An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

15961 entries, 13944 authors and 1935 subjects. Updated: April 29, 2024

Browse by Publication Year 2020–2029

121 entries
  • 11485

The myth of the perfect pregnancy: A history of miscarriage in America.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › OBSTETRICS › History of Obstetrics, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About, WOMEN, Publications by, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11867

The promise and challenge of therapeutic genome editing.

Nature, 578, 229-239, 2020.

A review of the scope of potential genome editing applications, the strategies from the most basic (2012) to the most recent (i.e. No. 11866), the current status of tissue specific delivery, accuracy, precision and safety of genome editing, clinical/therapeutic genome editing, and heritable genome editing. The 115 references to landmarks in the brief history of this science are arranged with bold letter synopsis under each, documenting watershed moments over the previous decade. Doudma concluded her Abstract with, "Genome editing is— or will soon be— in the clinic for several diseases, with more applications under development. The rapid pace of the field demands active efforts to ensure that this breakthrough technology is used responsibly to treat, cure and prevent genetic diseases."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11868

The arms race between bacteria and their phage foes.

Nature, 577, 327-336, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Hampton, Watson, Fineran. Summarizes, and documents with 173 references, the extensive research on the multitude of methods that bacteriophages use to disable the CRISPR immune system attacks from their bacteria hosts.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR , VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11876

A bacteriophage nucleus like compartment shields DNA from CRISPR nucleases.

Nature, 577, 244-248, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mendoza, Nieweglowska, Govindarajan. The authors showed that the large phage that specifically infects a Pseudomonas bacterium segregates its DNA, which the phage CRISPR would attack and destroy, by building a proteinaceous compartment or wall around its DNA. This protein barrier makes its DNA inaccessible to the CRISPR nuclease attack and destruction. This could be called the operation of natural selection at the molecular level.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR , VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 11877

Clades of huge phages from across Earth's ecosystems.

Nature, 578, 425-431, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Al-Shayeb, Sachdeva, Chen.... Doudna.  Open access, available from at this link.

This paper was a collaboration of about 50 scientists of diverse regions and specialities, assembled to advance knowledge of the bacteriophage evolutionary response and the tools huge phages possess against the onslaught of the bacterial immune system. The authors reconstructed 351 phage sequences and derived metagenomics datasets acquired from human feces, buccal areas, animal fecal samples, freshwater lakes and rivers, marine ecosystems sediments, hot springs soils, deep subsurface habitats, etc., mirroring most aspects of the earth's ecosystems. The main findings of this research were:

1. Many of the genomes of large phages have a length that rivals those of small celled bacteria.

2. These expanded genomes of large phages include diverse and previously undescribed CRISPR-Cas systems, TRNA's, tRNA synthases, tRNA modification enzymes, ribosomal proteins and others.

3. CRISPR-Cas systems of phages have the capacity to silence host transcriptional factors and translational genes, potentially as part of a larger interaction network that intercepts translation to redirect biosynthesis to phage encoded functions.

4. Some phages may repurpose bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems to eliminate competing phages.

5. The number of huge genome phages was far higher than expected.

6. Some phages that lack genes for interference and spacer integration have similar CRISPR repeats as their hosts and may therefore use the Cas proteins of the host.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR , BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Genomics, VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 2000 -
  • 12013

Continual raving: A history of meningitis and the people who conquered it.

New York, 2020.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis
  • 12042

Sir William Osler: An encyclopedia. Edited by Charles S. Bryan.

Novato, CA: Norman Publishing & The American Osler Society, 2020.

The definitive reference on Sir William Osler, his life, his times, his friends, and his influence. Osler was voted "the most influential physician in history" in a 2016 survey of North American doctors, but his interests and influence transcend medicine. This is the first comprehensive reference on Osler's personality, character, life, times and thinking about a broad range of issues relevant to the human condition. The nearly 967 page work written by 135 contributors addresses four questions:

What was Osler really like, and what did he do?

What did Osler write, and who influenced his thinking?

How has Osler been assessed during the century since his death in 1919?

Does Osler still matter, and, if so, how?

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Biographies of Individuals, Encyclopedias
  • 12062

An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time.

Lancet Infectious Diseases, February 19, 2020, 2020.

"During the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, Gardner recognised that the public, researchers and health authorities needed clear, accessible and up-to-date information.[8] Working with a team in Australia, Gardner and Ensheng Dong created an interactive dashboard that debuted on January 22, 2020.[9][10] During March 2020, the platform was accessed 1.2 billion times per day.[9]" (Wikipedia article on Lauren Gardner (scientist), accessed 3-2020).

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 12073

First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States.

New Eng. J. Med., 382, 929-936, 2020.

Published on March 5, 2020. 

Order of authorship in the original publication: Holshue, DeBolt, Lindquist....Cohn. 


"An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient’s initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection.

"On December 31, 2019, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in people associated with the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, Hubei Province.1On January 7, 2020, Chinese health authorities confirmed that this cluster was associated with a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV.2 Although cases were originally reported to be associated with exposure to the seafood market in Wuhan, current epidemiologic data indicate that person-to-person transmission of 2019-nCoV is occurring.3-6 As of January 30, 2020, a total of 9976 cases had been reported in at least 21 countries,7 including the first confirmed case of 2019-nCoV infection in the United States, reported on January 20, 2020. Investigations are under way worldwide to better understand transmission dynamics and the spectrum of clinical illness. This report describes the epidemiologic and clinical features of the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States."

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12074

A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin.

Nature, 579, 270-273, 2020.

This article was published in Nature on 3 February 2020. Prior to that a version with a different title and numerous other co-authors was published in bioRxiv on 23 January 2020, as "Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with a recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin". The publication date of  23 January 2020 makes this paper the earliest scientific paper  published in a Western language describing the COVID-19 pandemic.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Zhou, Yang, Zheng. 

Abstract of the paper as it appeared in Nature on 3 February 2020:

"Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1,2,3,4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5,6,7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV."

Open access from at this link.



Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12093

How Twitter is changing medical research.

Nature Medicine, 26, 7-13, 2020.

"From online journal clubs to 'tweetorials' to conference updates, social media is changing the dissemination and discussion of biomedicine."

Open access from at this link.  Reprinted by on April 1, 2020 at this link.

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Social Media and Medicine
  • 12100

IHME COVID-19 health service utilization forecasting team. Forecasting COVID-19 impact on hospital bed-days, ICU-days, ventilator days and deaths by US state in the next 4 months.

MedRxiv. 26 March 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.03.27.20043752., 2020.


This paper was published online on March 26, 2020 and updated periodically.  When I added it to this database on April 2, 2020 it had been updated on March 31, 2020. At that time the paper was available from at this link.

The paper was accompanied by data visualizations entitled COVID-19 US State-by-State Projections.

The interactive versions of these projections, available for the U.S. as a whole, and state by state, were available here:

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Visualization, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12105

Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus,and early Homo erectus in South Africa.

Science, 368, Issue 6486, 1-19, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Herries, Martin, Leece....Menter.


"Understanding the extinction of Australopithecus and origins of Paranthropus and Homo in South Africa has been hampered by the perceived complex geological context of hominin fossils, poor chronological resolution, and a lack of well-preserved early Homo specimens. We describe, date, and contextualize the discovery of two hominin crania from Drimolen Main Quarry in South Africa. At ~2.04 million to 1.95 million years old, DNH 152 represents the earliest definitive occurrence of Paranthropus robustus, and DNH 134 represents the earliest occurrence of a cranium with clear affinities to Homo erectus. These crania also show that Homo, Paranthropus, and Australopithecus were contemporaneous at ~2 million years ago. This high taxonomic diversity is also reflected in non-hominin species and provides evidence of endemic evolution and dispersal during a period of climatic variability."

Available online from at this link.


Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 12117

Infectious mononucleosis diagnosed by Downey cells: Sometimes the old ways are better.

Lancet, 395, 225 (only), 2020.

The Downey cell method for the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis remains effective and cost-effective nearly 100 years after it was discovered:

"An 18-year-old woman visited her physician because she had a fever, a sore throat, and painful swellings in her neck for the past 5 days. A rapid antigen detection test for streptococcus was negative, and because of exudates on the patient's tonsils and very enlarged cervical lymph nodes, the physician tested for infectious mononucleosis or glandular fever. A rapid point-of-care test for heterophile antibodies—the Monospot test—was negative, a full blood count with autodifferential was normal, and a throat culture for group A streptococcus was negative. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies—viral capsid antigen IgM and IgG, and EBV-associated nuclear antigen antibodies—were also negative."

After her visit to the physician the patient's condition deteriorated. When she went to the emergency room a manual differential was done, and it was loaded with with all three types of Downey cells. To confirm the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, they tested her plasma for viral DNA with the relatively expensive EBV PCR (Epstein Barr Virus Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction test), which gave a positive result. This confirmed the diagnosis.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Infectious Mononucleosis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 12119

A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China.

Nature, 579, 265-269, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wu, Zhao...Holmes, Zang. This was the first paper written in China, and published in a Western language, on the first COVID-19 patient admitted to any Wuhan hospital on December 26, 2019. Nature received the paper on January 7, 2020, but did not publish it until February 3, 2020.


"Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1,2,3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans."

Open access from at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12156

Archiving web content on the Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19).

Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2020.

"The National Library of Medicine is archiving web and social media documenting the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as part of the Library’s ongoing Global Health Events web archive collection. NLM’s Web Collecting and Archiving Working Group began this effort on January 30 when the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and will continue to develop the collection throughout its duration.  This work follows NLM’s earlier Global Health Events archive collecting related to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak, the 2016 Zika Virus Outbreak, and more.

The Working Group is archiving content documenting the international, federal, state, and local government response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as well as social media communications using popular hashtags.  NLM will continue and expand this effort to document a broad range of perspectives, reactions, and response to the pandemic in support of future research and understanding of this global health event.

This work is supported by the Collection Development Guidelines of the NLM , which considers Web sites, blogs, social media and other web content to play an increasingly important role in documenting the scholarly biomedical record and illustrating a diversity of cultural perspectives in health and medicine. NLM will continue to develop, review, describe, and add content related to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak to the Global Health Events web archive and welcomes recommendations for additional content to include.  For more information about NLM’s Web collecting efforts, please visit"

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12157

Documenting COVID-19, [a collaborative document.]

Documenting the Now, 2020.
[I copied this document into this database on April 9, 2020.]

"Documenting COVID-19



This is a collaborative document that lists active documentation projects for the COVID-19. In addition there are sections for guides and tools that can be useful for starting documentation projects of your own. All languages are welcome. The goal is to help build a loose network for sharing practices, resources and expertise. Editing is currently open, but please see the Documenting the Now Code of Conduct for guidance on how to contribute to this document.


These are active projects to collect materials related to the Coronavirus pandemic. Please list in alphabetical order the name of the project and at least one URL for a page that describes it. If you would like to add more detail please feel free. an online archive as a public history project (Citizen Science) and 



This is a list of resources & guides that are useful in building a collection. A title and a URL are required, but feel free to add more detail if you think it is useful.

ToolsDocNow Tools:

This list contains tools that you may find useful for creating collections. A name and URL are required, but feel free to add more detail if you think it is useful.

Community Owned Preservation Tools Registry:

Additional Reading

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Collaborations Online (Wikis), DIGITAL RESOURCES › Social Media and Medicine, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12179

A companion to Byzantine science. Edited by Stavros Lazaris.

Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2020.

Chapters relevant to this bibliography include:
Zoology by Arnaud Zucker
Botany by Alain Touwaide
Medicine and Pharmacy by Alain Touwaide
Veterinary Medicine by Stavros Lazaris
Byzantine Theories of Vision by Katerina Ierodiakonou.

Subjects: BOTANY › History of Botany, BYZANTINE MEDICINE › Byzantine Veterinary Medicine, BYZANTINE MEDICINE › History of Byzantine Medicine, Byzantine Zoology, VETERINARY MEDICINE › History of Veterinary Medicine
  • 12181

Direct evidence of Neanderthal fibre technology and its cognitive and behavioral implications.

Nature, Scientific Reports, 10, Article 4889,, 2020.


"Neanderthals are often considered as less technologically advanced than modern humans. However, we typically only find faunal remains or stone tools at Paleolithic sites. Perishable materials, comprising the vast majority of material culture items, are typically missing. Individual twisted fibres on stone tools from the Abri du Maras led to the hypothesis of Neanderthal string production in the past, but conclusive evidence was lacking. Here we show direct evidence of fibre technology in the form of a 3-ply cord fragment made from inner bark fibres on a stone tool recovered in situ from the same site. Twisted fibres provide the basis for clothing, rope, bags, nets, mats, boats, etc. which, once discovered, would have become an indispensable part of daily life. Understanding and use of twisted fibres implies the use of complex multi-component technology as well as a mathematical understanding of pairs, sets, and numbers. Added to recent evidence of birch bark tar, art, and shell beads, the idea that Neanderthals were cognitively inferior to modern humans is becoming increasingly untenable."

Open access; available from at this link.

Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 12182

Harnessing wearable device data to improve state-level real-time surveillance of influenza-like illness in the USA: A population-based study.

Lancet Digital Health, 2, PE85-E93, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Radin, Wineinger, Topol, Steinhubl.


"Acute infections can cause an individual to have an elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and change their routine daily activities due to the physiological response to the inflammatory insult. Consequently, we aimed to evaluate if population trends of seasonal respiratory infections, such as influenza, could be identified through wearable sensors that collect RHR and sleep data.


"We obtained de-identified sensor data from 200 000 individuals who used a Fitbit wearable device from March 1, 2016, to March 1, 2018, in the USA. We included users who wore a Fitbit for at least 60 days and used the same wearable throughout the entire period, and focused on the top five states with the most Fitbit users in the dataset: California, Texas, New York, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Inclusion criteria included having a self-reported birth year between 1930 and 2004, height greater than 1 m, and weight greater than 20 kg. We excluded daily measurements with missing RHR, missing wear time, and wear time less than 1000 min per day. We compared sensor data with weekly estimates of influenza-like illness (ILI) rates at the state level, as reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by identifying weeks in which Fitbit users displayed elevated RHRs and increased sleep levels. For each state, we modelled ILI case counts with a negative binomial model that included 3-week lagged CDC ILI rate data (null model) and the proportion of weekly Fitbit users with elevated RHR and increased sleep duration above a specified threshold (full model). We also evaluated weekly change in ILI rate by linear regression using change in proportion of elevated Fitbit data. Pearson correlation was used to compare predicted versus CDC reported ILI rates.


"We identified 47 249 users in the top five states who wore a Fitbit consistently during the study period, including more than 13·3 million total RHR and sleep measures. We found the Fitbit data significantly improved ILI predictions in all five states, with an average increase in Pearson correlation of 0·12 (SD 0·07) over baseline models, corresponding to an improvement of 6·3–32·9%. Correlations of the final models with the CDC ILI rates ranged from 0·84 to 0·97. Week-to-week changes in the proportion of Fitbit users with abnormal data were associated with week-to-week changes in ILI rates in most cases.


"Activity and physiological trackers are increasingly used in the USA and globally to monitor individual health. By accessing these data, it could be possible to improve real-time and geographically refined influenza surveillance. This information could be vital to enact timely outbreak response measures to prevent further transmission of influenza cases during outbreaks."

Open access from at this link.

Subjects: Digital Health & Medicine , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza
  • 12186


TOPOS.COM, 2020.

"COVID-19 Compiler aims to display relevant data about the novel coronavirus outbreak in the United States.

"Our goal is to provide a multidimensional view of covid-19’s impact in counties across the US encompassing the mapping of vulnerable populations, state and local policies to reduce transmission, and data on medical / health care resources. The site is updated daily with the latest data available on the outbreak.

The site provides numerous other maps covering different statistics such as political affiliation, income, co-morbidities, etc.

Subjects: Cartography, Medical & Biological, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 12190

Covid-19 changed how the world does science, together. Never before, scientists say, have so many of the world's researchers focused so urgently on a single topic. Nearly all other research has ground to a halt.

New York: The New York Times, 2020.