An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16011 entries, 14068 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: June 19, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 14200–14299

78 entries
  • 14200

Ultra-fast deep-learned CNS tumour classification during surgery.

2023.

Published "open access" 11 October 2023. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-023-06615-2
"Abstract: "Central nervous system tumours represent one of the most lethal cancer types, particularly among children1. Primary treatment includes neurosurgical resection of the tumour, in which a delicate balance must be struck between maximizing the extent of resection and minimizing risk of neurological damage and comorbidity. However, surgeons have limited knowledge of the precise tumour type prior to surgery. Current standard practice relies on preoperative imaging and intraoperative histological analysis, but these are not always conclusive and occasionally wrong. Using rapid nanopore sequencing, a sparse methylation profile can be obtained during surgery. Here we developed Sturgeon, a patient-agnostic transfer-learned neural network, to enable molecular subclassification of central nervous system tumours based on such sparse profiles. Sturgeon delivered an accurate diagnosis within 40 minutes after starting sequencing in 45 out of 50 retrospectively sequenced samples (abstaining from diagnosis of the other 5 samples). Furthermore, we demonstrated its applicability in real time during 25 surgeries, achieving a diagnostic turnaround time of less than 90 min. Of these, 18 (72%) diagnoses were correct and 7 did not reach the required confidence threshold. We conclude that machine-learned diagnosis based on low-cost intraoperative sequencing can assist neurosurgical decision-making, potentially preventing neurological comorbidity and avoiding additional surgeries."
Order of authorship in the original publication: Vermeulen, Pagès-Gallego....de Ritter.



Subjects: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine , NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 14201

Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination.

Nature, 543, 248-251, 2017.

Prior to their development of the mRNA vaccine for Covid-19, Karikó and Weissman (Nobel Prize 2023) and colleagues used a novel mRNA vaccine, with base modifications created in their laboratory, to generate a protective Zika vaccine. 

From the abstract: “....Here we demonstrate that a single low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside modified mRNA (mRNA-LPN), encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of a strain from the ZIKV outbreak in 2013, elicited potent and durable neutralizing antibody responses in mice and non-human primates....” In 2023 the full text of this paper was available from nature.com at this link.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Pardi....Karikō....Weissman.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)




Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Zika Virus Disease, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Zika Virus
  • 14202

Mendelian inheritance in man; catalogs of autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked phenotypes.

Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966.

Last expanded printed edition: 12th edition, 3 vols., 1998.

"Dr Victor A. McKusick wrote an article in 1962 for the Quarterly Review of Biology titled ‘On the X Chromosome of Man’ (). At that time, X-linkage had been established for about 60 traits in man and a genetic map of the X chromosome was presented. Four years later, with the addition of dominant and recessive traits, Dr McKusick published a book, Mendelian Inheritance in Man: Catalogs of Autosomal Dominant, Autosomal Recessive and X-linked Phenotypes (MIM) (). The first edition had 1400 entries and no mapped autosomal loci. Each catalogue contained summaries of genetic phenotypes reported in the biomedical literature, which were organized into numbered entries with descriptive synopses and references. With the addition of descriptions of genes, the focus of MIM became the relationship between phenotypes and genes. Over the years, catalogues for Y-linked and mitochondrial phenotypes and genes were added and by the 12th edition, the subtitle had been changed to ‘A Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders’(). Today the online version of MIM, OMIM®, contains 18 961 entries (Figure 1). It continues with the same basic organization but has grown to include complex traits and descriptions of the consequences of gene copy number variation and recurrent deletions/microdeletions and duplications/microduplications...." (McKusick's Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), Joanna Amberger, Carol A. Bocchini, Alan F. Scott, and Ada Hamos [2009])



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS
  • 14203

The anemias.

London: Oxford University Press, 1934.


Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anemia & Chlorosis
  • 14204

A medico-legal treatise on malpractice and medical evidence, comprising the elements of medical jurisprudence.

New York: John A. Voorhies, 1860.

The first treatise on malpractice published in the United States and the first book to provide observations on the physician as an expert witness in malpractice cases. Digital facsimile from wellcomecollection.org at this link.



Subjects: LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Malpractice
  • 14205

Evidence of a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell line derived from a cloned blastocyst.

Science, 303, 1669-1674, 2004.

The authors in Korea, led by Woo-suk Hwang, reported the cloning of a human blastocyst using somatic cell nuclear transfer, and deriving pluripotent embryonic stem cells from that cloned blastocyst. In doing so they claimed to have cloned the first human being. Numerous extensive scientific investigations resulting from testimony of the second author, Young June Ryu, resulted in an official "Editorial Retraction" published in Science, 311, 2006, p.335.  At that time only 7 of the 12 co-authors of the paper agreed to retract their claims.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: Crimes / Frauds / Hoaxes, EMBRYOLOGY
  • 14206

Experimental evidence in support of an extra-terrestrial trigger for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. (Abstract).

Eos, 60, p. 734, 1979.

Iridium is a very rare element in the Earth's crust, but is found in anomalously high concentrations (around 1000 times greater than normal) in a thin worldwide layer of clay marking the boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods 66 million years ago. This boundary marks a major extinction event, including extinction of the dinosaurs along with about 70% of all other species. In 1979 the physicist Luis Alvarez, his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, and chemists Frank Asaro and Helen Vaughn Michel were the first to link the extinction to an extraterrestrial impact based on the observation that iridium is much more abundant in meteorites than it is on Earth. During 1979 dozens of newspapers and magazine articles presented the original Alvarez hypothesis on the basis of only a talk at the American Geophysical Union meeting (Washington, May 1979) and accompanying abstract cited here.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change, BIOLOGY › Evolution, Geology, Medical & Biological
  • 14207

Extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction.

Science, 208, 1095-1108, 1980.

Following up on No. 14206, the authors stated that the same excess iridium areas were found in two different areas of W. Europe and in New Zealand, and posited that “the anomalous iridium concentrations at the C [retacous]-T[ertiary] boundary is best interpreted as indicating an abnormal influx of extraterrestrial material.” They suggested that this was produced by an asteroid strike on the earth that formed an impact crater, and that some of the dust sized material about 60 times the object’s mass would eject and inject the stratosphere with pulverized dust containing iridium which would then spread around the globe. This dust from the explosion would have blocked sunlight for a long time and suppressed photosynthesis, and as a result most food chains would have collapsed, and extinctions resulted. Luis Alvarez calculated the size of the asteroid needed to produce the catastrophic impact -- an asterioid with a diameter of about 10 plus or minus 4 kilometers at the entry velocity that meteorites hit earth. They pointed out that “an asteroid of 10 km. diameter is twice the typical oceanic depth and this would produce a crater on the ocean bottom, and pulverized rock could be ejected.” They estimated that no terrestrial vertebrate heavier than about 25kg. would have survived the extinction. Finally they stated that the crater resulting from such a collision must be found to validate their hypothesis, and “there is about a 2/3 probability that this object fell in the ocean.”

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change, BIOLOGY › Evolution, Geology, Medical & Biological
  • 14208

Chicxulub Crater: A possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

Geology, 19, 867-871, 1991.

Eleven years after publication of No. 14207, Alan Hildebrand, working with Luis and Walter Alvarez, proposed that the Chicxulub Crater, discovered by Antonio-Camargo-Zanoguera and Glen T. Penfield during the 1970s, was the C-T boundary impact crater posited in No. 14207.

"ABSTRACT: We suggest that a buried 180-km-diameter circular structure on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, is an impact crater. Its size and shape are revealed by magnetic and gravity-field anomalies, as well as by oil wells drilled inside and near the structure. The stratigraphy of the crater includes a sequence of andesitic igneous rocks and glass interbedded with, and overlain by, breccias that contain evidence of shock metamorphism. The andesitic rocks have chemical and isotopic compositions similar to those of tektites found in Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) ejecta. A 90-m-thick K/T boundary breccia, also containing evidence of shock metamorphism, is present 50 km outside the crater's edge. This breccia probably represents the crater's ejecta blanket. The age of the crater is not precisely known, but a K/T boundary age is indicated. Because the crater is in a thick carbonate sequence, shock-produced CO 2 from the impact may have caused a severe greenhouse warming."

Order of authorship in the original publication: Hildebrand, Penfield, Kring...Camargo et al.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment › Climate Change, BIOLOGY › Evolution, Geology, Medical & Biological
  • 14209

U. S. Plant patent 1. Climbing or trailing rose. Filed Aug. 6, 1930. Issued Aug. 18, 1931.

1931.

This was the first patent granted for a life form. In response to complaints from the nursery industry that the future of the plant breeding industry was jeopardized by the “pirating” of new plant varieties, President Herbert Hoover signed The Plant Patent Act into law on 23 May 1930. Bosenberg's patent consists of a single black & white drawing of the rose plus one page of claims.

Digital facsimile from Google Patents at this link.

(Thanks to John F. Kuenzig for this reference.)



Subjects: BOTANY, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Patents
  • 14210

Die Deutsche [sic] Giftpflanzen, zur Verhütung der tragischen Vorfälle in den Haushaltungen, nach ihren botanischen Kennzeichen, nebst den Heilungsmitteln.

Berlin: Joachim Pauli, 1784.

On poisonous plants in Germany, for prevention of tragic household accidents, and remedies for the poisons. Illustrated with 16 plates. 
Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.



Subjects: BOTANY › Medical Botany, Household or Self-Help Medicine, TOXICOLOGY
  • 14211

De l'Atténuation des virus, avec la collaboration de MM. Chamberland, Roux et Thuillier. Quatrième Congrès international d'hygiène et de démographie. Séance du 5 Septembre 1882.

Geneva: H. Georg, 1883.

In his seminal 1880 paper, Sur les maladies virulentes, et en particulier sur la maladie appelée vulgairement choléra des poules, GM-2537, Pasteur developed the idea of a protective inoculation by attenuated living cultures, and subsequently adopted this principle with anthrax, rabies, and swine erysipelas. His work laid the foundations of the science of immunology. However, in that paper Pasteur did not reveal his method of attenuation until this paper presented in September 1882, and first published in 1883. The method developed by Pasteur and his team was  "heating the anthrax bacillus at exactly between 42 and 43 degrees centigrade for at least 5-6 hours.” Toward the end of his paper they stated, “It cannot be doubted that we possess a general method of attenuation…."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, VIROLOGY
  • 14212

Evidence for plasmid mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis.

Infection and Immunity, 39, 371-376, 1983.

The authors illustrated and proved that “heating V770-NPI-R containing anthrax strains, to exactly 42.5 degrees centigrade, as Pasteur and colleagues reported in GM 14211, essentially ‘cured’ these strains of their plasmid and caused a loss of detectable lethal toxin.” Near the end of their paper they stated, “In assessing Pasteur’s experimental regimen, and by utilizing modern techniques, we are able to offer a reasonable explanation for a century old molecular event which has had such a significant impact in the field of medical microbiology and it is
very likely that his attenuation of the anthrax bacillus occurred as a result of curing the strain of plasmid
component which encoded for toxin structural and regulatory proteins.”

Order of authorship in the original publication: Mikesell, Ivins, Ristroph.... Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

See also: Mikesell, Ivins, Ristroph et all, "Plasmids, Pasteur, and anthrax," ASM News (1984) 320-322.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, VIROLOGY
  • 14213

Ueber die Textur und Function der Medulla oblongata. 2 vols. (Text and atlas).

Erlangen: Ferdinand Enke, 1843.

“In this book, there are many transverse section figures from the origin of the 2nd cervical nerve pair up to the pons. Stilling aimed to reveal the difference between the spinal cord and medulla oblongata by presenting in detail the anatomical structures in his figures” (Demircubuk, Ibrahim, et al. “The Seminal Contributions of Benedict Stilling (1810–1879) to Neuroanatomy.” Child’s Nervous System. SpringerLink, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 31 Mar. 2022 (web).



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy
  • 14214

Neue Untersuchungen über den Bau des Rückenmarks. 2 vols. (Text and atlas.)

Cassel: Heinrich Hotop, 1859.

Stilling carried out some of the 19th century’s most detailed and precise examinations of the spinal cord, which “laid the foundation for the modern anatomical study of the spinal cord, medulla oblongata, and pons” (Clarke & O’Malley, p. 834). Stilling was the first to use serial sections to study the spinal cord’s inner structure, slicing frozen or alcohol-hardened cords into thin slices to be studied under the microscope or with the naked eye. In 1859 he published his enormous and detailed Neue Untersuchungen über den Bau des Rückenmarks [New researches on the structure of the spinal cord], containing the results of his seventeen years of study, along with detailed instructions on his methods for preparing both transverse and longitudinal spinal cord sections. The atlas contains some of the most dramatic plates of the spinal cord ever published, including one enormous and highly detailed folding lithograph of a single spinal cord cross-section. The text consists of 1192 pages plus 108 pages of explanations of the 31 plates.
Published from parts from 1856 to 1859.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy
  • 14215

Elements of operative midwifery.

London: Hurst, Robinson, 1825.

Davis introduced a number of improvements in instruments and techniques: “It outlines rules and precautions for undertaking operations, described the use of various forms of forceps, and provided twenty detailed plates, [some of them] illustrating techniques of craniotomy using the crochet and Denman’s perforator” (Woods, Death before birth: Fetal health and mortality in historical perspective, p. 138).
Davis was appointed Royal Accoucheur in 1819, and attended the Duchess of Kent when she gave birth to the future Queen Victoria. This work is beautifully illustrated with double-page lithographed plates of the highest quality, and is an early example of lithography in medical illustration. The pioneering firm of Hullmandel printed most if not all of the plates; some are after drawings by William Clift, who was associated with the Hunters and did the illustrations for Baillie’s pathology atlas. 



Subjects: OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY › GYNECOLOGY
  • 14216

Hammond's wall atlas of human anatomy.

Maplewood, NJ: C. S. Hammond & Co., 1970.

With pages measuring 731 x 536 mm., this is the largest anatomical atlas ever published with plastic overlays. The covers include metal grommets so that the book could be hung on the wall. The work was undated, but is estimated to have been published around 1970.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 20th Century
  • 14217

Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin A cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

Nature, 423, 293-298, 2003.

The authors showed that mutations in lamin A (LMNA) are the cause of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria sundrom (HGPS). At the end of their abstract they stated that "The discovery of the molecular basis of this disease may shed light on the general phenomenon of human aging."

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.
Order of authorship in the original publication: Eriksson, Brown, Gordon... Collins.

See Also:
Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli, Rafaelle Bernard, Perre Cau et al…..  "Lamin A truncation in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria," Science, 300, No. 5626, 2003, page 2055.  Digital facsimile from science.org at this link. This paper was accepted by the journal Science on the same day that the Collins paper was accepted by the journal Nature.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for these references and their interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Molecular Biology, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Progeria
  • 14218

In vivo base editing rescues Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome in mice.

Nature, 589, No. 7843, 608-614, 2021.

Using the base editor enzyme developed by Liu (GM11865), the authors report that they can “correct the pathogenic HGPS mutation in cultured fibroblasts derived from children with progeria and in a mouse model of HGPS.” Their technique resulted in “87-91% correction of the pathogenic allele, mitigation of the resulting RNA mis-splicing, reduced levels of progerin and correction of the nuclear abnormalities.” Mice treated like this, exhibited “improved vitality and greatly extended median lifespan from 215 to 510 days.” At the end they added that “these findings demonstrate the potential of in vivo base editing as a possible treatment for HGPS and other genetic diseases by directly correcting their root cause.”

Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link. Order of authorship in the original publication: Koblan, Erdos, Wilson....Collins..Liu.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › CRISPR Gene Editing, GENETICS / HEREDITY › GENETIC DISORDERS › Progeria
  • 14219

Jean Fery: A sixteen century case of dissociative identity disorder.

Journal of Psychohistory, 24, 18-35, 1996.

Abstract:

"This discussion reinterprets a sixteenth-century case of possession and exorcism ashttps://archive.org/details/lapossessiondeje00bour/page/n7/mode/2up Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). This is perhaps the earliest historical case in which DID can be diagnosed retrospectively with confidence. Jeanne Fery, a 25-year-old Dominican Nun, wrote her own account of her exorcism which took place in Mons, France in 1584 and 1585. Her exorcists produced an even more detailed account describing both identity fragmentation and a past history of childhood trauma. Also well described in both accounts are major criteria and associated features of DID as described in present day diagnostic manuals (American Psychiatric Association, 1987, 1994.) The 109-page description of her treatment course was republished in French in the nineteenth century by Bourneville (1886), a colleague of Janet, who also diagnosed Jeanne's disorder as "doubling of the personality," (the term then in use for DID). This article is the first English- language presentation of these documents."

Order of authorship in the original publication: van der Hart, Lierens, Goodwin.

Fery's case as recorded by François Buisseret (1549-1615) was first published by Désiré-Magloire Bourneville (1840-1909) as La possession de Jeanne Fery. Paris: Aux bureaux du Progrè Médicale et Delaye et Lecrosnier, 1886. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • 14220

Medicinal plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgystan.

New York: Springer, 2012.
"... the first English-language book detailing medicinal plant diversity in the region. More than two hundred of the most important medicinal plants of Central Asia are listed and it includes many whose medicinal uses and activities are being compiled for the first time.  Information on the taxonomy, morphology, ecology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and pharmacology of plants from this region are presented with hundreds of beautiful color photographs. The book is co-authored by scientists from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and the U.S. and draws upon a rich source of local knowledge. The extensive English-Russian linguistic glossary to ecological, botanical, chemical, and medical terms is the first of its kind for this type of book" (publisher).


Subjects: BOTANY › Medical Botany › Medical Botany
  • 14221

The Kirtsos historical library of homoeopathic medicine: An annotated bibliographical catalogue.

Novato, California: Norman Publishing & Old Chatham, New York: Athenaeum Homeopathia, 2023.

The definitive bibliographical catalogue of the historical literature of homeopathy.



Subjects: ALTERNATIVE, Complimentary & Pseudomedicine › Homeopathy › History of Homeopathy, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects
  • 14222

Correlation of glucose regulation and hemoglobin AIc in diabetes mellitus.

New Eng. J. Med., 295, 417-420, 1976.

The authors studied 5 diabetic patients and first realized that A1c was an ideal index to reveal the overall control of a patient’s blood
sugar over the past several months before a doctor’s visit. They were the first to state that “Hemoglobin A1c concentration appears to reflect the mean blood sugar concentration best over the previous weeks to months," …. And “the periodic monitoring of hemoglobin A1c levels provides a useful way of documenting the degree of control of glucose metabolism in diabetic patients….”

Order of authorship in the original publication: Koenig, Peterson, et al, Cerami.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: Laboratory Medicine, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes
  • 14223

The structure of haemoglobin - IV. Sign determination by the isomorphous replacement method.

Proc. roy. Soc. Ser. A. Math. & Phys. Sci, 225, 287-307, 1954.

The first demonstration of isomorphous replacement in protein crystallography. This was a key step in determination of the structure of large biological molecules. Harittai, "On the origins of isomorphous replacement in protein crystallography," Structural Chemistry, 33, 2022, 635-639.

Digital facsimile from royalsocietypublishing.org at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization
  • 14224

The crystallization of ribsomal proteins from the 50 S subunit of the Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus ribosome.

J. biol. Chem, 256, 11787-11790, 1981.

The authors crystallized fragments of the 50S subunit of a thermophile bacterium’s ribosome to 3 angstroms resolution. Order of authorship in the original publication: Appelt, Dyck, et al., Yonath. Digital facsimile from jbc.org at this link.

In 2009 Yonath shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ventatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas Steitz "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Crystallization, BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Protein Synthesis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 14225

Brass plate and brazen impudence: Dental practice in the provinces 1755-1855.

Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1991.


Subjects: DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry
  • 14226

Dental practice in Europe at the end of the 18th century. Edited by Christine Hilliam.

Leiden: Brill, 2003.


Subjects: DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry
  • 14227

Einführung in die stereotaktischen Operationen mit einem Atlas des menschlichen Gehirns. Introduction to stereotaxis with an atlas of the human brain. Large folio text plus 3 large folio binders of plates with captions.

Stuttgart: Georg Thieme & New York: Grune & Stratton, 1959.


Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSURGERY
  • 14228

The principles and practice of surgery, embracing minor and oeprative surgery; with a bibliographical index of American surgical writers from the year 1783 to 1860. Illustrated by 400 wood-cuts and nearly 1000 engravings on steel. 2 vols.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1863.

The most extensively illustrated American manual of surgery issued during the U.S. Civil War.



Subjects: American (U.S.) CIVIL WAR MEDICINE
  • 14229

The comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates, including man. 2 vols.

New York: Macmillian, 1936.

This edition and translation was so extensively reworked and expanded by Kappers, Huber and Crosby that it should be considered a new work. See No. 1247 for the original edition in German.

Order of authorship as published: Ariens Kappers, Huber, Crosby.



Subjects: ANATOMY › Comparative Anatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy
  • 14230

Association of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings: Blood cholesterol level, blood clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis, and clinical coronary artery disease.

J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 169, 1286-1296, 1959.

Abstract:
"Three groups of men, selected solely according to the behavior pattern which they habitually manifested in their work, were compared with respect to their serum cholesterol levels, clotting times, presence of clinical coronary disease, and presence of arcus senilis. A group (A) of 83 men were chosen as manifesting an intense, sustained drive for achievement and as being continually involved in competition and deadlines, both at work and in their avocations. In this group the serum cholesterol level, the frequency of arcus senilis, and the incidence of coronary artery disease were much higher than in a group (B) of 83 men who mainfested the opposite sort of behavior pattern and a group (C) of 46 unemployed blind men selected as manifesting a chronic state of insecurity and anxiety. Clinical coronary artery disease was seven times more frequent in group A than in group B or group C. Analysis of actors other than the overt behavior pattern described indicated that this pattern per se was largely responsible for the striking differences found."

This paper and continuing follow-up research became the basis for Friedman and Rosenman's controversial, popular book,Type A behavior and your heart (1974).



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY
  • 14231

Structure of the porcine LH-and FSH-releasing hormone. II. Confirmation of the proposed structure by conventional sequential analyses.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 44, 459-463, 1971.

Publication in May 1971:
Working with pig preparations, the authors reinvestigated the peptide that they had previously isolated, which acted as an LH-FSH releasing hormone. They performed an Edman-dansyl degradation procedure on the substance. This resulted in “amino acid sequence of porcine LH-RH/FSH-RH is thus (pyro)Glu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2.”

Publication in September 1971: 
A.V. Schally, A. Arimura, A.J. Kastin et. al., Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: One polypeptide regulates secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, Science, 173, 1971, 1036-1037.

         The Authors proved that the peptide discovered and sequenced by them in May of 1971 is the substance capable of stimulating release of LH and FSH. They synthesized the substance and compared its physiological action to the native peptide found in the pig. When they compared the action of both they found them identical, and stated “when they chemically or enzymatically inactivate the synthesized LH-RH they observe a loss of FSH-releasing activity,” an irrefutable proof of its physiological action.

In 1977 Schally shared half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Roger Guillemin "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain." The other half was awarded to Rosalyn Yalow for "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for these references and their interpretation.)



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14232

Characterization of ovine hypothalamic hypophysiotropic TSH-releasing factor.

Nature, 226, 321-325, 1970.

Working with sheep preparations, the authors determined that the molecular structure of TRF (thyroid releasing hormone), is 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylyl-histidyl-L-proline amide. On page 324, they showed the molecular spatial configuration of TRF. They synthesized this substance in the lab and proved that “this substance has quantitative and qualitative physicochemical and
biological characteristics which are indistinguishable from those of the natural substance isolated from the sheep.”

Guillemin shared half of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Schally "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain." The other half of the prize was awarded to  Rosalyn Sussman Yalow "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY › Thyroid , NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14233

Médecins Sans Frontières. Nobel Lecture.

Oslo, Norway: Nobel Foundation, 1999.

In 1999 Orbinsky accepted the Nobel Peace Prize for Médecins Sans Frontières “in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents." He delivered the organization's Nobel Lecture, available at this link.

In awarding the prize " the Norwegian Nobel Committee made this statement:
"Since its foundation in the early 1970s, Médecins Sans Frontières has adhered to the fundamental principle that all disaster victims, whether the disaster is natural or human in origin, have a right to professional assistance, given as quickly and efficiently as possible. National boundaries and political circumstances or sympathies must have no influence on who is to receive humanitarian help. By maintaining a high degree of independence, the organization has succeeded in living up to these ideals.

"By intervening so rapidly, Médecins Sans Frontières calls public attention to humanitarian catastrophes, and by pointing to the causes of such catastrophes, the organization helps to form bodies of public opinion opposed to violations and abuses of power.

"In critical situations, marked by violence and brutality, the humanitarian work of Médecins Sans Frontières enables the organization to create openings for contacts between the opposed parties. At the same time, each fearless and self-sacrificing helper shows each victim a human face, stands for respect for that person’s dignity, and is a source of hope for peace and reconciliation."

In 2008 Orbinsky published a book expanding upon his Nobel Lecture: An imperfect offering: Humanitarian action for the twenty-first century.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference.)



Subjects: Emergency Medicine, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Peace Prize
  • 14234

Anatomie pathologique de la moelle épinière.

Paris: G. Masson, 1891.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology
  • 14235

Atlas der pathologischen Histologie des Nervensystems. Herausgegeben von Prof. V. Babes (Bucarest), P. Blocq (Paris, Prof. Ehrlich (Berlin), Prof. Homen (Helsingfors), Prof. P. Marie (Paris, G. Marinesco (Bucarest), Prof. Mendel (Berlin) Prof. Möli (Berlin), Dozen C. v. Monakow (Zürich), Prof. Ramon j Cajal (Barcelon) und Prof. Vanlair (Lüttic). Redigirt von Professor V. Babes und P. Blocq. I. Lieferung: Die krankhaften Veränderungen der Museklnerven und deren Endigungen. II. Lieferung: Régénération des nerves. Degeneration und Entzündung der Nerven.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 18921894.


Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology
  • 14236

Trepanation: History, Discovery, Theory. Edited by Robert Arnott, Stanley Finger, and C.U.M Smith.

Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger, 2003.


Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › History of Neurosurgery
  • 14237

Historical atlas of crystallography.

Dordrecht & Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers & International Union of Crystallography, 1990.


Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › X-Ray Crystallography
  • 14238

Zur Kenntnis des Vitamins-A aus Fischtranen.

Helvetica Chim. Acta, 14, 1036-1040, 1931.

In 1930 Karrer established the correct formula for carotene (the chief precursor of vitamin A), the first demonstration of the chemical structure of a vitamin. Shortly thereafter, he was able to determine the formula of vitamin A, and in 1931, he showed that vitamin A is structurally related to the carotenoids.

In 1937 Karrer received half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2." The other half was awarded to Walter Norman Haworth "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C." 



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry, NUTRITION / DIET › Vitamins
  • 14239

On the utilization of acetic acid for cholesterol formation.

J. biol. Chem., 145, 625-636, 1942.
See also, Rittenberg & Bloch, "The Utilization of Acetic Acid for the Synthesis of Fatty Acids," J. Biol. Chem. 160, 1945, 417-424.
Bloch, "The Biological Conversion of Cholesterol to Pregnanediol," J. Biol. Chem. 157, 1945, 661-666.

In 1964 Bloch shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Feodor Lynen “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.”

Knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway for cholesterol eventually aided in the discovery of statins, drugs that interfere with cholesterol synthesis, which are now widely used to treat high cholesterol.


Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14240

β-Hydroxy-β-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, cleavage and condensing enzymes in relation to cholesterol formation in rat liver.

Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 40, 491-501, 1960.

In 1964 Feodor Lynen shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Konrad Bloch “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.”

Order of authorship in the original publication: Bucher, Overath, Lynen.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14241

Regulation of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase activity in human fibroblasts by lipoproteins.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.), 70, 2162-2166, 1973.

Goldstein and Brown discovered that human cells have low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that remove cholesterol from the blood and that when LDL receptors are not present in sufficient numbers, individuals develop hypercholesterolemia and become at risk for cholesterol related diseases, notably coronary heart disease. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

In 1985 Brown and Goldstein shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.”

See Goldstein & Brown, "History of discovery: The LDL receptor," Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 29,  2009, 431–438. Full text from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14242

Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex.

J. Physiol., 148, 574-591, 1959.

Also: Hubel & Wiesel, Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex, J. Physiol., 160, 1962, 106-154. 

In 1981 Hubel and Wiesel shared half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for “for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system.” The other half was awarded to Roger W. Sperry "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres."



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14243

In vitro experiments on the effects of mouse sarcomas 180 and 37 on the spinal and sympathetic ganglia of the chick embryo.

Cancer Res., 14, 49-57, 1954.

Discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). Order of authorship in the original publication: Levi-Montalcini, Meyer, Hamburger.

In 1986 Levi-Montalcini was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and Stanley Cohen was awarded the other half "for their discoveries of growth factors." 



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14244

The stimulation of epidermal proliferation by a specific protein (EGF).

Dev. Biol., 12, 394-407, 1965.

Discovery of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF).

In 1986 Cohen shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Rita Levi-Montalcini "for their discoveries of growth factors."



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14245

Evidence for somatic rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes coding for variable and constant regions.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.), 73, 3628-3632, 1976.

Discovery of V(D)J recombination, the genetic mechanism which produces antibody diversity.

In 1987 Tonegawa was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity.”



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14246

The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine.

Nature, 288, 373-376, 1980.

In 1978 Furchgott discovered a substance in endothelial cells that relaxes blood vessels, calling it endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). By 1986, he had worked out EDRF's nature and mechanism of action, and determined that EDRF was in fact nitric oxide (NO), an important compound in many aspects of cardiovascular physiology. 

See also: "Studies on relaxation of rabbit aorta by sodium nitrite: the basis for the proposal that the acid-activatable inhibtory factor from retractor penis in inorganic nitrite and the endothelium-derived relaxing factor is nitric oxide" IN: Vasodilatation: Vascular smooth muscle, petides, and endothelium, edited by P. M. Vanhoutte, (1988) 401-414.

In 1998 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system."



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY › Cardiovascular System, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14247

Relaxation of bovine coronary artery and activation of coronary arterial guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide, nitroprusside and a carcinogenic nitrosoamine.

J. Cyclic. Nucl. Res. 5, 211–224, 1979.

With CA Gruetter, BK Barry, DB McNamara, DY Gruetter, PJ Kadowitz.

In 1998 Ignarro shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Robert F. Furchgott and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system." 



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14248

Nitric oxide activates guanylate cyclase and increases guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels in various tissue preparations.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.), 74, 3203-3207, 1977.

Murad demonstrated that nitroglycerin and related drugs worked by releasing nitric oxide into the body, which relaxed smooth muscle by elevating intracellular cyclic GMP. With W. P. ArnoldC. K. MittalS. Katsuki.

In 1998 the Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system."



Subjects: CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14249

Transfer of proteins across membranes. I. Presence of proteolytically processed and unprocessed nascent immunoglobulin light chains on membrane-bound ribosomes of murine myeloma. II. Reconstitution of functional rough microsomes from heterologous components.

J. Cell Biol., 67, 835-851; 852-862, 1975.

"In 1975 Günther Blobel showed that in certain cases amino acids in a protein serve as an address label that determines where a protein is to be delivered. Amino acid sequences determine whether a protein is to be passed through the membrane out of the cell or into an organelle or is to be built in the membrane." (Nobel website).

In 1999 Günter Blobel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell."

See also: Simon, Sanford M. and Blobel, "A protein-conducting channel in the endoplasmic reticulum," Cell, 65, 1991, 371-380.
See also: Sanford M. Simon, "Obituary: Günther Blobel (1936-2018)," Cell, 173, 2018, 278-280. Available from PubMedCentral at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14250

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-Hydroxytryptophan as reserpine rntagonists.

Nature, 180, 1200 (single page), 1957.

Carlsson demonstrated that dopamine was a neurotransmitter in the brain and not just a precursor for norepinephrine. Digital facsimile from nature.com at this link.

In 2000 Arvid Carlsson shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system."



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › Psychopharmacology
  • 14251

DARPP-32: Regulator of the efficacy of dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Science, 281, 838-842, 1998.

"Greengard's research focused on events inside the neuron caused by neurotransmitters. Specifically, Greengard and his fellow researchers studied the behavior of second messenger cascades that transform the docking of a neurotransmitter with a receptor into permanent changes in the neuron. In a series of experiments, Greengard and his colleagues showed that when dopamine interacts with a receptor on the cell membrane of a neuron, it causes an increase in cyclic AMP inside the cell. This increase of cyclic AMP, in turn activates a protein called protein kinase A, which turns other proteins on or off by adding phosphate groups in a reaction known as phosphorylation. The proteins activated by phosphorylation can then perform a number of changes in the cell: transcribing DNA to make new proteins, moving more receptors to the synapse (and thus increasing the neuron's sensitivity), or moving ion channels to the cell surface (and thus increasing the cell's excitability)" (Wikipedia article on Paul Greengard). 
Greengard's work focused on the central regulatory protein DARPP-32. The above paper was the culmination of decades of research. There were 22 co-authors.

In 2000 Paul Greengard shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Eric R. Kandel "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system."  



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14252

Toward a molecular definition of long-term memory storage.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.), 94, 13445-13452, 1996.

"Abstract: The storage of long-term memory is associated with a cellular program of gene expression, altered protein synthesis, and the growth of new synaptic connections. Recent studies of a variety of memory processes, ranging in complexity from those produced by simple forms of implicit learning in invertebrates to those produced by more complex forms of explicit learning in mammals, suggest that part of the molecular switch required for consolidation of long-term memory is the activation of a cAMP-inducible cascade of genes and the recruitment of cAMP response element binding protein-related transcription factors. This conservation of steps in the mechanisms for learning-related synaptic plasticity suggests the possibility of a molecular biology of cognition." Full text available from pnas.org at this link.

In 2000 Eric Kandel shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system."



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neuropsychology › Memory, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14253

Genetic control of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

Molecular & General Genetics, 146, 167-178, 1976.

"Beginning in 1976, Nurse identified the gene cdc2 in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). This gene controls the progression of the cell cycle from G1 phase to S phase and the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. In 1987, Nurse identified the homologous gene in human, Cdk1, which codes for a cyclin dependent kinase." (Wikipedia article on Paul Nurse).

See also: Lee, M. G.; Nurse, P., "Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene cdc2," Nature, 327, 1987, 31-35.

In 2001 Sir Paul Nurse shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001 with Leland H. Hartwell and Tim "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle."

Order of authorship in the original publication: Nurse, Thuriaux, Nasmyth.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14254

Cyclin: A protein specified by maternal mRNA in sea urchin eggs that is destroyed at each cleavage division.

Cell, 33, 389-396, 1983.

"It was at Woods Hole around July 1982, using Arbacia sea urchin eggs as his model organism, that he discovered cyclin proteins.[12] Cyclins play a key role in regulating the cell-division cycle.[16] Hunt was observing the eggs undergo cell division after fertilization.[17] The study also included a control group where the eggs had been activated without fertilization by a calcium ionophore. The eggs were incubated with the amino acid methionine in which some of the atoms were radioactive isotopes (radiolabelled), with samples being taken from the eggs at 10 minute intervals. During the egg development, the radioactive methionine was uptaken into the cells and used to make proteins. From the samples, proteins were precipitated and then separated by mass into distinct bands on a resolving gel mat, which were then observed by photographic film that could detect the radioactivity emitted by the proteins. Observing the changes in the bands across the samples, Hunt noticed that one of the proteins rose in abundance before disappearing during the mitosis phase of cell division.[15] Hunt named the protein "cyclin" based on his observation of the cyclical changes in its levels.[18] It was later discovered that cyclins are continuously synthesised, but are specifically targeted for proteolysis during mitosis.[15] The discovery of cyclins was reported in a study published in Cell in 1983." (Wikipedia article on Tim Hunt).
Order of authorship in the original publication: Evans, Rosenthal, Youngbloom, Distel, Hunt.

In 2001 2001 Tim Hunt shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Leland Hartwell and Sir Paul M. Nurse "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14255

Transport of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein in a cell-free extract.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (U.S.A.), 77, 3870-3874, 1980.

See also: Fries & Rothman, "Transitent activity of Golgi-like membranes as donors of vescular stomatitis viral glycoprotein in vitro," J. Cell. Biol., 90, 1981, 697-704.

"Rothman's research[15] details how vesicles—tiny sac-like structures that transport hormones, growth factors, and other molecules within cells—know how to reach their correct destination and where and when to release their contents. This cellular trafficking underlies many critical physiological functions, including the propagation of the cell itself in division, communication between nerve cells in the brain, secretion of insulin and other hormones in the body, and nutrient uptake. Defects in this process lead to a wide variety of conditions, including diabetes and botulism " (Wikipedia article on James Rothman).



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14256

The identification of 23 complementation groups required for post-translational events in the yeast secretory pathway.

Cell, 21, 205-215, 1980.

See also: Novick, P., Ferro, S. and Schekman, R. "Order of events in the yeast secretory pathway," Cell, 25, 1981, 461-469.

In 1979 Schekman devised a genetic selection for temperature-conditional secretion-defective yeast mutants (sec mutants) based on an increase in cell density associated with accumulation of secretory proteins inside the mutant cells. This approach resulted in the discovery of some 23 SEC genes that encode components of the basic molecular machinery essential for vesicle-mediated protein transport along the secretory pathway.

In 2013 Scheckman shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with James E. Rothman and Thomas C. Südhof "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14257

Autonomous function of synaptotagmin 1 in triggering synchronous release independent of asynchronous release.

Neuron., 48, 547-54, 2005.

Südhof is credited with discovering much of the machinery mediating neurotransmitter release and presynaptic plasticity, beginning with the discovery of symaptotagmins and their role in neurostrasmitter release from the presynaptic neuron.

In 2013 Südhof shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with James E. Rothman and Randy W. Schekman "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14258

The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat.

Brain Research, 34, 171-175, 1971.

See also: O'Keefe, "Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat," Experimental Neurology, 51 (1976) 78–109.

O’Keefe and his student Jonathan Dostrovsky discovered place cells in the hippocampus, and that they show a specific kind of temporal coding in the form of theta phase precession

In 2014 O'Keefe shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.”

 


Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neuropsychology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14259

Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex.

Nature, 436, 801-6, 2005.

May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser and colleagues discovered grid cells, specialized types of neurons that respond to specific locations in space. They are main components of the brain's GPS.
Order of authorship in the original publication: Hafting, Fyhn, Moden, Moser, Moser.

In 2014 May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with John O'Keefe “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain.”



Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neuropsychology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14260

NOBEL LECTURE: Discovery of Artemisinin - A gift from traditional Chinese medicine to the world.

Stockholm: Nobel Foundation, 2015.

In 1972 Tu Youyou discovered Artemisinin, the standard treatment worldwide for P. falciparum malaria as well as malaria due to other species of Plasmodium. Artemisinin is extracted from Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood), an herb employed in Chinese traditional medicine.

In 2015 Tu Youyou was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria.” The other half was awarded to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites.”

Tu (last name) was the first Chinese person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for research done in China. Because the original publications about this drug were in Chinese it was not possible to cite them accurately in this bibliography. For that reason I have chosen to cite her Nobel lecture in which she recounts the discovery in great detail and includes the original Chinese citations and later English language citations. Her Nobel Lecture is available from the Nobel website at this link.



Subjects: EPIDEMIOLOGY › Pandemics › Malaria, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs
  • 14261

Ultrastructural analysis of the autophagic process in yeast: detection of autophagosomes and their characterization.

J. Cell Biol., 124, 903-913, 1994.

Order of authorship in the original publication: Baba, M., Takeshige, Baba, N., Ohsumi.

In 2016 Oshuni received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy."



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14262

A pdf Neuropeptide gene mutation and ablation of PDF neurons each cause severe abnormalities of behavioral circadian rhythms in Drosophila.

Cell, 99, 791-802, 1999.

In 2017 Hall shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.”

Order of authorship in the original publication: Renn, Park, Rosbash, Hll, Taghert. Full text available from cell.com at this link.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Chronobiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14263

Molecular analysis of the period locus in Drosophila malanogaster and identification of a transcript involved in biological rhythms.

Cell, 38, 701-710, 1984.

Rosbach and colleagues, including Jeffrey C. Hall, sequenced the Drosophila period gene in 1984. Full text available from cell.com at this link. Order of authorship in the original publication: Reddy, Zehring, Wheeler..., Hadfield, Hall, Rosbash.  

In 2017 Rosbash shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Jeffrey C. Hall and Michael W. Young “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.”

See also No. 14264.




Subjects: BIOLOGY › Chronobiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14264

CYCLE Is a Second bHLH-PAS Clock Protein Essential for Circadian Rhythmicity and Transcription of Drosophila period and timeless.

Cell, 93, 805-814, 1998.

In 1998 Rosbach, Hall and colleagues discovered the cycle gene, clock gene, and cryptochrome photoreceptor in Drosophila through the use of forward genetics, by first identifying the phenotype of a mutant and then determining the genetics behind the mutation. 
Order of authorship in the original publication: Rutila, Suri, Le, So, Rosbash, Hall. Digital text from cell.com at this link.

See also: Stanewsky, R.; Kaneko, M.; Emery, P.; Beretta, B.; Wager-Smith, K.; Kay, S.A.; Rosash, M.; Hall, J. C.,  "The cryb Mutation Identifies Cryptochrome as a Circadian Photoreceptor in Drosophila," Cell, 95, 1998, 681-682.



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Chronobiology
  • 14265

Restoration of circadian behavioral rhythms by gene transfer in Drosophila.

Nature, 312, 752-754, 1984.

"At The Rockefeller University in the early 1980s, Young and his two lab members, Ted Bargiello and Rob Jackson, further investigated the circadian period gene in Drosophila. They constructed segments of recombinant Drosophila DNA, amplified them in bacteria, and injected them in per mutant animals. A locomotor behavior monitor was used to assay behavioral activity. The team watched and recorded fly activity through the day and night to show that the fly restored circadian behavioral rhythms by transferring a functional per gene" (Wikipedia article on Michael W. Young).

In 2017 Michael Young shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Jeffrey C. Hall and Michael Rosbash “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.”



Subjects: BIOLOGY › Chronobiology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14266

Tumor-specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma defined with monoclonal antibody.

J. Immunol., 129, 2293-2300, 1982.

In 1982 Allison discovered the T-cell receptor. Order of authorship in the original publication: Allison, Bloch, McIntyre.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14267

Enhancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade.

Science, 271, 1734-1736, 1996.

In the early 1990s James Allison showed that CTLA-4 acts as an inhibitory molecule to restrict T-cell responses. In 1996, Allison was the first to show that antibody blockade of a T-cell inhibitory molecule (known as CTLA-4) could lead to enhanced anti-tumor immune responses and tumor rejection. Order of authorship in the original publication: Leach, Krummel, Allison.

In 2018 Allison shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”  See also No. 14266.



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14268

Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death.

The EMBO Journal, 11, 341-345, 1992.

Honjo discovered the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). This discovery significantly contributed to the establishment of cancer immunotherapy principle by PD-1 blockade.  Order of authorship in the original publication: Ishida, Agata, Shibahara, Honjo.

In 2018 Honjo shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with James P. Allison “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.”



Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Molecular Immunology, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14269

Purification and characterization of hypoxia-indicible factor 1.

J. biol. Chem. , 270, 1230-7, 1995.

Semenza and postdoctoral fellow Guang Wang discovered transcription factor HIF-1, a transcription factor that responds to decreases in available oxygen in the cellular environment, or hypoxia.

IN 2019 Semenza shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William G. Kaelin Jr. and Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14270

The tumour suppressor protein VHL targets hypoxia-inducible factors for oxygen-dependent proteolysis.

Nature, 399, 271-275, 1999.

The focus of both Peter Ratcliffe’s and William Kaelin’s work, for which they shared the Nobel Prize with Gregg Semenza, was the relationship between pVHL and HIF. This led to an increased understanding of how cells sense and adapt to changing oxygen levels.  Order of authorship in the original publication: Maxwell,...Pugh, Maher, Ratcliffe.

In 2019 Ratcliffe shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William Kaelin, Jr. and Gregg Semenza "“for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”




Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 14271

Über eine sehr seltene Erkrankung der Netzhaut. Klinische Beobachtungen.

Graefe’s Arch. Ophthal., 59, 83-106, 1904.

First description of angiomas in the eye (retinal hemangioblastomas), (Von Hippel-Lindau disease) (VHL). Von Hippel was preceded in his description of this disease by Edward Treacher Collins, "Two cases, brother and sister, with peculiar vascular new growth, probably primarily retinal, affecting both eyes," Trans. Ophthalm. Soc., 14, 1894, 141-149.



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS
  • 14272

Zur Frage der Angiomatosis Retinae und Ihrer Hirncomplikation.

Acta Ophthalmologica, 4, 193-226, 1927.

Lindau described the angiomas of the cerebellum and spine found in Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL).



Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS
  • 14273

HIFalpha targeted for VHL-mediated destruction by proline hydroxylation: implications for O2 sensing.

Science, 292, 464-468, 2001.

Kaelin and colleagues identified aspects of the molecular machinery in Von Hippel-Landau disease that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen.

In 2019 Kaelin shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza "for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability."

See also: Jaakkola, P., Mole, D., Tian, Y., Wilson, M., Gielbert, J., Gaskell, S., Kriegsheim, A., Hebestreit, H., Mukherji, M., Schofield, C., Maxwell, P., Pugh, C. & Ratcliffe, P. 2001. Targeting of HIF-alpha to the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex by O2-regulated prolyl hydroxylation. Science, 292, 468–72.

Ratcliffe and colleagues made essentially the same discovery simultaneously with Kaelin and colleagues.



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHYSIOLOGY › Physiology
  • 14274

The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway.

Nature, 389, 816-824, 1997.

"Abstract: Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in ‘hot’ chilli peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. We have used an expression cloning strategy based on calcium influx to isolate a functional cDNA encoding a capsaicin receptor from sensory neurons. This receptor is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. The cloned capsaicin receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo."

In 2021 David Julius shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.”



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHYSIOLOGY › Physiology
  • 14275

Piezo1 and Piezo2 are essential components of distinct mechanically activated cation channels.

Science, 330, 55-60, 2010.

Patapoutian and colleagues characterized the PIEZO1PIEZO2, and TRPM8 receptors that detect pressure, menthol, and temperature.  With Mathur, J.; Schmidt, M.; Earley, T. J.; Ranade, S.; Petrus, M. J.; Dubin, A. E.

See also:

Coste, Bertrand; Xiao, Bailong; Santos, Jose S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Grandl, Jörg; Spencer, Kathryn S.; Kim, Sung Eun; Schmidt, Manuela; Mathur, Jayanti; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Montal, Mauricio; Patapoutian, Ardem (February 19, 2012). "Piezo proteins are pore-forming subunits of mechanically activated channels"Nature483, 2012, 176-181.

Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A. J. "Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice"Nature516, 2014, 121–125.

In 2021 Patapoutian shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with David Julius “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch.”



Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 14276

The chemical evolution of vision.

The Harvey Lectures, 41, 117-160, 19451946.

In this paper Wald identified structures for all the visual pigments and their peak absorption wavelengths. He detailed the function of the rods and cones and broke down visual photonic perception at the molecular level, revealing the molecular basis of vision.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision
  • 14277

The interconversion of the retinenes and vitamins A in vitro.

Biochemica et Biophysica Acta, 4, 215-228, 1950.

Continuing his research on retinal pigments structure and function with emphais on rhodopsin, Wald deciphered the interconversion of rhodopsin to retinene to Vitamin A.

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for this reference and its interpretation.)



Subjects: OPHTHALMOLOGY › Physiology of Vision