An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 23, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 12100–12199

100 entries
  • 12100

IHME COVID-19 health service utilization forecasting team. Forecasting COVID-19 impact on hospital bed-days, ICU-days, ventilator days and deaths by US state in the next 4 months.

MedRxiv. 26 March 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.03.27.20043752., 2020.


This paper was published online on March 26, 2020 and updated periodically.  When I added it to this database on April 2, 2020 it had been updated on March 31, 2020. At that time the paper was available from at this link.

The paper was accompanied by data visualizations entitled COVID-19 US State-by-State Projections.

The interactive versions of these projections, available for the U.S. as a whole, and state by state, were available here:

Subjects: COMPUTING/MATHEMATICS in Medicine & Biology › Visualization, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12101

Medicine in the Old West: A history, 1850–1900.

Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2010.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American West
  • 12102

Alcohol and opium in the Old West: Use, abuse and influence.

Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2013.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › United States › American West, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Opium, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › History of Drug Addiction
  • 12103

Age-specific excess mortality patterns during the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Madrid, Spain.

Am. J. Epidemiol., 187, 2511-2523, 2018.


"Although much progress has been made to uncover age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918 influenza pandemic in populations around the world, more studies in different populations are needed to make sense of the heterogeneous death impact of this pandemic. We assessed the absolute and relative magnitudes of 3 pandemic waves in the city of Madrid, Spain, between 1918 and 1920, on the basis of age-specific all-cause and respiratory excess death rates. Excess death rates were estimated using a Serfling model with a parametric bootstrapping approach to calibrate baseline death levels with quantified uncertainty. Excess all-cause and pneumonia and influenza mortality rates were estimated for different pandemic waves and age groups. The youngest and oldest persons experienced the highest excess mortality rates, and young adults faced the highest standardized mortality risk. Waves differed in strength; the peak standardized mortality risk occurred during the herald wave in spring 1918, but the highest excess rates occurred during the fall and winter of 1918/1919. Little evidence was found to support a “W”-shaped, age-specific excess mortality curve. Acquired immunity may have tempered a protracted fall wave, but recrudescent waves following the initial 2 outbreaks heightened the total pandemic mortality impact."

Freely available from at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Spain, DEATH & DYING › Mortality Statistics, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza › 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 virus)
  • 12104

Essay on superstition; being an inquiry into the effects of physical influence on the mind, in the production of dreams, visions, ghosts, and other supernatural appearances.

London: J. Hatchard & Son, 1830.

In this conceptual anticipation of later ideas in psychopharmacology Newnham argued that dreams, visions, apparitions and other apparently spiritual manifestations, whether good or bad, arose from physiological rather than supernatural causes. He provided evidence that the effects on the brain from disease, medications (including nitrous oxide and opium) and trauma, causing "disturbance of brainular function", could produce such experiences. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › Psychopharmacology, PSYCHOLOGY, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12105

Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus,and early Homo erectus in South Africa.

Science, 368, Issue 6486, 1-19, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Herries, Martin, Leece....Menter.


"Understanding the extinction of Australopithecus and origins of Paranthropus and Homo in South Africa has been hampered by the perceived complex geological context of hominin fossils, poor chronological resolution, and a lack of well-preserved early Homo specimens. We describe, date, and contextualize the discovery of two hominin crania from Drimolen Main Quarry in South Africa. At ~2.04 million to 1.95 million years old, DNH 152 represents the earliest definitive occurrence of Paranthropus robustus, and DNH 134 represents the earliest occurrence of a cranium with clear affinities to Homo erectus. These crania also show that Homo, Paranthropus, and Australopithecus were contemporaneous at ~2 million years ago. This high taxonomic diversity is also reflected in non-hominin species and provides evidence of endemic evolution and dispersal during a period of climatic variability."

Available online from at this link.


Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 12106

Pandemic influenza 1700-1900: A study in historical epidemiology.

Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1996.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza
  • 12107

Death and disease in Southeast Asia: Explorations in social, medical, and demographic history. Edited by Norman G. Owen.

Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1987.

  • 12108

Influenza: A survey of the last fifty years in the light of modern work on the virus of epidemic influenza.

Melbourne & London, 1942.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza
  • 12109

A treatise on influenza, with special reference to the pandemic of 1918.

North Lakhimpur, India: Published by the Author, 1923.

Sen, company doctor on the Hurmutty Tea Estate in Assam, estimated that the pandemic killed about 15,000,000 people in India.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › India, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza › 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 virus), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Orthomyxoviridae › Influenza A Virus › Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
  • 12110

The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic.

Bull. Hist. Med., 65, 4-21, 1991.

A summary of the international impact of the 1918 pandemic, its movement around the globe, and mortality estimates for various countries.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Influenza › 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 virus)
  • 12111

The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults.

Cell, 86, 973-983, 1996.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Lemaitre, Nicolas,... Hoffmann.  This paper represented the foundation of molecular immunology. Hoffmann and colleagues found that flies with mutated Toll genes were unable to mount an immune response when infected with Aspergillus fungus. They realized that Toll genes that code for a receptor complex (Toll-like receptor) are responsible for sensing pathogens, and that in mutant flies which cannot produce the receptor complex, the Aspergillus fungi are not sensed, and the immune system is not activated, causing the fly to be overwhelmed with a massive infection and die. The authors elucidated a very complex molecular cellular pathway activated by Toll once a pathogen is sensed, leading to gene transcription encoding a novel peptide antifungal protein named Drosomycin made by the fly.

Full text available from at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology
  • 12112

Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: Mutations in the Tlr4 gene.

Science, 282, 2085-2088, 1998.

Order of authorship in the original paper: Poltorak, Smirnova...Beutler. The authors, led by Beutler, showed that mice that harbor a mutation of the gene which codes for the production of the Toll-like receptor TLR4 quickly die of sepsis if challenged with a Gram-negative pathogen because they cannot sense the Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and, for that reason, cannot mount an adequate immune response. 

In 2011 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011 was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity," and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 12113

Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 102, 7994-7999, 2005.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wolfe, Heniene, Carr ...Birx.... 

"As of 2016, 301 terrestrial mammals were threatened with extinction due to hunting for bushmeat including primateseven-toed ungulatesbats, diprotodont marsupialsrodents and carnivores occurring in developing countries.[5]Killing and processing bushmeat has created an increased opportunity for transmission of  "several zoonotic viruses from animal hosts to humans, such as EbolavirusHIV,[6][7][8] and various species of coronavirus including SARS-CoV-2.[9]" (Wikipedia article on Bushmeat, accessed 4-2020). 

Wolfe and colleagues analyzed blood of bushmeat hunters in Cameroon and discovered two novel viruses previously unknown: Human T-lymphopic virus-3 HTLV-3 and HTLV-4. They also reported that HTLV-3 is genetically similar to STLV-3 of monkeys and posited that this virus mutated and jumped from humans to monkeys. Available from at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

  • 12114

The significance of recent American cases of hookworm disease (Uncinariasis or Anchylostomiasis) in man.

18th Ann. Rep. Bur. Animal Industry 1901, 183-192, 1902.

In this paper Stiles fully characterized and extensively illustrated the American hookworm parasite that he first described in No. 5363. This species and the Schistosoma are the pathogenic organisms that can penetrate intact skin of mankind.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

  • 12115

Entozoorum synopsis cui accedunt mantissa duplex et indices locupletissimi.

Berlin: August Rücker, 1819.

In this work Rudolphi detailed the life cycle of nematode parasites of mankind, such as the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.  Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: PARASITOLOGY › Helminths
  • 12116

Acute lymphadenosis compared with acute lymphatic leukemia, Part II - Hematologic studies.

Arch. Int. Med., 32, 82-112, 1923.

Downey characterized reactive lymphocytes, usually associated with viral illnesses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, but which can also be caused by drug reactions or other pathogens. He classified the cells into type 1, type 2, and type 3. They were later called "Downey cells".

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

  • 12117

Infectious mononucleosis diagnosed by Downey cells: Sometimes the old ways are better.

Lancet, 395, 225 (only), 2020.

The Downey cell method for the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis remains effective and cost-effective nearly 100 years after it was discovered:

"An 18-year-old woman visited her physician because she had a fever, a sore throat, and painful swellings in her neck for the past 5 days. A rapid antigen detection test for streptococcus was negative, and because of exudates on the patient's tonsils and very enlarged cervical lymph nodes, the physician tested for infectious mononucleosis or glandular fever. A rapid point-of-care test for heterophile antibodies—the Monospot test—was negative, a full blood count with autodifferential was normal, and a throat culture for group A streptococcus was negative. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies—viral capsid antigen IgM and IgG, and EBV-associated nuclear antigen antibodies—were also negative."

After her visit to the physician the patient's condition deteriorated. When she went to the emergency room a manual differential was done, and it was loaded with with all three types of Downey cells. To confirm the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, they tested her plasma for viral DNA with the relatively expensive EBV PCR (Epstein Barr Virus Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction test), which gave a positive result. This confirmed the diagnosis.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Infectious Mononucleosis, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 12118

The evolution and emergence of RNA viruses.

New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

"This impressive monograph by Edward Holmes opens with a quotation from La Peste, by Albert Camus: “Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world; yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky.” This apt quotation might lead the reader to believe that the evolution and emergence of RNA viruses in causing new diseases would be discussed, but in fact the book, as its title suggests, concentrates on how RNA viruses evolve and emerge at the molecular level, not how they cause disease.

"In addition to explaining what is currently known about the origins of RNA viruses, the book describes the mechanisms of RNA virus evolution, RNA virus quasispecies, and comparative genomics, as well as interesting new concepts, such as phylogeography. This term refers to the spatial movement of a phylogenetic species, which can be described in various ways (Holmes lists 5), two of which are the gravity model and the strong spatial subdivision model. In the former, patterns of transmission are driven by major population centers before moving out to smaller populations (influenza virus). In the spatial subdivision model, no clear evidence of migration among populations is presented (hepatitis C virus), and genomic diversity is partitioned into a series of clades (types and subtypes)" (from the review by Brian W.J. Mahy, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 16, p. 899.)

Subjects: VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology
  • 12119

A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China.

Nature, 579, 265-269, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Wu, Zhao...Holmes, Zang. This was the first paper written in China, and published in a Western language, on the first COVID-19 patient admitted to any Wuhan hospital on December 26, 2019. Nature received the paper on January 7, 2020, but did not publish it until February 3, 2020.


"Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health1,2,3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China5. This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans."

Open access from at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › China, People's Republic of, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12120

The Pan-American Health Organization: Origins and Evolution.

Geneva: World Health Organization, 1981.

Subjects: Global Health, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 12121

International public health between the two world wars: The organizational problems.

Geneva: World Health Organization, 1978.

Subjects: Global Health, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 12122

Gleanings from the natural history of the ancients.

London: Elliot Stock, 1885.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 12123

Correspondence inédite entre Réaumur et Abraham Trembley, comprenant 113 lettres, recueillies et annotées par Maurice Trembley. Introduction par Emile Guyenot.

Geneva: Georg & Cie, 1943.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Regeneration, NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 12124

Nature's enigma: The problem of the polyp in the letters of Bonnet, Trembley and Réaumur. By Virginia P. Dawson.

Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1987.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Regeneration, NATURAL HISTORY › History of Natural History
  • 12125

Plague and plague control in the Soviet Union: History and bibliography through 1964.

New York: Institute of Contemporary Russian Studies, 1966.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Diseases, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans) › Plague, History of
  • 12126

The nomenclature of diseases drawn up by a joint committee appointed by the Royal College of Physicians of London. (Subject to decennial revision).

London: Printed for the Royal College of Physicans, 1869.

"The first authoritative source of disease terminology, with the names in English, Latin, French, German and Italian. Standardization of disease terminology was necessary for accurate recording and study of mortality, etc. The Committee was greatly aided by William Farr. Joseph Dalton Hooker revised the botanical names. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Mortality Statistics, Nosology
  • 12127

First annual report of the Registrar-General on births, deaths, and marriages in England.

London: Printed by W. Clowes for Her Majesty's Stationery Office & Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1839.

In 1836 the Births and Deaths Registration Act was passed in England with provisions for inquiry into causes of death in the population, and registration began during the following year through the General Registration Office, directed by the Registrar-General. In 1839, William Farr was appointed compiler of abstracts in the Registrar-General’s office, and he, probably more than anyone else, developed and analyzed mortality statistics to delineate the sanitary and health problems of the day. This was the first of several annual reports to which William Farr contributed. His report, dated 6 May 1839,  was entitled "Letter to the Registrar-General from William Farr, Esq." Summarizing "the recorded causes of 141,607 deaths" registered in England and Wales during the half-year ending on December 31st, 1837, it appeared on pp. 86-118 of the Report. Digital facsimile of this and later annual reports from the Registrar-General from the Hathi Trust at this link.

A summary of Farr's report was published in the Journal of the Statistical Society of London, 2 (1839) 269-274 as "First annual report of the Registrar-General on births, deaths, and marriages in England, in 1837-8." The reviewer complimented Farr's analysis for providing the statistics as well as the deductions; the statistics would enable Farr's deductions to be tested, and used in further comparisons and calculations.

Digital facsimile of the summary from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: DEATH & DYING › Mortality Statistics, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics
  • 12128

U.S. Vital Statistics System: Major activities and developments, 1950-95. From the Center for Disease Control and Prevention/ National Center for Health Statistics. Includes reprint of "History and organization of the Vital Statistics system" to 1950.

Hyattville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1997.

Appendix two is a reprint of "History and organization of the Vital Statistics System" by A. M. Hetzel, that first appeared in Vital Statistics of the United States I (1950) 1-19. Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics › History of Demography
  • 12129

The tale of healer Miguel Perdomo Neira: Medicine, ideologies, and power in the nineteenth-century Andes.

Wilmington, DE: S R Books, 2001.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Peru, TRADITIONAL, Folk or Indigenous Medicine
  • 12130

Medicine on the periphery: Public health in Yucatán, Mexico, 1870-1960.

Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Mexico, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 12131

Revolutionary medicine: Health and the body in post-Soviet Cuba.

Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2012.

"Until the Soviet bloc collapsed in 1989, socialist Cuba encouraged citizens to view access to health care as a human right and the state's responsibility to provide it as a moral imperative. Since the loss of Soviet subsidies and the tightening of the U.S. economic embargo, Cuba's government has found it hard to provide the high-quality universal medical care that was so central to the revolutionary socialist project. In Revolutionary Medicine, P. Sean Brotherton deftly integrates theory and history with ethnographic research in Havana, including interviews with family physicians, public health officials, research scientists, and citizens seeking medical care. He describes how the deterioration of health and social welfare programs has led Cubans to seek health care through informal arrangements, as well as state-sponsored programs. Their creative, resourceful pursuit of health and well-being provides insight into how they navigate, adapt to, and pragmatically cope with the rapid social, economic, and political changes in post-Soviet Cuba." (publisher).

Subjects: ANTHROPOLOGY › Medical Anthropology, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Cuba, Social or Sociopolitical Histories of Medicine & the Life Sciences
  • 12132

The scientific study of mummies.

Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Subjects: PATHOLOGY › Paleopathology
  • 12133

Chemical biology. Selected papers of H. Gobind Khorana (with introductions).

Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2000.

Khorana edited this selection of his key papers and wrote the introductions to each paper.

  • 12134

The American dispensatory, containing the operations of pharmacy; Together with the natural, chemical, pharmaceutical and medical history of the different substances employed in medicine; illustrated and explained, according to the principles of modern chemistry: Comprehending the improvements in Dr. Duncan's second edition of the Edinburgh new dispensatory. The arrangement simplified, and the whole adapted to the practice of medicine and pharmacy in the United States. With several copperplates, exhibiting the new system of chemical characters, and representing the most useful apparatus.

Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1806.

Coxe's "formulary" was the first attempt at standarization of drugs and their preparation in the United States. Digital facsimile from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACOLOGY › Pharmacopeias › Dispensatories or Formularies
  • 12135

Pharmacopoea Amstelredamensis, Senatus auctoritate munita. [Edited by Nicolaes Tulp.]

Amsterdam: Apud G. & I. Blaeu, 1636.

Tulp was both a surgeon and mayor of Amsterdam. As such he was responsible for inspections of apothecary shops. Thanks to new shipping routes, pharmacists in Amsterdam had access to many exotic herbs and spices from the East,  from which they made a big business in new medicines; in Tulp's time there were 66 apothecaries in Amsterdam. Shocked at the exorbitant prices asked for useless anti-plague medicines when Amsterdam was stricken by plague in 1635, Tulp gathered his physician and pharmacist colleagues to write the first Amsterdam pharmacopeia in 1636, the Pharmacopoea Amstelredamensis. To maintain sufficiently high standards, the Amsterdam Apothecary guild required an exam based on the pharmacopeia before new pharmacists could set up shop in Amsterdam. This pharmacopoeia became a standard work, and set an example for all the other cities in Holland. Digital facsimile of "Editio altera" also published in 1636 from the Internet Archive at this link.

Facsimile of the first Amsterdam pharmacopoeia, 1636, with an introduction by D.A. Wittop Koning. [Introd. translated into English by Miss C.F.L. Los]. Nieuwkoop: B. de Graaf, 1961.

  • 12136

Life in the sickroom: Essays by an invalid.

London: Edward Moxon, 1844.

"Life in the Sickroom is one of many first-hand accounts of the experience of being ill written by an invalid.  Martineau was ill for six years, but she found taking on the identity of an invalid a reprieve from the stresses of daily life.  What is interesting about her account, then, is that rather than depicting the difficulties of being ill, she portrays life in the sickroom as a time of rest and reflection, a welcome repose that can lead to time for thought and greater insight. Nor was she unusual in this respect.  Miriam Bailin points out that many Victorians valued illness for the rest and repose it could offer from the stresses of daily life, and that it is perhaps not surprising that the cult of the invalid developed in the wake of the Industrial revolution alongside the “coexistent imperatives of self-discipline, will-power and industriousness” (12). 

Martineau dedicates her work to fellow-invalids whom she imagines will be sympathetic to her experiences in the sickroom, and to her claim that suffering can afford invalids greater insight, especially about the transience of this world. This type of dedication is typical of Victorian writing about invalidism.  As Maria Frawley points out, many Victorian invalids who wrote first-person narratives about their experiences portrayed themselves as lonely sufferers seeking from their “own bed of affliction to console others, envisioned as similarly confined to their sickrooms and in need of solace” (11).  In the following two excerpts, from the chapters on “Life to the Invalid” and the “Power of Ideas in the Sick-Room,” Martineau reflects on invalid’s heightened ability to grasp truisms that may seem farther off to the healthy:  that wealth and status are unimportant, and that it matters less what we do than what we are" (, accessed 4-2020).

Digital facsimile of the second edition (1844) from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works) › Autobiography, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 12137

Numbers and nationhood: Writing statistics in nineteenth-century Italy.

Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Italy, DEMOGRAPHY / Population: Medical Statistics › History of Demography
  • 12138

Plague in Queensland, 1900-1907.

Brisbane, Australia: George Arthur Vaughan, 1907.

Ham was Queensland's first Commissioner of Public Health. Extensively illustrated. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Plague
  • 12139

A history of health & medicine in Queensland 1824-1960.

St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Press, 1987.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Australia, PUBLIC HEALTH › History of Public Health
  • 12140

Tormented hope: Nine hypochondriac lives.

Dublin: Penguin Ireland, 2009.

Accounts of writers, artists, and scientists: James Boswell, Charlotte Brontë, Darwin, Florence Nightingale, Alice James Daniel Paul Schreber, Marcel Proust, Glenn Gould, and Andy Warhol.

Subjects: BIOGRAPHY (Reference Works), LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology
  • 12141

Cholera in Detroit: A history.

Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2013.

  • 12142

Birth in Babylonia and the Bible: Its Mediterranean setting. By Marten Stol, with a chapter by F. A. M. Wiggermann.


  • 12143

The evolution of the human placenta.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.

Chapter one is "The history of placental investigations."

Subjects: ANATOMY › 21st Century, EVOLUTION, PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY › Fetal Physiology
  • 12144

The evolution of obesity.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

Subjects: Obesity Research, Obesity Research › History of Obesity Research
  • 12145

Aristotle on life and death. By R. A. H. King.

London: Duckworth, 2001.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › History of Ancient Medicine & Biology, BIOLOGY › History of Biology, DEATH & DYING
  • 12146

Ticks, mites and venomous animals of medical and veterinary importance. Part 1: Medical. Part 2: Public health.

Croydon, England: H. R. Grubb, Ltd., 19291931.

Part 1 by Patton and the female entomologist Alwen Evans; part 2 by Patton alone.

Subjects: TOXICOLOGY › Venoms, TROPICAL Medicine , VETERINARY MEDICINE, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology › Medical Entomology
  • 12147

El amor en los tiempos de cólera.

Bogota, Colombia: Editorial Oveja Negra, 1985.

"Set in a country on the Caribbean coast of South America, the story ranges from the late nineteenth century to the early decades of our own, tracing the lives of three people and their entwined fates. And yet, at first nothing seems inevitable, for this is a tale of unrequited love. Fifty years, nine months, and four days' worth, to be exact. For that is how long Florentino Ariza has waited to declare, once again, his undying love to Fermina Daza, whom he courted and almost won so many years before" (publisher)

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Cholera, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Fiction
  • 12148

Of books and botany in early modern England: Sixteenth-century plants and print culture.

Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2009.

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Botany / Materia Medica, BOTANY › History of Botany
  • 12149

Urolithiasis: A comprehensive history.

New York, 2014.

Subjects: NEPHROLOGY › Renal Disease › Renal Calculi (Kidney Stones), UROLOGY › History of Urology, UROLOGY › Urinary Calculi
  • 12150

A history of the California Medical Society.

San Francisco: California Academy of Medicine, 1930.

Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12151

History of the San Francisco Medical Society. Vol. I, 1850 to 1900.

San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Medical Society, 1958.

Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12152

Diphtheritis: A concise historical and critical essay on the late epidemic pseudo-membranous sore throat of California (1856-7), with a few remarks illustrating the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of the disease.

Sacramento, CA: James Anthony & Co., 1858.

For publishing this 46-page pamphlet Fourgeaud has been called "California's first medical historian." Digital facsimile from U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

  • 12153

History of the Medical Society of the State of California.

Sacramento, CA: Sacramento Society for Medical Improvement, 1964.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: Education, Biomedical, & Biomedical Profession › History of Biomedical Education & Medical Profession, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › California
  • 12154

The scars of Venus: A history of venereology.

New York: Springer, 2012.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES › History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • 12155

Global Health Events web archive.

Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2014.

Global Health Events web archive

"Collected by: National Library of Medicine

"Archived since: Oct, 2014


"A selective collection of over 12,000 web resources archived by the National Library of Medicine beginning in 2014 related to global health events, including the 2014 and 2016 Ebola outbreaks, Zika virus disease in 2015-2016, and the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Included in the archive are websites and social media of government and non-government organizations, journalists, healthcare workers, and scientists in the United States and around the world, with an aim to collect and preserve a diversity of perspectives. Archived websites are primarily in English. NLM will continue to develop, review, describe, and add content to the collection.

"Subject:   Government - National Science & Health Spontaneous Events Ebola hemorrhagic fever Ebola virus disease Zika Virus Zika Virus Infection Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Ebola Virus Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease
  • 12156

Archiving web content on the Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19).

Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2020.

"The National Library of Medicine is archiving web and social media documenting the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as part of the Library’s ongoing Global Health Events web archive collection. NLM’s Web Collecting and Archiving Working Group began this effort on January 30 when the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and will continue to develop the collection throughout its duration.  This work follows NLM’s earlier Global Health Events archive collecting related to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak, the 2016 Zika Virus Outbreak, and more.

The Working Group is archiving content documenting the international, federal, state, and local government response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as well as social media communications using popular hashtags.  NLM will continue and expand this effort to document a broad range of perspectives, reactions, and response to the pandemic in support of future research and understanding of this global health event.

This work is supported by the Collection Development Guidelines of the NLM , which considers Web sites, blogs, social media and other web content to play an increasingly important role in documenting the scholarly biomedical record and illustrating a diversity of cultural perspectives in health and medicine. NLM will continue to develop, review, describe, and add content related to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak to the Global Health Events web archive and welcomes recommendations for additional content to include.  For more information about NLM’s Web collecting efforts, please visit"

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES, DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Archives & Libraries , EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12157

Documenting COVID-19, [a collaborative document.]

Documenting the Now, 2020.
[I copied this document into this database on April 9, 2020.]

"Documenting COVID-19



This is a collaborative document that lists active documentation projects for the COVID-19. In addition there are sections for guides and tools that can be useful for starting documentation projects of your own. All languages are welcome. The goal is to help build a loose network for sharing practices, resources and expertise. Editing is currently open, but please see the Documenting the Now Code of Conduct for guidance on how to contribute to this document.


These are active projects to collect materials related to the Coronavirus pandemic. Please list in alphabetical order the name of the project and at least one URL for a page that describes it. If you would like to add more detail please feel free. an online archive as a public history project (Citizen Science) and 



This is a list of resources & guides that are useful in building a collection. A title and a URL are required, but feel free to add more detail if you think it is useful.

ToolsDocNow Tools:

This list contains tools that you may find useful for creating collections. A name and URL are required, but feel free to add more detail if you think it is useful.

Community Owned Preservation Tools Registry:

Additional Reading

Subjects: DIGITAL RESOURCES › Digital Collaborations Online (Wikis), DIGITAL RESOURCES › Social Media and Medicine, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Coronaviruses (Coronaviridae) › SARS CoV-2 (Cause of COVID-19)
  • 12158

Seed, a novel of birth control.

Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1930.

Subjects: Contraception , LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Fiction
  • 12159

Textual contraception: Birth control and modern American fiction.

Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press, 2007.

Subjects: Contraception › History of Contraception, LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Fiction
  • 12160

Brave new world.

London: Chatto & Windus, 1932.

"The novel opens in the World State city of London in AF (After Ford) 632 (AD 2540 in the Gregorian calendar), where citizens are engineered through artificial wombs and childhood indoctrination programmes into predetermined classes (or castes) based on intelligence and labour. Lenina Crowne, a hatchery worker, is popular and sexually desirable, but Bernard Marx, a psychologist, is not. He is shorter in stature than the average member of his high caste, which gives him an inferiority complex. His work with sleep-learning allows him to understand, and disapprove of, his society's methods of keeping its citizens peaceful, which includes their constant consumption of a soothing, happiness-producing drug called soma. Courting disaster, Bernard is vocal and arrogant about his criticisms, and his boss contemplates exiling him to Iceland because of his nonconformity. His only friend is Helmholtz Watson, a gifted writer who finds it difficult to use his talents creatively in their pain-free society" (Wikipedia article on Brave New World, accessed 4-2020).

Subjects: LITERATURE / Philosophy & Medicine & Biology › Fiction, Reproductive Technology
  • 12161

Prophylaxie et géographie médicale: Des principales maladies tributaires de l'hygiène.

Paris: G. Masson, 1884.

Includes several colored world maps of diseases. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Biogeography, Cartography, Medical & Biological, Geography of Disease / Health Geography
  • 12162

Aviation medicine in the A. E. F.

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1920.

"This publication contains an account written by Col.William H. Wilmer, Medical Corps, who was in charge of the Air Service Medical Research Laboratories in Issoudon, France, from September, 1918, until the armistice. The account describes the various phases of the physiological and psychological problems of aviation, the organization of the work in the A[merican[ E[xpeditionary] F[orce], and the application of the newly discovered principles to the maintenance of the efficiency of the flier. It also suggests the future possibilities that lie in aviation medicine. In addition, it records the tasks accomplished by the various departments of the medical research laboratories, the character of the work with the British, conferences with various types of fliers, and it analyzes accidents and their causes" (Foreward).
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 12163

A collection of engravings, tending to illustrate the generation and parturition of animals, and of the human species.

London: J. Johnson, 1787.

An idiosyncratic collection of rarely reproduced images with explanatory commentaries in English and French, concerning reproduction and obstetric complications in animals and humans. Topics include:

The Funis of a nut.- The Chrysalis of the Phaena Atlas. - The eggs of the Cuttle Fish.
A display of the internal parts of a frog, with the ovaria.
A section of a hen, shewing the Ovarium, with an egg perfected in the Infundibulum.
A part of the Uterus of a cow, with one of the Cotyledons, and a portion of the membranes.
Three human abortions, one of which contains twins.
A morbid human Ovum.
A human Ovum, about the third month of pregnancy.
The Uterus, containing the child of a woman, who died in the act of parturition.
A twin Placenta with the membranes.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 12164

Aphorisms in the application and use of the forceps and vectis, on preternatural labours, on labours attended with hemorrhage and with convulsions.

London: [No publisher identified], 1783.

Denman "was the first physician whose authority made the practice general in England of inducing premature labour in cases of narrow pelvis and other conditions, in which the mother's life is imperilled by the attempt to deliver at the full-time" (DNB). This handbook emphasizing the solution to obstretric complications underwent 7 editions in England, 3 American editions, and a translation into French. Digital facsimile of the first American edition (1803) from the U.S. National Library of Medicine at this link.

  • 12165

Hypokinetic disease: Diseases produced by lack of exercise. By Hans Kraus and Wilhelm Raab. Foreward by Paul D. White.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1961.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: PHYSICAL MEDICINE / REHABILITATION › Exercise / Training / Fitness, Sports Medicine
  • 12166

Collected essays and articles on physiology and medicine. 2 vols.

New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1903.

Flint was one of the founders of laboratory research on phyiology in America. Besides the regular trade edition Flint issued a deluxe version of this set limited to 25 copies. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 12167

A report on hospital gangrene, eryipelas and pyaemia, as observed in the departments of the Ohio and the Cumberland, with cases appended. Published by permission of the Surgeon General U.S.A.

Louisville, KY: Bradley & Gilbert, 1863.

Middleton, surgeon in the U.S. Volunteers, recommended the placement of volatile bromine in all patient wards. He developed a method of applying bromine deep into muscular layers after wound debridement then injecting bromine subcutaneously and applying it topically to exposed surfaces. A second application was only applied in cases where the gangrene odor returned. Through this process Goldsmith achieved a mortality of 2.6 percent for those treated with bromine, as against 43.3 percent with those treated by other methods.
Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: American (U.S.) CIVIL WAR MEDICINE
  • 12168

Alkoholismus Chronicus eller Chronik Alkoholssjukdom. Ett bidrag till dyskrasiernas kännedom; enligt egen och andras erfarenheit. . . . Första afdelningen.

Stockholm: John. Beckman, 18491851.

The first monograph on alcoholism considered as a disease. Huss was the first to define alcoholism and to give a scientific analysis of its physical, psychological, moral and social effects. Translated into German, 1852.

Subjects: TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction, TOXICOLOGY › Drug Addiction › Alcoholism
  • 12169

Epidemics and society from the Black Death to the present.

New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2019.

Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › History of Epidemiology
  • 12170

Agnellus de Ravenne. Lectures galéniques: le «De pulsibus ad tirones». Introduction, texte latin (adiuuante Ivan Garofalo), traduction française, notes explicatives, bibliographie et index par Nicoletta Palmieri, «Mémoires XXVIII du Centre Jean Palerne».

Saint-Etienne, 2005.

  • 12171

Iohannis Alexandrini commentaria in sextum librum Hippocratis epidemiarum. Edited and critically annotated by C. D. Pritchet.

Leiden: Brill, 1975.

Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Hippocratic Tradition
  • 12172

John of Alexandria. Commentary on Hippocrates’ Epidemics VI Fragments. Edition and translation by John M. Duffy. T. A. Bell, et al, editors and translators, John of Alexandria. Commentary on Hippocrates’ on the Nature of the Child. [CMG XI 1,4].

Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1997.

Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Hippocratic Tradition
  • 12173

Stephanus the Philosopher. A commentary on the Prognosticon of Hippocrates. Edited and translated by John M. Duffy. [CMG XI 1,2]

Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1983.

Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Hippocratic Tradition
  • 12174

Palladius Kommentar zu Hippokrates ‘De fracturis’ und seine Parallelversion under dem Namen des Stephanus von Alexandria. Edited by Dieter Irmer. [Hamburger Philologische Studien 45].

Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1977.

Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE, Hippocratic Tradition, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 12175

Graecorum chirurgici libri Sorani unus de fracturarum signis. Oribasii duo de fractis et de luxatis e collectione Nicetae ab antiquissimo et optimo codice Florentino descripti conversi atque edited ab Antonio Cocchio.

Florence: Ex Typographio Imperiali, 1754.

A scholarly edition of the Nicetas Codex containing various texts on fractures and luxations. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, BYZANTINE MEDICINE, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations
  • 12176

P. Vegeti Renati digestorum artis mulomedicinae libri edidit Ernestus Lommatzsch. Accedit Gargili Martialis de curis boum fragmentum.

Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1903.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. Includes an edition of the Late Antique Latin writer Quintus Gargilius Martialis's fragmentary treatise on the tending of cattle.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Late Antiquity, BYZANTINE MEDICINE › Byzantine Veterinary Medicine, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 12177

Pflanzen, Wurzeln, Säfte, Samen. Antike Heilkunst in Miniaturen des Wiener Dioskurides.

Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-und Verlag-Anstalt, 1981.

Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE › History of Byzantine Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Materia medica / Herbals / Herbal Medicines › History of Materia Medica
  • 12178

"Teaching surgery in late Byzantine Alexandria" by John Scarborough [in] Manfred Horstmanshoff, ed., Hippocrates and medical education. Selected papers presented at the XIIth International Hippocrates Colloquium, Universiteit Leiden, 24-26 August 2005.

Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2010.

Subjects: BYZANTINE MEDICINE › History of Byzantine Medicine
  • 12179

A companion to Byzantine science. Edited by Stavros Lazaris.

Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2020.

Chapters relevant to this bibliography include:
Zoology by Arnaud Zucker
Botany by Alain Touwaide
Medicine and Pharmacy by Alain Touwaide
Veterinary Medicine by Stavros Lazaris
Byzantine Theories of Vision by Katerina Ierodiakonou.

Subjects: BOTANY › History of Botany, BYZANTINE MEDICINE › Byzantine Veterinary Medicine, BYZANTINE MEDICINE › History of Byzantine Medicine, Byzantine Zoology, VETERINARY MEDICINE › History of Veterinary Medicine
  • 12180

Les classes zoologiques en Grèce ancienne d'Homère à Élien (VIIIe av.-IIIe ap. J.-C.)

Aix-en-Provence: Presses Universitaires de Provence, 2005.

Subjects: Byzantine Zoology, ZOOLOGY › History of Zoology
  • 12181

Direct evidence of Neanderthal fibre technology and its cognitive and behavioral implications.

Nature, Scientific Reports, 10, Article 4889,, 2020.


"Neanderthals are often considered as less technologically advanced than modern humans. However, we typically only find faunal remains or stone tools at Paleolithic sites. Perishable materials, comprising the vast majority of material culture items, are typically missing. Individual twisted fibres on stone tools from the Abri du Maras led to the hypothesis of Neanderthal string production in the past, but conclusive evidence was lacking. Here we show direct evidence of fibre technology in the form of a 3-ply cord fragment made from inner bark fibres on a stone tool recovered in situ from the same site. Twisted fibres provide the basis for clothing, rope, bags, nets, mats, boats, etc. which, once discovered, would have become an indispensable part of daily life. Understanding and use of twisted fibres implies the use of complex multi-component technology as well as a mathematical understanding of pairs, sets, and numbers. Added to recent evidence of birch bark tar, art, and shell beads, the idea that Neanderthals were cognitively inferior to modern humans is becoming increasingly untenable."

Open access; available from at this link.

Subjects: EVOLUTION › Human Origins / Human Evolution
  • 12182

Harnessing wearable device data to improve state-level real-time surveillance of influenza-like illness in the USA: A population-based study.

Lancet Digital Health, 2, PE85-E93, 2020.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Radin, Wineinger, Topol, Steinhubl.


"Acute infections can cause an individual to have an elevated resting heart rate (RHR) and change their routine daily activities due to the physiological response to the inflammatory insult. Consequently, we aimed to evaluate if population trends of seasonal respiratory infections, such as influenza, could be identified through wearable sensors that collect RHR and sleep data.


"We obtained de-identified sensor data from 200 000 individuals who used a Fitbit wearable device from March 1, 2016, to March 1, 2018, in the USA. We included users who wore a Fitbit for at least 60 days and used the same wearable throughout the entire period, and focused on the top five states with the most Fitbit users in the dataset: California, Texas, New York, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. Inclusion criteria included having a self-reported birth year between 1930 and 2004, height greater than 1 m, and weight greater than 20 kg. We excluded daily measurements with missing RHR, missing wear time, and wear time less than 1000 min per day. We compared sensor data with weekly estimates of influenza-like illness (ILI) rates at the state level, as reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by identifying weeks in which Fitbit users displayed elevated RHRs and increased sleep levels. For each state, we modelled ILI case counts with a negative binomial model that included 3-week lagged CDC ILI rate data (null model) and the proportion of weekly Fitbit users with elevated RHR and increased sleep duration above a specified threshold (full model). We also evaluated weekly change in ILI rate by linear regression using change in proportion of elevated Fitbit data. Pearson correlation was used to compare predicted versus CDC reported ILI rates.


"We identified 47 249 users in the top five states who wore a Fitbit consistently during the study period, including more than 13·3 million total RHR and sleep measures. We found the Fitbit data significantly improved ILI predictions in all five states, with an average increase in Pearson correlation of 0·12 (SD 0·07) over baseline models, corresponding to an improvement of 6·3–32·9%. Correlations of the final models with the CDC ILI rates ranged from 0·84 to 0·97. Week-to-week changes in the proportion of Fitbit users with abnormal data were associated with week-to-week changes in ILI rates in most cases.


"Activity and physiological trackers are increasingly used in the USA and globally to monitor individual health. By accessing these data, it could be possible to improve real-time and geographically refined influenza surveillance. This information could be vital to enact timely outbreak response measures to prevent further transmission of influenza cases during outbreaks."

Open access from at this link.

Subjects: Digital Health & Medicine , INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Influenza
  • 12183

Digital medicine, on its way to being just plain medicine.

npj Digital Medicine, 1, article number 20175,, 2018.

"There are already nearly 30,000 peer-reviewed English-language scientific journals, producing an estimated 2.5 million articles a year.1 So why another, and why one focused specifically on digital medicine?

"To answer that question, we need to begin by defining what “digital medicine” means: using digital tools to upgrade the practice of medicine to one that is high-definition and far more individualized. It encompasses our ability to digitize human beings using biosensors that track our complex physiologic systems, but also the means to process the vast data generated via algorithms, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence. It has the potential to democratize medicine, with smartphones as the hub, enabling each individual to generate their own real world data and being far more engaged with their health. Add to this new imaging tools, mobile device laboratory capabilities, end-to-end digital clinical trials, telemedicine, and one can see there is a remarkable array of transformative technology which lays the groundwork for a new form of healthcare.

"As is obvious by its definition, the far-reaching scope of digital medicine straddles many and widely varied expertise. Computer scientists, healthcare providers, engineers, behavioral scientists, ethicists, clinical researchers, and epidemiologists are just some of the backgrounds necessary to move the field forward. But to truly accelerate the development of digital medicine solutions in health requires the collaborative and thoughtful interaction between individuals from several, if not most of these specialties. That is the primary goal of npj Digital Medicine: to serve as a cross-cutting resource for everyone interested in this area, fostering collaborations and accelerating its advancement.

"Current systems of healthcare face multiple insurmountable challenges. Patients are not receiving the kind of care they want and need, caregivers are dissatisfied with their role, and in most countries, especially the United States, the cost of care is unsustainable. We are confident that the development of new systems of care that take full advantage of the many capabilities that digital innovations bring can address all of these major issues. Researchers too, can take advantage of these leading-edge technologies as they enable clinical research to break free of the confines of the academic medical center and be brought into the real world of participants’ lives. The continuous capture of multiple interconnected streams of data will allow for a much deeper refinement of our understanding and definition of most phenotypes, with the discovery of novel signals in these enormous data sets made possible only through the use of machine learning.

"Our enthusiasm for the future of digital medicine is tempered by the recognition that presently too much of the publicized work in this field is characterized by irrational exuberance and excessive hype. Many technologies have yet to be formally studied in a clinical setting, and for those that have, too many began and ended with an under-powered pilot program. In addition, there are more than a few examples of digital “snake oil” with substantial uptake prior to their eventual discrediting.2 Both of these practices are barriers to advancing the field of digital medicine.

"Our vision for npj Digital Medicine is to provide a reliable, evidence-based forum for all clinicians, researchers, and even patients, curious about how digital technologies can transform every aspect of health management and care. Being open source, as all medical research should be, allows for the broadest possible dissemination, which we will strongly encourage, including through advocating for the publication of preprints

"And finally, quite paradoxically, we hope that npj Digital Medicine is so successful that in the coming years there will no longer be a need for this journal, or any journal specifically focused on digital medicine. Because if we are able to meet our primary goal of accelerating the advancement of digital medicine, then soon, we will just be calling it medicine. And there are already several excellent journals for that."

Open access from at this link.

Subjects: Digital Health & Medicine
  • 12184

A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant.

Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia, 32, 260-267, 1953.

The Apgar score for summarizing the health of newborn children, based on skin color, pulse rate, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and respiratory effort. These form a backronym, referring back to the author: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration.

Subjects: PEDIATRICS › Neonatology
  • 12185

A combination resuscitator and incubator for new-born infants.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 108, 1874, 1937.

In 1931 Robert Bauer invented the first incubator to combine heat, oxygen, and humidity.
"The apparatus herein described was built in July 1931 to meet in a practical way the well established needs of the premature or the full term new-born infant suffering from respiratory or circulatory embarrassment; namely, (1) carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture1 for stimulation of the respiratory centers, (2) oxygen2 to combat anoxemia, (3) external heat to maintain body temperature, (4) easy accessibility to provide feeding and nursing care with a minimum of handling and without removing the baby from the atmosphere of oxygen, and (5) full visibility to insure careful watching. Continuous use of the apparatus in the nursery of the Henry Ford Hospital for five years has proved its value in treating cases of asphyxia neonatorum, intracranial hemorrhage, atelectasis, congenital heart disease, blood dyscrasias, excessive mucus or any other condition that might cause cyanosis or anoxemia."

Subjects: PEDIATRICS › Neonatology
  • 12186


TOPOS.COM, 2020.

"COVID-19 Compiler aims to display relevant data about the novel coronavirus outbreak in the United States.

"Our goal is to provide a multidimensional view of covid-19’s impact in counties across the US encompassing the mapping of vulnerable populations, state and local policies to reduce transmission, and data on medical / health care resources. The site is updated daily with the latest data available on the outbreak.

The site provides numerous other maps covering different statistics such as political affiliation, income, co-morbidities, etc.

Subjects: Cartography, Medical & Biological, EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › COVID-19, GRAPHIC DISPLAY of Medical & Scientific Information
  • 12187

Illustrations of the influence of the mind upon the body in health and disease, designed to elucidate the action of the imagination.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1872.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

  • 12188

The faith that heals.

Brit. med. J., 1, 1470-1472, 1910.

Perhaps Osler's most significant discussion of "faith" and faith healing. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.
The same journal issue also contains Clifford Albutt's "Reflections on faith healing," pp. 1453-1457; Henry Morris's " 'Suggestion' in the treatment of disease," pp. 1457-1466; H. T. Butlin's "Remarks on spiritual healing," pp. 1466-1470; T. Claye Shaw's "Considerations on the occult," pp. 1472-1477, and Jame Rorie's "Abstract of a lecture on psycho-pneumatology; or, the interactions of mind, body and soul," pp. 1477-1478.

Subjects: PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Faith Healing
  • 12189

Corneal transplantation: A history in profiles. Edited by Mark J. Mannis and Avi A. Mannis.

Bonn: J. P. Wayenborgh, 1999.

Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › History of Ophthalmology, OPHTHALMOLOGY › Ocular Surgery & Procedures › Corneal Transplant
  • 12190

Covid-19 changed how the world does science, together. Never before, scientists say, have so many of the world's researchers focused so urgently on a single topic. Nearly all other research has ground to a halt.

New York: The New York Times, 2020.