Bidloo, but without Bidloo's permission, resulting in a famous plagiarism dispute in the era before copyright.

For further details see the entry at at this link


Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 1101

De ductu salivali novo, saliva, ductibus oculorum aquosis, et humore oculi aqueo.

Leiden: P. vander Aa, 1685.

Nuck’s name has been attached to the glands and duct described by him.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Lymphatic System
  • 3613

A remarkable account of a liver, appearing glandulous to the eye.

Phil. Trans., 15, 1266-68, 1685.

First description of cirrhosis of the liver.

Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver
  • 3670

The operator for the teeth shewing how to preserve the teeth and gums from all the accidents they are subject to: With particular directions for childrens teeth: As also the description and use of the polican, never published before.

York, England: Printed by John White for the Author, 1685.

The first separate British publication on dentistry, a pamphlet of 22pp. Editions were also published in Dublin, 1686, and London, 1687. The 1685 edition was reprinted by Dawson, 1969, and the Dublin edition was reprinted by the British Dental Association, 1924.

  • 5373

Observationum medicarum Castrensium Hungaricarum.

Helmstadt: F. Lüderwald, 1685.

Pp. 49-51: Cober, a German physician, reported the relationship between typhus and pediculosis.

  • 5407

Observationes medicae circa morborum acutorum historiam et curationem. Ed. quarta.

London: G. Kettilby, 1685.

Contains (Book 3, Cap. 2; Book 5, Cap. 4) an important account of smallpox, particularly the epidemics of 1667-69 and 1674-75. Sydenham attributed smallpox to a specific inflammation of the blood; he clearly distinguished it from measles. His treatment of fevers with fresh air and cooling drinks was an improvement on the sweating methods previously employed. English translation in his Works, ed. R. G. Latham, London, 1848, 1, 123, 219.

  • 6148

La pratique des accouchemens soutenue d’un grand nombre d’observations.

Paris: G. Martin, 1685.

Portal’s important treatise included his demonstration that version could be done with one foot. He also taught that face presentation usually ran a normal course. English translation, 1705.

  • 263

Oculus artificialis teledioptricus sive telescopium. 3 pts.

Würzburg: Q. Heyl, 16851686.

Includes the first complete history of early microscopes.

Subjects: Microscopy, Microscopy › History of Microscopy
  • 9575

Opera omnia, anatomica et medica partim jam antea excusa, sed plurimis locis ab ipso auctore emendata, & aucta, partim nondum edita. Nunc simul collecta, & diligenter recognita, per Timannum de Diemerbroeck ... quorum elenchum sequens pagina indicabit.

Utrecht: M. a Dreunen, & G. a Walcheren, 1685.

Edited by the author's son.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Collected Works: Opera Omnia
  • 10190

Verdadera albeyteria. Divido en quatro libros....Lleva diferentes estampas, donde vàn delineadas las enfermedades que sobrevienen en el cuerpo, braços, y piernas del cavallo....

Madrid: Antonio Gonzalez de Reyes, 1685.

Includes both anatomical engravings and engraving that relate to astrological influences. Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Medical Astrology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 11128

Traité des maladies particulières aux pays orientaux, et dans la route, et de leurs Remèdes. Par M.C.D.D.E.M.

Paris: Claude Barbin, 1685.

At the age of 17, Dellon, who is sometimes referred to as Gabriel Dellon, embarked as second surgeon aboard the ship La Force. He arrived at Darman, in the Portuguese Indies, in 1673, where he was doctor to Luis de Mendonça Furtado, a member of the government council, then viceroy. Dellon was denounced to the Inquisition, arrested and taken to Goa, before being taken to Lisbon three years later and released. Back in France, he finished his studies and became a doctor to the Prince de Conti.

Dellon's work is divided into 12 chapters: vomiting; scurvy or sore ear; colic from Madagascar; venereal disease in Isle Dauphine; diseases of the Indies, fevers; smallpox; snake bites; what the Portuguese call Bicho. Dellon deals with the main diseases observed and Pandite doctors, "people without study, without science" having received only a certain number of precepts but whose "long experience they have of the country that they often succeed better than the foreigners ". Delon reports the remedies used in India, to which he sometimes resorted. He cites the "weird" treatment of burning the feet (at the most calloused place) with a hot iron and using a pepper-based diet in the disease called mordechi (probable food poisoning). Dellon advocates, before Lind, the consumption of lemon juice to prevent scurvy: "Individuals should, if possible, make provision of lemon juice."

Dellon's book was translated into English in 1698 as A voyage to the East-Indies giving an account of the Isles of Madagascar, and Mascareigne, of Suratte, the coast of Malabar, of Goa, Gameron, Ormus : as also A treatise of the distempers peculiar to the eastern countries : to which is annexed an abstract of Monsieur de Rennefort's History of the East-Indies, with his propositions for the improvement of the East-India Company / written originally in French by Mr. Dellon ...

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Madagascar, NUTRITION / DIET › Deficiency Diseases › Scurvy, TROPICAL Medicine , VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 11174

Bibliotheca anatomica sive recens in anatomia inventorum thesaurus locupletissimus, in quo integra qtque absolutissima totius corporis humani descriptio, eiusdémque oeconomia è praestantissimorum quorumque anatomicorum tractatibus singularibus, tum facenus in lucem edis, tum etiam indeditis, concinnata exhiibetur....2 vols.

Geneva: Sumptibus Joannis Anthonii Chovet, 1685.

With reproductions of the original engraved plates, Bibliotheca anatomica was the most extensive compilation of anatomical treatises published in the 17th century. It was an extensive anatomical library in 2 thick volumes. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, Compilations and Anthologies of Medicine
  • 11557

Of the reconcileableness of specifick medicines to the corpuscular philosophy to which is annexed a discourse about the advantages of the use of simple medicines.

London: Printed for Sam. Smith, 1685.

In this work on drug action or pharmacodynamics Boyle argued that remedies composed of only one or two ingredients were preferable to more complex drugs for two reasons. First, because the patient would experience fewer side effects, and second because the physician could more readily verify the effects of a specific drug upon his patient.

Digital text from Early English Books Online at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacodynamics
  • 11718

Variarum observationum liber.

London: prostant apud Robertum Scott Bibliopolam, 1685.

Vossius, a Dutch scholar and manuscript collector, was one of the first European writers to suggest that the Chinese had anticipated William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood. In his chapter on Chinese medicine, De artibus et scientiis Sinarum, Vossius stated that the Chinese had known about the circulation of the blood for over 4,000 years, citing relevant Chinese medical texts, such as the Huang ti nei ching, that had recently been translated into European languages. Vossius also alluded to Harvey's European precursors, including Cesalpino, Paolo Sarpi, and 'an Englishman"; this last was probably Walter Warner, one of the first Englishmen to support Harvey's theory and give an acount of it in the vernacular. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Anatomy of the Heart & Circulatory System, Chinese Medicine › History of Chinese Medicine
  • 12769

Historia sive synopsis methodicae conchyliorum quorum omnium picturae, ad vivum delineata, exhibetur.

London: Sumptibus authoris, 16851692.

"He [Lister] had created a small version of this book for circulation to friends in 1685, but almost immediately began work on an expanded version which was produced from 1685 to 1692. This copy had 490 pages, with 1062 engraved copper plates, showing 2000 figures of molluscs.

"The illustrations were the work of two of his daughters Susanna (1670-1738) and Anna (1671–1704). Their father had encouraged their drawing abilities, and they would have used the shells in his collection, or those sent by friends such as Sir Hans Sloane, from which to make their drawings. They were also responsible for etching or engraving the plates on copper and it is generally assumed that the printing was done by the family at home, rather than taken to a professional printing firm.

"The publication of the first edition of Historiae Conchyliorum was a lengthy and laborious undertaking, it is an impressive feat for anyone to be involved in, but even more so for  Susanna and Anna as it is thought that they were between the ages of 13 and 15 when production began. It was initially published in four books, or parts, and then a second, complete, edition was produced almost immediately and became available in 1697.

"In 1712 Lister bequeathed the original copper plates to the Ashmolean Museum, and in 1770, the curator of the Museum, William Huddesford, published a third edition of the book. He reprinted the illustrations from the original plates, included additional notes from Lister’s manuscript, and dedicated it to the famous shell collector, the Duchess of Portland.

"A final edition was produced in 1823, which included an index by Lewis Weston Dillwyn (1778-1855), the porcelain manufacturer whose shell collection is now housed in the Museum zoology department. This edition includes the notes from the Huddesford version and identifications of the species and remarks by the compiler. It is technically the fourth edition but is known generally as the third" (, accessed 5-2020).

Issued in parts; the collation of copies vary.

Subjects: ZOOLOGY › Malacology
  • 4514

Schedula monitoria de novae febris ingressu.

London: G. Kettilby, 1686.

Includes (pp. 25-28) his classic description of chorea minor (“Sydenham’s chorea”). Reprinted in Med. Classics, 1939, 4, 327-53. In the Sydenham Society translation (see No. 64) the passage occurs in vol. 2, pp. 198-99.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Movement Disorders, NEUROLOGY › Movement Disorders › Chorea
  • 265
  • 67

Ontledingen en ontdekkingen.... 6 vols.

Leiden: Cornelis Boutestein, 16861718.

Leeuwenhoek, one of the first and also one of the greatest of the microbiologists, communicated many of his discoveries to the Royal Society in London. This set is a collection in Dutch of many contributions that van Leeuwenhoek sent to the Royal Society, which were first published in English translation in Philosophical Transactions. Leeuwenhoek was first to describe spermatozoa, and the red blood corpuscles; he discovered the crystalline lens, and was the first to see protozoa under the microscope. He introduced staining in histology in 1719 (saffron for muscle fibers). He also discovered protozoa and bacteria. He is said to have had 250 microscopes and 419 lenses, many of them ground by himself. (See also Nos. 98, 265, 860.) An English translation of his works, omitting all references to spermatozoa, appeared in 2 vols, in 1798-1807. Clifford Dobell’s study, Antony van Leeuwenhoek and his ‘little animals“ (London, 1932), revealed many new facts about the man, and included a bibliography. 

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), BACTERIOLOGY, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, MICROBIOLOGY, Microscopy, ZOOLOGY › Protistology (formerly Protozoology)
  • 1355

Circulus anatomico-physiologicus.

Leipzig: J. F. Gleditsch, 1686.

Bohn's approach was mechanistic in that he grave predominately physical interpretations of vital processes. He experimented on the decapitated frog, declaring the reflex phenomena to be entirely material and mechanical, the general view of the time being that “vital spirits” were present in the nerve-fluid. Bohn showed that the nerves do not contain a “nerve juice”. (See p. 460 of the book.) Bohn also described the function of the heart in iatromechanical terms.

  • 6492.1

Clavis medica ad Chinarum doctrinam de pulsibus. Autore R.P. Michaele Boymo, e Soc. Jesu, & in China missionario. Huius operis ultra viginti annos iam sepulti fragmenta, hinc inde dispersa, collegit & in gratiam medicae facultatis in lucem Europaeam produxit Cl. Dn. Andreas Cleyerus, M.D. & Societatis Batavo-Orientalis Proto-Medicus. A quo nunc demum mittitur totius operis exemplar, e China recens allatum, & a mendis purgatum, Procuratore R.P. Philippo Copletio, Belga, e Soc. Jesu, Chinensis missionis Romam misso.

Nuremberg: [No publisher identified], 1686.

Translations of Chinese treatises on pulse medicine with illustrations of hands and wrists to illustrate pulse-taking. The texts published here are different from those published by Cleyer in No. 6492. Previously published in Misc. cur. Acad. Nat. Cur. (Nürnberg), Dec. II, 4, 1686, 1-144. Digital facsimile of the 1686 edition from at this link.

Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Acupressure, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, Chinese Medicine
  • 66

Opera omnia. 2 vols.

London: R. Scott, 1686.

Malpighi was the founder of histology. In 1660 he was the first to see the capillary anastomosis between the arteries and the veins, thus contributing to the completion of Harvey’s work on the circulation. Malpighi was also a great embryologist; his name is perpetuated in the “Malpighian bodies”, “Malpighi’s layer” of the epidermis, “Malpighi’s (splenic) corpuscles”. Malpighi was an excellent draughtsman but a poor writer. See No. 534.1 Marcello Malpighi and the evolution of embryology, by H. B. Adelmann.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), Collected Works: Opera Omnia, EMBRYOLOGY
  • 7088

De historia piscium libri quatuor.

Oxford: e theatro Sheldoniano [for the Royal Society], 1686.

A large folio volume with 187 engraved plates considered the first modern encyclopedia on fish, this was largely the work of John Ray, prepared and expanded from Willougby's notes, more than a decade after his death. The work was published by the Royal Society at considerable expense; the Society's President, Samuel Pepys, personally underwrote 79 of the engraved plates, and other members sponsored the remaining plates. Despite its importance and sumptuous production, the work was slow to sell, and the Society, still owning a large number of copies 50 years after publication, authorized a re-issue of the original sheets with a cancel title in 1743..

Subjects: Encyclopedias, ZOOLOGY › Ichthyology, ZOOLOGY › Illustration
  • 7090

Historia plantarum.... 3 vols.

London: Mary Clark for Henry Faithorne & Sam. Smith & Benj. Walford, 16861704.

This massive catalogue begins with an extensive general botanical treatise covering plant physiology, plant nutrition and, most importantly, Ray's principles and methodology of botanical classification. Ray adopted Jung's morphological system and terminology, with extensions and modifications based upon his own work and that of Grew and Malpighi. He gave a more precise definition of the flower, adopting the terms "petal" and "pollen," and favored Grew's idea that the stamens were male sex organs. He stressed that breeding true from seed was the essential test of a natural species, but admitted the possibility of limited transmutation. Historia plantarum was a monument to Ray's learning, and prepared the way for Linnaeus, but it enjoyed only small success, being handicapped by its massive size, its lack of illustrations (the Royal Society was unwilling to incur the expense), and the political upheavals occuring at the time of its publication. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY, BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants, BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants
  • 9395

Works. Containing I. Enquiries into vulgar and common errors. II. Religio medici: With annotations and observations upon it. III. Hydriotaphia; or, urn-burial: Together with the garden of Cyrus. IV. Certain miscellaneous tracts. With alphabetical tables.

London: Tho. Bassset, Ric. Chiswell, Tho. Sawbridge ...., 1686.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 975

De glandulis in intestino duodeno hominis detectis.

Heidelberg: C. E. Buchta, 1687.

“Brunner’s glands”, earlier described by Wepfer (No. 974.1).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 2529.1
  • 4012

Osservazioni intorno a’ pellicelli del corpo umano.

Florence: Piero Matini, 1687.

First clinical and experimental proof of infection by a microparasite. Bonomo observed Sarcoptes scabiei, the scabies mite. This gave researchers grounds to think in terms of objective, exogenous pathogenic agents as the cause of disease. This pamphlet was in part translated by Richard Mead in Phil. Trans.,(1702-03), 1703, 23, 1296-99; it was reproduced in facsimile, with Mead’s translation, in Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chicago), 1928, 18, 1-25. See 2529.1.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, PARASITOLOGY › Sarcoptes scabiei (Itch-Mite)
  • 12708

Horti Academici Lugduno-Batavi catalogus exhibens plantarum omnium nomina, quibus ab anno MDCLXXXI ad annum MDCLXXXVI hortus fuit instructus ut & plurimarum in eodem cultarum & à nemine hucusque editarum descriptiones & icones.

Leiden: Cornelius Boutesteyn, 1687.

Catalogue of about 3300 plants in the botanical garden of Leiden University (106 illustrated), compiled, and with plates apparently drawn by the author. Hermann had only recently introduced many plants to Europe from the East Indies, Ceylon, the Cape and America. Most entries give the Latin name of the plant with references to the literature; some give more detailed descriptions. Hermann sailed with the VOC (Dutch East India Company) to Ceylon in 1672 and collected many plants there. As a professor of botany and medicine at Leiden, he directed the University botanical garden from 1679 to his death in 1695. He made it the richest garden in Europe during the Dutch golden age, always in competition with Jan Commelin at the Amsterdam botanical garden. Hermann's premature death prevented publication of a planned second part of this catalogue.

Since the frontispiece and all botanical illustrations are on integral leaves, references to copies with 107 "plates" apparently include the frontispiece. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, BOTANY › Catalogues of Plants
  • 13624

Le bon usage du the, du caffe, et du chocolat pour la preservation & pour la guerison des maladies.

Paris: Estienne Michallet, 1687.

Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: NUTRITION / DIET, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Chocolate, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Coffee, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tea
  • 7955

Remèdes contre les cours de ventre.

Paris, 1688.

"The remedy here treated of is ipecacuanha: although its antidysenteric virtues had previously been made known in 1649 by the writings of Piso and Marggraf [No. 2263.1] it was left to Helvetius, about forty years subsequently, to bring the remedy into public notice in France. This he did in a truly empirical [quack, charlatan] style, keeping his remedy a secret, placarding its virtues on the street walls, &c. So great was his success, the Dauphin of France having been cured by its means, that the French king purchased from Helvetius his secret for 1000 louis-d'or and made it public" (Waring, Bibliotheca therapeutica 1, 526).

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Amoebiasis, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Ipecacuanha
  • 1726

De renunciatione vulnerum, seu vulnerum lethalium examen.

Leipzig: J. F. Gleditsch, 1689.

“The best work on fatal injuries, with frequent references of medicolegal importance” (Nemec).

Subjects: Forensic Medicine (Legal Medicine)
  • 3216

Phthisiologia, seu exercitationes de phthisi.

London: imp. S. Smith, 1689.

The first application of the principles of pathology to the study of pulmonary tuberculosis. Morton showed that the formation of tubercles is a necessary part of the development of this lung disease, and pointed out that the tubercles often heal spontaneously. He noted the enlargement of the tracheal and bronchial glands in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. The book was translated into English in 1694. Chap. I included the first account of anorexia nervosa.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PULMONOLOGY › Lung Diseases › Pulmonary Tuberculosis
  • 6321

De morbis acutis infantum.

London: Samuel Smith, 1689.

Harris was physician to William and Mary. His book served for nearly a century as a standard work on pediatrics. He anticipated the modern treatment of tetany by using calcium salts in infantile convulsions. For a study of the book, see Ann. med. Hist., 1919, 2, 228-40. English translation 1693, 1742.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, PEDIATRICS
  • 12782

Anatome ossium novis inventis illustrata.

Rome, 1689.

Gagliardi, a papal physician, fiirst described the lamellar structure of the bones.  He also carried out some tests and comparative research between human and calf bones, and probably first described a case of bone tuberculosis. The work includes research and illustrations on the structure of teeth.  Gagliardi was also reputed to have been the first to describe the tooth enamel in detail. According to Desirabode, he obtained sparks from tooth enamel "by hitting them with steel".
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, DENTISTRY › Dental Anatomy & Physiology
  • 13100

Catalogus plantarum Horti Medici Amstelodamensis. Pars prior.

Amsterdam: Arnold Ooasaen for J. Commelin, 1689.

First published catalogue of plants of the Hortus Medicus, precursor of the Hortus Botanicus. The Hortus Medicus, founded in 1682 under Commelin's guidance, was ranked among the most comprehensive in Europe, including exotic species collected by he captains of the VOC and WIC from their voyages. Pars prior was all published. Digital facsimile from Googel Books at this link.


Subjects: BOTANY › Botanical Gardens, BOTANY › Medical Botany › Medical Botany
  • 13411

Prodromus historiae generalis plantarum, in quo familiae plantarum per tabulas disponuntur.

Montpellier: Gabriel et Honorat Pech, 1689.

Magnol invented of the concept of plant families, a natural classification, based on combinations of morphological character.  "In his Prodromus he developed 75 tables, which not only grouped plants into families but also allowed for an easy and rapid identification by means of the morphological characters, the same he used to compose the groups....In 1703 Charles Plumier (1646–1704) named a flowering tree from the island of Martinique Magnolia, after Magnol.[6] The name was later adopted by William Sherard, when he did the nomenclatural parts of Hortus Elthamensis by Johann Jacob Dillenius, and The Natural History of Carolina by Mark Catesby, to denote a flowering tree now known as Magnolia virginiana, taking it for the same species as that described by Plumier. Linnaeus took over this name in the first edition of Species plantarum, including references to both Plumier's and Sherard's names. In this way, Magnolia became the generally recognized name of a large genus of ornamental flowering trees"
(Wikipedia article on Pierre Magnol, accessed 8-21). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: BOTANY › Classification / Systemization of Plants