An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 23, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 2500–2599

204 entries
  • 2500

Vorlesungen über Bacterien.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1885.

  • 2501

Les bactéries et leur rôle dans l’anatomie et l’histologie pathologiques des maladies infectieuses. 1 vol. and atlas.

Paris: Félix Alcan, 1885.

Considered the first treatise on bacteriology.

  • 2502

Ueber Fäulnissbacterien.

Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1885.

Isolation of Proteus vulgaris.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Proteus
  • 2503

Die Methoden der Bakterienforschung.

Wiesbaden: Kriedel, 1885.

Hueppe, a colleague of Koch, wrote an admirable manual on bacteriological methods, a subject to which he gave several original contributions. English translation, New York, 1886.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, Laboratory Medicine
  • 2503.1

Ueber die Mosaikkrankheit des Tabaks.

Landw. VersSta., 32, 450-67, 1886.

Mayer was first to describe and name tobacco mosaic disease and to demonstrate its infectious nature, that it could be transferred between plants, similar to bacterial infections. Translation in Phytopathological Classics, No. 7, pp. 9-24, Ithaca, 1942. See No. 2506.2.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 2504

An introduction to practical bacteriology based upon the methods of Koch.

London: H. K. Lewis, 1886.

Crookshank studied under Koch, and later became Professor of Bacteriology at King’s College, London.

  • 2505

The bacterium of swine-plague.

Amer. monthly micr. J., 7, 204-05, 1886.

Discovery of Salmonella choleraesuis. The Salmonellae tribe was named after Salmon, even though the discovery was made by Smith. See Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988) 31-32.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Salmonella, EPIDEMIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis, VETERINARY MEDICINE, VETERINARY MEDICINE › Epizootics
  • 2505.1

Eine kleine Modification des Koch’schen Plattenverfahrens.

Zbl. Bakt., 1, 279-80, 1887.

Petri dish. A similar dish was described by Cornil and Babès (see No. 2501) and by Nicati and Rietsch, Arch. Physiol. norm. path., 1885, 6, 72. Petri was an assistant of Koch.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, Laboratory Medicine, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2506

Ueber die Fleischvergiftung in Frankenhausen. a.K. und den Erreger derselben.

Korrespbl. ärztl Ver. Thüringen, 17, 573-600, 1888.

Discovery of Salmonella enteritidis, a cause of food poisoning.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Salmonella, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis, MICROBIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY
  • 2506.1

Ueber Wasserfiltration durch Filter aus gebrannter Infusorienerde.

Z. Hyg. InfektKr., 10, 145-54, 1891.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, Laboratory Medicine, MICROBIOLOGY, PUBLIC HEALTH
  • 2506.2

Ueber die Mosaikkrankheit der Tabakspflanze.

Bull. Acad. imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, 3, 67-70, 1892.

The Russian botanist Ivanovski demonstrated that the agent responsible for tobacco mosaic disease could pass through the finest filter then available. This was the starting point of research into the etiology of virus diseases. An English version is in Phytopathological Classics (American Phytopathological Society), No. 7, pp. 25-30, Ithaca, N.Y., 1942. See No. 2503.1.

Subjects: PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 2507

Ueber Epidemieen unter den im hygienischen Institute zu Greifswald gehaltenen Mäusen und über die Bekämpfung der Feldmausplage.

Zbl. Bakt., 11, 129-41, 1892.

Isolation of Salm. typhi-murium.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Salmonella, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever
  • 2508

A gas-producing bacillus (Bacillus aërogenes capsulatus nov. spec.) capable of rapid development in the blood-vessels after death.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull., 3, 81-91, 1892.

Discovery of the gas gangrene bacillus (Welch bacillus) Cl. perfringens. Reprinted in Medical Classics, 1941, 5, 852-85.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Clostridium
  • 2509

A manual of bacteriology.

New York: W. Wood & Co., 1892.

Sternberg, U. S. Surgeon General 1893-1902, was a pioneer bacteriologist. Independently of Pasteur he discovered the pneumococcus and was first in America to photograph the tubercle bacillus. He sent Walter Reed off to make his great discoveries regarding yellow fever.

  • 2510

Contribution à l’ètude des intoxications alimentaires. Recherches sur des accidents à caractères botuliniques provoqués par du jambon.

Arch. Pharmacodyn., 3, 213-350, 499-601, 1897.

Cl. botulinum was discovered by van Ermengem in cases of food poisoning.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Clostridium, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases › Botulism, TOXICOLOGY
  • 2511

Bericht der Kommission zur Erforschung der Maul-und Klauenseuche bei dem Institut für Infektionskrankheiten.

Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt., 23, 371-91, 1898.

Loeffler and Frosch proved that foot-and-mouth disease is caused by a filter-passing virus; this was the first recognition that a virus causes disease. 

Subjects: VETERINARY MEDICINE › Veterinary Virology, VIROLOGY
  • 2512

Ueber ein Contagium vivum fluidum als Ursache der Fleckenkrankheit der Tabaksblätter.

Verh. k. Acad. Wet. Amst., 65 (2), 3-21, 1898.

Beijerinck confirmed the findings of Ivanovski. He showed that the tobacco mosaic virus would diffuse through agar. "Like Ivanovsky before him and Adolf Mayer, predecessor at Wageningen, Beijerinck could not culture the filterable infectious agent; however, he concluded that the agent can replicate and multiply in living plants. He named the new pathogen virus to indicate its non-bacterial nature. Beijerinck asserted that the virus was somewhat liquid in nature, calling it "contagium vivum fluidum" (contagious living fluid). It was not until the first crystals of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) obtained by Wendell Stanley in 1935, the first electron micrographs of TMV produced in 1939 and the first X-ray crystallographic analysis of TMV performed in 1941 proved that the virus was particulate" (Wikipedia article on Martinus Beijerinck, accessed 5-2020).

Translation in Phytopathological Classics, 1942, No. 7.

Subjects: VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 2513

On an epidemic of gastro-enteritis associated with the presence of a variety of the Bacillus enteritidis (Gaertner), and with positive sero-diagnostic evidence (in vivo and in vitro).

Brit. med. J., 2, 600-01, 1898.

Discovery of Salm. Aertrycke in patients suffering from food poisoning.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Salmonella, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Food-Borne Diseases, TOXICOLOGY
  • 2514

Du séro-diagnostic dans les affections gastro-intestinales d’origine alimentaire.

Ann. Soc. Méd. Gand, 77, 281-306, 1898.

Discovery of Salmonella aertrycke, independently of Durham.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Salmonella, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis
  • 2515

Ueber die nach Gram färbbaren Bacillen des Säuglingsstuhles.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 13, 114-15, 1900.

Isolation of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Probiotics
  • 2516

Morbid conditions caused by Bacillus aërogenes capsulatus.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull., 11, 185-204, 1900.

Welch grouped together the diseases caused by Cl. perfringens, earlier discovered by him in association with Nuttall (see No. 2508).

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Clostridium
  • 2517

Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen. 6 vols.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 19031909.

Third edition, 10 vols. [in 19], 1929-31.

  • 2518

Bacteria in relation to plant diseases. 3 vols.

Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 19051914.

One of the most careful investigations of the bacterial diseases in plants was made by Smith, who conclusively demonstrated the existence of such diseases and proposed a scheme of classification for the bacteria concerned.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of, BOTANY
  • 2518.1

Upon the bacteriology of the summer diarrhoea of infants.

Brit. med. J., 1, 908-12, 1906.

Morgan’s bacillus, Proteus morgani.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Proteus , PEDIATRICS
  • 2518.2

Kolloidstudien mit der Filtrationsmethode.

Z. phys. Chem., 60, 257-318, 1907.

Bechhold devised ultrafiltration methods for studies in microbiology.

  • 2519

Pure cultivation of Spirochaeta refringens.

J. exp. Med., 15, 446-69, 1912.

Noguchi obtained pure cultures of spirochaetae. See also his later papers in the same journal, 1912, 16, 199-210, 620-28.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes
  • 2520

Notes bactériologiques sur les infections gazeuses.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 78, 274-79, 1915.

Isolation of Cl. oedematiens.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative or Gram-Positive Bacteria › Chlamydia
  • 2521

Contribution à l’étiologie de la gangrène gazeuse.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 163, 449-51, 1916.

Isolation of Cl. histolyticum.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative or Gram-Positive Bacteria › Chlamydia
  • 2521.1

Untersuchungen über die Ätiologie der Krankheiten der Herpesgruppe (Herpes zoster, Herpes genitalis, Herpes febrilis).

Arch. Derm. Syph. (Wien), 136, 428-82, 1921.

Lipschütz’s account of herpes virus diseases included identification of the characteristic inclusion bodies (“Zosterkörperchen”).

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses › Herpes Zoster (Shingles), INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Herpes, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Herpes › Herpes Simplex, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Herpes › Herpes Zoster (Shingles), VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Herpesviridae › Varicella zoster virus
  • 2522

Manual of determinative bacteriology.

Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1923.

The Society of American Bacteriologists appointed in 1920 a Committee on Characterization and Classification of Bacterial Types. Their reports were incorporated in the above Manual issued under the names of Bergey and his associates. The current edition of Bergey's manual of systematics of archaea and bacteria is published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. in Association with Bergey's Manual Trust.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteria, Classification of
  • 2522.1

A disease of rabbits characterised by a large mononuclear leucocytosis, caused by a hitherto undescribed bacillus acterium monocytogenes (n. sp.).

J. Path. Bact., 29, 407-39, 1926.

Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes. With R. A. Webb and M. B. R. Swann.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Listeria, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 2523

The pathogenic streptococci. An historical survey of their role in human and animal disease.

Ann. Pickett-Thomson Res. Lab., 4, pt. 1-2. London, 19281929.

Documents over 1,600 studies.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus , BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology, VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 2524

A new series of graded collodion membranes suitable for general bacteriological use, especially in filterable virus studies.

J. Path. Bact., 34, 505-21, 1931.

In his important studies on the filtration of virus preparations, Elford showed that different viruses possessed different and characteristic sizes.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, Laboratory Medicine, VIROLOGY
  • 2524.1

The susceptibility of the chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos to infection with the fowl-pox virus.

Amer. J. Path., 7, 209-22, 1931.

By their demonstration of the infection of the chorio-allantoic membrane with the virus of fowl pox, Woodruff and Goodpasture initiated wide-spread adoption of this host for the study of viruses.

Subjects: VETERINARY MEDICINE, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2524.2

A serological differentiation of human and other groups of hemolytic streptococci.

J. exp. Med., 57, 571-95, 1933.

Lancefield determined the principal pathogenic strains of hemolytic streptococci and subdivided them into types. All important strains pathogenic to humans fall into Lancefield’s Group A.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus , INFECTIOUS DISEASE, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2524.3

The serological classification of Streptococcus pyogenes.

J. Hyg. (Camb.), 34, 542-84, 1934.

Griffith’s classification of streptococci. Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus
  • 2524.4

The natural occurrence of pleuropneumonia-like organisms in apparent symbiosis with Streptobacillus moniliformis and other bacteria.

J. Path. Bact., 40, 93-105, 1935.

Klieneberger isolated typical strains of pleuropneumonia-like organisms from Strep, moniliformis.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Streptococcus , WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2524.5

Isolation of a crystalline protein possessing the properties of tobacco-mosaic virus.

Science, 81, 644-45, 1935.

Stanley first crystallized a virus— tobacco mosaic virus. The following year Bawden, Pirie, Bernal and Fankuchen (No. 12005) showed that tobacco mosaic virus molecules are asnisometric and consist of ribonucleoprotein.

In 1946 Stanley and John Howard Northrop received half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form." The other half was  awarded to James Batcheller Sumner "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized." 

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › X-Ray Crystallography, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Chemistry, VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › Molecular Virology, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 2524.6

The Feulgen reaction of the bacteriophage substance.

Nature (Lond.), 138, 508-09, 1936.

Schlesinger showed that the fundamental constituents of bacteriophages consist mainly of approximately equal amounts of protein and DNA.

  • 2525

The anaerobic bacteria and their activities in nature and disease. A subject bibliography. 2 vols.

Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1939.

Supplements were published: 1938-1975, 8 vols., 1941-82.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Specific Subjects, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2526

A new mycobacterial infection in man.

J. Path. Bact., 60, 93-122, 1948.

Myco. ulcerans first described. With J. C. Tolhurst, G. Buckle, and H. A. Sissons.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Mycobacterium
  • 2526.1

Genetic recombinations leading to production of active bacteriophage from ultraviolet inactivated bacteriophage particles.

Genetics 34, 93-125, 1949.

In 1969 Luria shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in with Delbrück (No. 2578.5) and A. D. Hershey (No. 256) "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses."

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, GENETICS / HEREDITY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage
  • 2526.2

Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture.

Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. (N. Y), 84, 570-73, 1953.

Discovery of adenoviruses. With R. J. Huebner, L. K. Gilmore, R. H. Parrott, and T. G. Ward.

  • 2527

Reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus from its inactive protein and nucleic acid components.

Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), 41, 690-98, 1955.

First reconstitution of a virus.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Botanic Sources of Single Component Drugs › Tobacco, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 2527.1

Crystallization of purified MEF-1 poliomyelitis virus particles.

Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash), 4l, 1020-23, 1955.

First crystallization of an animal virus.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Inflammatory Conditions › Poliomyelitis, VIROLOGY
  • 2527.2

Propagation in tissue culture of a cytopathogenic virus from human salivary gland virus (SGV) disease.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med., 92, 424-30, 1956.

Isolation of cytomegalovirus

Subjects: VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2527.3

The vacuolating virus SV40.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 105, 420-27, 1960.

Simian virus type 40, a polyomavirus found in both monkeys and humans.

Subjects: VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Polyomaviridae
  • 2527.99
  • 5404

De variolis et morbillis commentarius.

London: G. Bowyer, 1766.

The first medical description of smallpox was written by Rhazes, about the year 910… The above work is the first edition of the Arabic text with a parallel Latin translation by the English pharmacist and scholar, John Channing, concerning whom see E. Savage-Smith, "John Channing: Eighteenth-century apothecary and arabist," Pharmacy in history, 30 (1988) 63-80. For an English translation see Medical Classics, 1939, 4, 22-84. A translation was also published by the Sydenham Society, 1848. See Nos. 2527 & 5441. In his Treatise on the smallpox and measles, Rhazes stated that survival from smallpox infection prevented an individual from ever acquiring the disease again. His explanation for why the disease does not strike the same individual twice is the first theory of acquired immunity.


  • 2528
  • 5371

De sympathia et antipathia rerum liber unus. De contagione et contagiosis morbis et curatione.

Venice: apud heredes L. Iuntae, 1546.

Though Fracastoro wrote this book more than a century before Leewenhoek invented the microscope, and could only express the theory of contagion in very general terms, this book represents a landmark in the development of ideas that centuries later led to the work of Bassi, Henle, Davaine, Koch, and others. For that reason we have classified Fracastoro as a precursor of foundational theories of infectious disease by microorganisms.

Fracastoro was the first to state the germ theory of infection. He suggested the contagiousness of tuberculosis. Haeser even describes him as the “founder of scientific epidemiology”. This book, which contains one of the first accounts of typhus (pp. 43-44), marks an epoch in the history of medicine, since Fracastorius enunciated in it, perhaps for the first time, the modern doctrine of the specific characters and infectious nature of fevers. He is remembered for his poem on syphilis, but he was also eminent as a physicist, geologist, astronomer, and pathologist. An English translation by W. C. Wright appeared in 1930. 

  • 2528.1
  • 5118

Scrutinium physico-medicum contagiosae luis, quae pestis dicitur.

Rome: typ. Mascardi, 1658.

Kircher, a Jesuit scholar and polymath, not specifically trained in medicine, was probably the first to employ the microscope in investigating the cause of disease. He mentioned that the blood of plague patients was filled with a “countless brood of worms not perceptible to the naked eye, but to be seen in all putrefying matter through the microscope” (Garrison). He could not have seen the plague bacillus with his low-power microscope, but he probably saw the larger micro-organisms. He was the first to state explicitly the theory of contagion by animalculae as the cause of infectious diseases.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Flea-Borne Diseases › Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans), MICROBIOLOGY
  • 2529

Medela medicinae.

London: R. Lownds, 1665.

Needham, a physician better known for his work in journalism, was one of the earliest – if not the first – Englishman to write on the germ theory. In his book he included an account of Kircher’s experiments with the microscope.

  • 2529.1
  • 4012

Osservazioni intorno a’ pellicelli del corpo umano.

Florence: Piero Matini, 1687.

First clinical and experimental proof of infection by a microparasite. Bonomo observed Sarcoptes scabiei, the scabies mite. This gave researchers grounds to think in terms of objective, exogenous pathogenic agents as the cause of disease. This pamphlet was in part translated by Richard Mead in Phil. Trans.,(1702-03), 1703, 23, 1296-99; it was reproduced in facsimile, with Mead’s translation, in Arch. Derm. Syph. (Chicago), 1928, 18, 1-25. See 2529.1.

Subjects: DERMATOLOGY › Specific Dermatoses, PARASITOLOGY › Sarcoptes scabiei (Itch-Mite)
  • 2529.2

Nuovo idea del male contagioso de’ buoi.

Milan: Marc ‘Antonio Pandolfo Malatesta, 1714.

In this study of an epizootic Cogrossi formulated much of the modern theory of infection. He speculated that infection might occur at the microscopic level, and argued that infected individuals should be isolated and cured, that those believed to have been exposed to the disease should be isolated, and that the personal belongings of both groups should be disinfected to exterminate the causitive agent and its eggs. He also speculated on the entrance routes of the infection and its transmission through secretions and excretions of the infected animal. Facsimile reprint with English translation by D.M. Schullian and foreword by L. Belloni, Roma, Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 1953.

  • 2529.3
  • 5423

An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae vaccinae.

London: S. Low, 1798.

Jenner established the fact that a “vaccination” or inoculation with vaccinia (cowpox) lymph matter protects against smallpox. He performed his first vaccination on May 14, 1796. The above work, describing 23 successful vaccinations, announced to the world one of the greatest triumphs in the history of medicine. Jennerian vaccination soon superseded the protective inoculation of material from human cases of small-pox, which had previously been in vogue. What is probably the first mention of anaphylaxis appears on p. 13 of the pamphlet. See W.R. Lefanu, A Bio-bibliography of Edward Jenner, 1749-1823, rev. 2nd. ed., Winchester, St. Paul’s Bibliographies, 1985. Several facsimile editions have been published. As a result of the success of Jenner’s vaccine natural smallpox was eradicated. The official declaration was made by the World Health Organization on May 8, 1980. See No. 5434.2. 

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Smallpox › Vaccination
  • 2530

Mémoire physiologique sur les maladies purulentes et putrides, sur la vaccine, etc.

J. Physiol. exp. path., 2, 1-45; 4, 1-69, 1822, 1824.

Gaspard was one of the first to make experimental studies on pyemia following the injection of putrid fluids. He experimented on dogs, sheep, foxes, and pigs, injecting putrid infusions pus, vaccine, lymph, blood, bile, urine, saliva, carbolic acid, hydrogen, or sulphuretted hydrogen.

  • 2531

Origines contagii.

Karlsruhe & Baden: D. R. Marx, 1824.

History of contagious disease in the ancient world through readings from the texts. A supplementary “Additamenta” was published in 1826. Digital facsimile of the 1824 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Egypt › History of Ancient Medicine in Egypt, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece › History of Ancient Medicine in Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire › History of Medicine in the Roman Empire, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease
  • 2532

Del mal del segno calcinaccio o moscardino malattia che affligge i bachi da seta e sul modo di liberarne le bigattaje anche le piu infestate. 2 vols.

Lodi: Tipografia Orcesi, 18351836.

Bassi preceded Louis Pasteur in the discovery that microorganisms can be the cause of disease (the germ theory of disease). He discovered that the muscardine disease of silkworms--a disease that was destroying the silk industry--was caused by a living, very small, parasitic organism, a fungus that would be named eventually Beauveria bassiana in his honor. To cure and prevent the disease Bassini recommended the use of disinfectants, separating the rows of feeding caterpillars, isolating and destroying infected caterpillars, and keeping the farms clean.

In demonstrating the parasitic nature of the muscardine disease of silkworms, Bassi also founded the doctrine of pathogenic microorganisms. His ideas inspired Henle (1840; No. 2533).

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, MICROBIOLOGY, Mycology, Medical, PARASITOLOGY › Parasitic Fungi
  • 2533

Von den Miasmen und Contagien. In his Pathologische Untersuchungen, pp. 1-82.

Berlin: August Hirschwald, 1840.

Bassi’s work on the muscardine disease of silkworms (see No. 2532), with its prophecy of the discovery of microbes as the causal agents of other diseases, inspired Henle to write this famous essay on miasms and contagions. He laid down postulates on the aetiological relation of microbes to disease which became fundamentals of bacteriology and which did much to check the reckless speculation which had arisen regarding micro-organisms. Koch later developed these postulates (see Nos. 2331, 2332, 2536, and 5167). Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

English translation in Bull. Hist. Med., 1936, 6, 911-83.

  • 2534

Bidrag til Laeren om den saakaldte putride eller septiske Infection.

Bibl. Laeger, 4 R., 8, 253-85, 1856.

Panum was the first to investigate the chemical products of putrefaction. His work had great significance for the doctrine of putrid intoxication. An abstract of the above paper is in jb. in-u. ausländ. ges. Med., 1859, 101, 213-17. See Hans Jørn Kolmos, "Panum's studies on "putrid poison" 1856. An early description of endotoxin," Danish Medical Bulletin , 53 (4) (2006) 450-2.


  • 2535

Die Ursache der infectiösen Wundkrankheiten.

Cor.-Bl. d. schweiz. Aerzte, 1, 241-46, 1871.

Klebs, Professor of Pathology at Berne, Würzburg, Prague, Zurich, and Chicago, preceded Koch in investigations of the pathology of traumatic infection. He found bacteria in gunshot wounds, granulation tissue, etc., and developed his theory of a single organism, Microsporon septicum, as the cause of all pathological changes.

  • 2536

Untersuchungen über die Aetiologie der Wundinfectionskrankheiten.

Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1878.

Koch’s epochal work on the etiology of traumatic infectious disease established his reputation. He inoculated animals with material from various sources and produced six types of infection, each due to microorganisms. He carried these infections through several generations of animals. These experiments determined the role of bacteria in the etiology of wound infections and demonstrated for the first time the specificity of infection. This work also contains the first explicit statement of the criteria implicit in Henle (See No. 2533) on contagion, which later became known as Koch’s postulates. See also Nos. 2331 and 5167. English translation, New Sydenham Society, 1880.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, SURGERY: General › Wound Healing
  • 2537

Sur les maladies virulentes, et en particulier sur la maladie appelée vulgairement choléra des poules.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 90, 239-48, 1880.

This paper marked the beginning of Pasteur’s work on the attenuation of the infective organism. Noting that fowls inoculated with an attenuated form of the chicken cholera bacterium acquired immunity, he developed the idea of a protective inoculation by attenuated living cultures, and subsequently adopted this principle with anthrax, rabies, and swine erysipelas. His work laid the foundations of the science of immunology. Since 1979, the availability to scholars of Pasteur’s original laboratory notebooks has provided evidence that Émile Roux played a crucial and previously unacknowledged role in the development of the vaccine. See also his later paper in the same journal, 1880, 91, 673-80. Abridged English translation of both papers and discussion of Roux’s role in Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988). Roux did receive credit from Pasteur for his work on anthrax. See No. 5169.

  • 2538

Über eine Sprosspilzkrankheit der Daphnien. Beitrag zur Lehre über den Kampf der Phagocyten gegen Krankheitserreger.

Virchows Arch. path. Anat., 96, 177-95, 1884.

Metchnikoff originated the theory of phagocytosis. He described phagocytes in leucocytes and showed their function as scavengers. Abridged English translation in Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988).

  • 2539

On a new method of producing immunity from contagious diseases.

Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., 3, 29-33, 18841886.

Smith found that dead virus can induce immunity against the living virulent virus. Although Smith made the discovery on his own, his supervisor, D.E. Salmon, usurped credit. See Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988) 31-32.

  • 2540

Das Sauerstoff-Bedürfniss des Organismus. Eine farbenanalytische Studie.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1885.

Includes the first statement of Ehrlich’s “side-chain” theory.

  • 2541
  • 5483

Méthode pour prévenir la rage après morsure.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 101, 765-74; 102, 459-69, 835-38; 103, 777-85, 1885, 1886.

Pasteur’s papers describing his rabies vaccine, and the results he attained with it gave further proof of the value of attenuated virus as a protective inoculum against infective diseases in man and animals. This is considered Pasteur’s greatest triumph. A grateful public subscribed two and a half million francs and made possible the erection of the Institut Pasteur, Paris. English translation in R. Suzor, Hydrophobia: An account of M. Pasteur’s system.… London, 1887.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Animal Bite Wound Infections › Rabies, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Rhabdoviridae › Rabies Lyssavirus
  • 2542

Experimente über die bacterienfeindlichen Einflüsse des thierischen Körpers.

Z. Hyg. InfektKr. 4, 353-94, 1888.

Working with the defibrinated blood of certain animals, Nuttall was the first to describe the bactericidal action of blood. Abridged English translation in Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988).

  • 2543

Ueber die bakterientödtende Wirkung des zellenfreien Blutserums.

Zbl. Bakt., 5, 817-23; 6, 1-11, 1889.

Following Nuttall’s work, Buchner discovered a substance in blood serum that was capable of destroying bacteria. He called the substance "alexin". He demonstrated that the bactericidal power of defibrinated blood was possessed by the cell-free serum, and was lost on heating the serum to 55°C for one hour.

  • 2544
  • 5060
  • 5150

Ueber das Zustandekommen der Diphtherie-Immunität und der Tetanus-Immunität bei Thieren.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., 16, 1113-14, 1890.

Antitoxins and their immunizing powers were discovered when Behring and Kitasato published their paper dealing with immunity to tetanus and diphtheria. This work laid the foundation of all future treatment with antitoxins, and was the basis of serotherapy. The paper was reprinted in the same journal, 1940, 66, 1348-49. Part 2, which deals with diphtheria, is by Behring alone. English translation in Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988).

In 1901 Behring was the first recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths."


Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Toxin-Antitoxin, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tetanus, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2332
  • 2544.1

Weitere Mittheilungen über ein Heilmittel gegen Tuberkulose.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., 16, 1029-32; 17, 101-102, 1189-92, 1890, 1891.

In 1890, Koch announced the discovery of tuberculin, a substance derived from tubercle bacilli, which he thought was capable of arresting bacterial development in-vitro and in animals. This news gave rise to tremendous hope throughout the world, which was soon replaced by disillusionment when the product turned out to be an ineffective therapeutic agent. In this paper Koch provided his definitive expression of "Koch's Postulates."

The second paper described “Koch’s phenomenon”, and tuberculin skin test. Koch showed that tuberculin injected intradermally would elicit a severe local inflammatory reaction in tuberculous patients. This was the first diagnostic skin test. Abbreviated English translation of second paper in Bibel, Milestones of immunology (1988).

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, Laboratory Medicine › Diagnostic Skin Tests
  • 2545

Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur ätiologischen Therapie von ansteckenden Krankheiten. 2 vols.

Leipzig: G. Thieme, 18931915.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Collected Works: Opera Omnia, IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2545.1

Practical results of bacteriological researches.

Trans. Ass. Amer. Phycns., 7, 68-86, 1892.

Sternberg demonstrated that the serum of an animal recovered from vaccinia possesses the property of neutralizing the activity of the causative virus. His test was readily adaptable for use in various host-systems.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests, VIROLOGY
  • 2546
  • 5110

Ueber die specifische Bedeutung der Choleraimmunität (Bakteriolyse).

Z. Hyg. InfektKr., 17, 355-400; 18, 1-16, 1894, 1895.

Pfeiffer and Isayev recorded the occurrence of bacteriolysis in cholera vibrios under certain conditions: immune bacteriolysis, “Pfeiffer’s phenomenon”. Abridged English translation of second part in Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988).

  • 2547

Contribution à l’ étude du sérum chez les animaux vaccinés.

Ann. Soc. roy. Sci. méd. nat. Brux., 4, 455-530, 1895.

In Bordet’s classic paper on the properties of the sera of immunized animals he showed that two different substances (now known as sensitizing antibody and complement) are involved in the phenomenon of bacteriolysis. English translation in J. Bordet et al., Studies in immunity, New York, 1909, pp. 8-80.

In 1919 Bordet was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his work on the role of antibodies and the complement system."  Related to this prize see also Nos. 2551, 2552 and 2553.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriolysis, IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2548

Sur la destruction extracellulaire des bactéries dans l’organisme.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur; 9, 433-61, 1895.

See No. 2538

  • 2549
  • 5036

Eine neue Methode zur raschen Erkennung des Choleravibrio und des Typhusbacillus.

Münch. med. Wschr., 43, 285-86, 1896.

The discovery of bacterial agglutination. Gruber and Durham discovered the agglutinating action of the serum of typhoid patients upon the typhoid bacillus. First briefly reported by Durham: On a special action of serum of highly immunized animals, and its use for diagnostic and other purposes. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., 1986, 59, 224-26.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Negative Bacteria › Salmonella › Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi , IMMUNOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever
  • 2550
  • 5037

Recherches de la réaction agglutinante dans le sang et le sérum desséchés des typhiques et dans la sérosité des vesicatoires.

Bull. Mém. Soc. méd. Hôp. Paris, 3 sér., 13, 681-82, 1896.

Developing the work of Gruber and Durham, Widal noted that a patient’s serum could be tested with bacteria of known type and his disease identified by this means. They demonstrated specific agglutinins in the blood of typhoid patients, making possible an agglutination reaction for the diagnosis of typhoid, the“Gruber-Widal test”.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2550.1

Über specifische Reactionen im keimfreien Filtraten aus Cholera, Typhus und Pestbouillonculturen, erzeugt durch homologes Serum.

Wien. klin. Woch., 10, 736-38, 1897.

The precipitin reaction, employed for the qualitative identification of antigens and antibodies. English translation in Bibel, Milestones in immunology,(1988) pp. 265-68.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Lice-Borne Diseases › Typhus, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2551

Sur l’agglutination et la dissolution des globules rouges par le sérum d’animaux injectés de sang défibriné.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 12, 688-95; 13, 225-50, 1898, 1899.

Bordet’s important work on immune hemolysis turned the attention of many investigators towards the subject. English translation in J. Bordet et al., Studies in immunity, New York, 1909, p. 134.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2552

Les sérums hémolytiques, leurs antitoxines et les théories des serums cytolytiques.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 14, 257-96; 15, 303-18, 1900, 1901.

English translation in T. Bordet et al., Studies in immunity, New York, 1909, p. 186.

  • 2553

Sur l’existence de substances sensibilisatrices dans la plupart des sérums antimicrobiens.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 15, 289-302, 1901.

The Bordet–Gengou complement-fixation reaction is the basis of many tests for infection, notably the Wassermann test for syphilis, and reactions for gonococcus infection, glanders, hydatid disease. English translation in Bibel, Milestones in immunology (1988), pp. 268-71.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2554

On the rôle of insects, arachnids and myriapods, as carriers in the spread of bacterial and parasitic diseases of man and animals. A critical and historical study.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Rep., 8, 1-154, 1899.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE, PARASITOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Arthropoda › Entomology › Medical Entomology
  • 2555

L’immunité dans les maladies infectieuses.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1901.

A classic study of the mechanisms concerned in specific antibacterial immunity, and one of Metchnikoff’s best works.  Russian edition: Nevospriimchivost’ k infekcionnim boleznyam. St. Petersburg: K.L. Rikker, 1903. English translation, London, 1905. Digital facsimile of 1901 edition from bnf.gallica at this link.

In 1908 Metchikoff shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Ehrlich "in recognition of their work on immunity." See also Nos. 2307 and 2538.


Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2556

Hämolysine, Cytotoxine and Präcipitine.

Samml. klin. Vortr., n.F. 331 (Chir. Nr. 94), 339-84, 1902.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2557

Zur Lehre von der Unterscheidung verschiedener Eiweissarten mit Hilfe spezifischer Sera.

Jena: G Fischer, 1903.

Demonstration of organ-specific antigens, in this case in the proteins of the lens of the eye.

  • 2558

An experimental investigation of the rôle of the blood fluids in connection with phagocytosis.

Proc. roy. Soc. (Lond.), 72, 357-370; 73, 128-42, 19031904.

Wright and Douglas showed the existence of thermolabile substances (opsonins) in normal and immune serum.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Phagocytosis
  • 2558.1

Über paroxysmale Hämoglobinurie.

Mün. Med. Woch., 51, 1590-1593, 1904.

The first description of an auto-antibody, and of an auto-immune disease, paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. See A.M. Silverstein, A history of immunology, New York, Academic Press, 1989, Ch. 8, The Donanth-Landsteiner autoantibody…English translation in Bibel, Milestones in immunology, (1988).

  • 2559

Gesammelte Arbeiten über Immunitätsforschung.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1904.

Reprints Ehrlich’s writings on immunology to date, as well as three papers by Kyes (Nos. 2111-3). English translation, with two more chapters by Ehrlich and Sachs, and one by Ehrlich, New York, 1906.

  • 2560

Ueber die Antikörper des Streptokokken- und Pneumokokken-Immunserums.

Dtschr. med. Wschr., 30, 1458-60, 1904.

Bacteriotropins named and described.

  • 2561

Blood immunity and blood relationship, a demonstration of certain blood relationships amongst animals by means of the precipitin test for blood.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1904.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests
  • 2562

Die experimentelle Bakteriologie und die Infektionskrankheiten.

Berlin & Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1906.

English translation, 2 vols., London, Allen & Unwin, 1934.

  • 2563

Quelques remarques sur le lait aigri.

Paris: A. Maloine, 1906.

Metchnikoff researched the effect of lactic acid produced by Lactobacilli on other non-desirable bacteria in the digestive tract. He thus expanded Döderlein's (No. 6279) concept of "normal flora" beyond the vagina.

Translated into English as Notes on soured milk, and other methods of administering selected lactic germs in intestinal bacterio-therapyLondonJohn Bale, Sons & Danielsson1909.

For what he called bacterio-therapy, Metchnikoff recommended eating yogurt. From p. 20: "The inexperienced reader may be surprised at our suggesting the ingestion of large quantities of microbes, the popular idea being that microbes are necessarily injurious. This view, however, is altogether erroneous; for there are many useful microbes, and among them the lactic organism occupies a foremost place."

(Thanks to Juan Weiss for the reference to the English translation and its interpretation.)


Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Gram-Positive Bacteria › Lactobacillus , IMMUNOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY › Microbiome
  • 2564

Infection, immunity and serum therapy.

Chicago, IL: A. M. A. Press, 1906.

  • 2564.1

Immunochemistry. The application of the principles of physical chemistry to the study of the biological antibodies.

New York: Macmillan, 1907.

Arrhenius defined immunochemistry, and laid out its frontiers.

Subjects: Chemistry, IMMUNOLOGY
  • 2565

Beiträge zur experimentellen Pathologie und Chemotherapie.

Leipzig: Akademische Verlag, 1909.

  • 2566

Handbuch der experimentellen Serumtherapie.

Munich: J. F. Lehmann, 1910.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2567

Die Immunitätswissenschaft.

Würzburg: C. Kabitsch, 1911.

  • 2567.1

Die heteroplastiche und homöoplastiche Transplantation.

Berlin: Springer, 1912.

Schöne coined the term “transplantation immunity”. He set out general rules governing the acceptance or rejection of tumor grafts which are essentially the same as the modern “laws of transplantation”. This is a comprehensive work on skin and organ transplants.

  • 2568

Infection and resistance.

New York: Macmillan, 1914.

  • 2569

The influence of the x-ray on the production of antibodies.

J. infect. Dis., 17, 415-22, 1915.

Proof that x rays suppress the antibody response.

  • 2570

Further experimental studies on the inheritance of susceptibility to a transplantable tumour, carcinoma (J. W. A.) of the Japanese waltzing mouse.

J. med. Res., 33, 393-427, 1916.

Marks the beginning of the study of histocompatibility antigens.

  • 2571

An investigation on the nature of ultra-microscopic viruses.

Lancet, 2, 1241-43, 1915.

 Twort discovered discovered bacteriophages, a type of virus that attacks bacteria (the term bacteriophage was coined by Félix d’Herelle, who in 1917 independently confirmed Twort’s discovery). The discovery of bacteriophage began an immensely fruitful line of research that produced, among other things, Avery’s demonstration that DNA is the basic material responsible for genetic transformation (1944) and Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase’s “Waring Blender” experiment showing that DNA is the carrier of genetic information in virus reproduction (1952). For further information see the entry at at this link. Twort's paper is available at this link.

  • 2571.1

Pathogénie du choléra. Reproduction expérimentale de la maladie.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 163, 538-40, 1916.

Sanarelli claimed priority in observing the Shwartzman phenomenon (See No. 2576). See Ann. Inst. Pasteur,1939, 63, 105.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Cholera
  • 2572

Sur une microbe invisible antagoniste des bacilles dysentérique.

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 165, 373-75, 1917.

d'Herrelle discovered a microbe-eating virus that he called "bacteriophage." He made his discovery independently of the work of Frederick Twort, which was published two years earlier. (See No. 2571). 

  • 2572.1

Exsudats leucocytaires et autolyse microbienne transmissible.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 83, 1293-96, 1920.

  • 2573

Results of experimental studies on focal infection and elective localization.

Med. Clin. N. Amer. 5, 573-92, 1921.

Rosenow showed that focal infection could by caused by bacteria in teeth, etc.

  • 2573.1

The genetics of tissue transplantation in mammals.

J. Cancer Res.8, 75-95, 1924.

Little established that the homograft reaction was due to genetic differences between donor and recipient.

  • 2573.2
  • 3198

The soluble specific substance of pneumococcus.

J. exp. Med., 38, 73- 79; 40, 301-16, 19231924.

Heidelberger, Avery, and their colleagues made a chemical study of the antigenic constituents of the pneumococcus, separating the polysaccharide antigens.

  • 2574

Immunisation locale; pansements spécifiques.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1925.

Besredka’s vaccine, sensitized vaccine. English translation, Baltimore, 1927.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, IMMUNOLOGY › Vaccines
  • 2575

The chemical aspects of immunity.

New York: Chem. Catalog Co, 1925.

  • 2576

Studies on Bacillus typhosus toxic substances. I. Phenomenon of local skin reactivity to B. typhosus culture filtrate.

J. exp. Med., 48, 247-68, 1928.

“Shwartzman phenomenon.”

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Salmonellosis › Typhoid Fever
  • 2576.01

A quantitative study of the precipitin reaction between Type III pneumococcus polysaccharide and purified homologous antibody.

J. exp. Med., 50, 809-23, 1929.

Heidelberger and Kendall adapted the precipitin reaction to permit the quantitative measurement of antibody and antigen. This established the principle of quantitative immunochemistry.

  • 2576.02

Hypersensitiveness to arsphenamine in guinea pigs. I. Experiments in prevention and desensitization.

Arch. Dermatol. Syph., 20, 669-697, 1929.

First demonstration of specific, acquired, lasting refractoriness to sensitization. This is the same or a closely related phenomenon to that demonstrated later by Burnet and Medawar under the name immune tolerance. See No. 2603.1.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Chemotherapeutic Agents › Arsphenamine
  • 2576.1

Chemische Untersuchung des Präzipitates aus Hämoglobin und AntiHämoglobin-Serum und Bemerkungen über die Natur der Antikörper.

Hoppe-Seyl. Z. physiol. Chem., 192, 45-57, 1930.

Template or instruction theory of antibody formation.

  • 2576.2

Die Spezifizität der serologischen Reaktionen.

Berlin: Springer, 1933.

Summary of many years of research on antigen-antibody interactions. Landsteiner considered his study of hapten-antibody reactions to be his most significant work. Revised English translation, 1936 (revised 1945).

  • 2576.3

A protective action of neurotropic against viscerotropic yellow fever virus in Macacus rhesus.

Amer. J. trop. Med., 15, 675-80, 1935.

One of the first examples of an animal virus interference phenomenon was demonstrated by Hoskins.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Flaviviridae › Yellow Fever Virus, WOMEN in Medicine & the Life Sciences, Publications About
  • 2576.4

Immunogenetic studies of species and of species hybrids in doves, and the separation of species-specific substances in the backcross.

J. exp. Biol., 73, 85-108, 1936.

Irwin coined the term, “immunogenetics” to describe the union of immunology with genetics. He attempted to determine the genetic control of antigenicity through genetic cross matings.

  • 2576.5

The genetic and antigenic basis of tumour transplantation.

J. Path. Bact., 44, 691-97; 47, 231-52, 1937, 1938.

Gorer made the initial discoveries which formed the basis of transplantation genetics. He studied mouse blood groups and described an antigen in erythrocytes (antigen II). His studies established the laws of transplantation immunity. See also his later paper in Proc. roy. Soc. B, 1948, 135, 499-505.

  • 2576.6

The chemistry of antigens and antibodies.

Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 194. med. Res. Coun. (Lond.), 1934.

“The advent of the lattice theory of antibody-antigen coupling” (Bibel, Milestones in immunology [1988]pp. 91-94).

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2576.7

Recherches sur le phénomène de Twort-d’Hérelle (bactériophage ou autolyse hérédo-contagieuse).

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 60, 13-57, 1938.

The Wollmans made important contributions to the knowledge on bacteriophage and lysogeny.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2576.8

An electrophoretic study of immune sera and purified antibody preparations.

J. exp. Med., 69, 119-31, 1939.

Antibodies shown to be gamma globulins.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2577

The agglutination of red cells by allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus.

Science, 94, 22-23, 1941.

Discovery of virus hemagglutination. Between 1941 and 1942 Hirst developed the hemagglutination assay for quantifying the relative concentration of viruses, bacteria or antibodies.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › Bacteriology, Laboratory techniques in, HEMATOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › GENERAL PRINCIPLES of Infection by Microorganisms, Laboratory Medicine › Blood Tests, VIROLOGY
  • 2578

The absorption of influenza virus by red cells and a new in vitro method of measuring antibodies for influenza virus.

Canad. publ. Hlth. J., 32, 530-38, 1941.

Independently of Hirst, McClelland and Hare discovered virus hemagglutination.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, VIROLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2578.1

Sensitization to horse serum by means of adjuvants.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 49, 548-53, 1942.

Freund’s adjuvant. Freund’s procedure allowed adjuvants to be used for any antigen.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2578.10

Presence d’une leuco-agglutinine dans le sérum d’un cas d’agranulocytose chronique.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 146, 1539-41, 1952.

Discovery of leuco-agglutinins.

  • 2578.11

‘Actively acquired tolerance’ of foreign cells.

Nature (Lond.), 172, 603- 06, 1953.

Proof of Burnet and Fenner’s theory of immunity. For their discovery of acquired immunological tolerance Medawar and Burnet (No. 2578.7) shared the Nobel Prize in 1960.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2578.12

Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. I. The survival times of skin homografts exchanged between members of different inbred strains of mice. II. The origin, strength and duration of actively and adoptively acquired immunity.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 143, 43-80, 1954.

Experimental production of immunological tolerance by Billingham and colleagues.Paper II distinguished adoptive from passive immunization. E. M. Sparrow was a co-author of paper I.

  • 2578.13

Méthode permettant l’étude conjugée des propriétés éléctrophorétiques et immunochimiques d’un mélange de protéines. Application au sérum sanguin.

Biochem. biophys. Acta, 10, 193-94, 1953.


Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2578.14

Kinetic studies on immune hemolysis. III-IV.

J. Immunol., 72, 511-30, 1954.

Complement fixation

  • 2578.15

Passive transfer of transplantation immunity.

Proc. roy. Soc. B., 142, 72-87, 1954.

Preliminary notice in Nature (Lond.), 1953, 171, 267-68.

  • 2578.16

The fractionation of rabbit -globulin by partition chromatography.

Biochem. J., 59, 405-10, 1955.

Preliminary note in Biochem. J., 1954, 58, xxxix-xl. Porter received the Nobel Prize in 1972. See No. 2578.25.

  • 2578.17

Infectivity of ribonucleic acid from tobacco mosaic virus.

Nature (Lond.), 177, 702-03, 1956.

Proof that nucleic acid produces infectivity. See also Z. Naturf., 1956, 11b, 138-42.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY › Nucleic Acids, IMMUNOLOGY, VIROLOGY › VIRUSES (by Family) › Virgaviridae › Tobacco Mosaic Virus
  • 2578.18

The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production in the domestic fowl.

Poultry Sci., 35, 224-25, 1956.

The relationship of the bursa of Fabricius to antibody formation was discovered by Glick, T. S. Chang, and R. G. Jaap. Its removal in early life led to inability to produce antibodies.

  • 2578.19

Autoantibodies in Hashimoto’s disease (lymphadenoid goitre).

Lancet, 2, 820-21, 1956.

Demonstration of autoantibodies. With P. N. Campbell, and R. V. Hudson.

  • 2578.2

Pneumococcus polysaccharide as a paralyzing agent on the mechanism of immunity in white mice.

J. Bact., 43, 94-5, 1942.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2578.20
  • 3855.3

Studies on organ specificity. IV. Production of rabbit thyroid antibodies in the rabbit.

J. Immunol., 76, 408-16, 1956.

Autoimmune thyroiditis

  • 2578.21

The effects of the continuous re-infusion of lymph and lymphocytes on the output of lymphocytes from the thoracic duct of unanaesthetized rats.

Brit. J. exp. Path., 38, 67-78, 1957.

Gowans’s work, particularly between 1957 and 1962, was mainly responsible for the fusion of studies on the lymphocytes with the mainstream of immunology. The above paper dealt with the recirculation of lymphocytes. See also J. Physiol. (Lond.), 1959, 146, 54-69.

  • 2578.22

Virus interference. I. The interferon.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 147, 258-67, 1957.

Discovery of interferon type I, a protein that interferes with viral replication. "While working together at the NIMR, Lindenmann and Isaacs noticed that if they killed viruses using heat and applied the dead viruses to living cells, those cells became resistant to further infections from live viruses.[2] In 1957, Lindenmann and Isaacs discovered that the cells exposed to the dead viruses secreted a previously unknown substance which blocked future viral infections, which became known as interferon.[2] It was later found that interferons are too toxic for use as general antiviral drugs, but they are used to treat hepatitis C as well as some types of cancer.[2] "( Wikipedia article on Jean Lindenmann, accessed 3-2020).

  • 2578.23

Leukocyte agglutinins in human sera. Correlations between blood transfusions and their development.

Arch. intern. Med., 99, 587-606, 1957.

Leucocyte typing.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2578.24

The homograft reaction.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 149, 145-66, 1958.

Medawar showed grafting to be unsuccessful when donor and recipient animals came from the same litter, unless the two are genetically identical – another instance of the delayed hypersensitivity reaction.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2578.25

Separation and isolation of fractions of rabbit gamma-globulin containing the antibody and antigenic combining sites.

Nature (Lond.), 182, 670-71, 1958.

In 1972 Porter shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with G.M. Edelman (No. 2578.39) "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies."

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2578.26


Acta haemat. (Basel), 20, 156-66, 1958.

Discovery of the first histocompatibility antigen.

In 1980 Dausset shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with B. Benacerraf and G. D. Snell "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions."

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2578.27

Leucocyte antibodies in sera from pregnant women.

Nature (Lond.), 181, 1735-36, 1958.

Leucocyte typing and matching of histocompatibility determinants. See also Payne (No. 2578.23). With J. G. Eernisse and A. van Leeuwen

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization
  • 2578.28

Immunosassay of endogenous plasma insulin in man.

J. clin. Invest., 39, 1157-75, 1960.

First radioimmunoassay of a hormone, a test capable of estimating nonogram or even picogram quantities.

In 1977 Yalow received half of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones." The other half was awarded to Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain." 

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2578.29

Histocompatibility-linked immune response genes.

Science, 175, 273-79, 1972.

Benacerraf and McDevitt discovered that the capacity to mount certain immune responses is genetically determined.

In 1980 Benacerraf shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with J. Dausset and G. D. Snell "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions."

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › Immunization, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2578.3

Experiments on transfer of cutaneous sensitivity to simple compounds.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.), 49, 688-90, 1942.

Cellular transfer of delayed hypersensitivity, establishing the criticial role of mononuclear cells in cellular immunity.

  • 2578.30

Histocompatibility genes of the mouse.

J. nat. Cancer Inst., 20, 787- 824; 21, 843-75, 1958.

Snell made fundamental contributions to transplantation genetics. At his suggestion genes governing transplantation were called histocompatibility genes and Gorer’s Antigen II became Histocompatibility-2 (H-2).

In 1980 Snell shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with B. Benacerraf and J. Dausset "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions."

  • 2578.31

The clonal selection theory of acquired immunity. The Abraham Flexner Lectures of Vanderbilt University 1958.

Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press & Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1959.

Burnet's clonal selection theory extended the idea that each antibody-producing cell makes antibodies of only one specificity, predicting these cells proliferate in response to the detection of antigens, cloning and thus selectively increasing antibody abundance; hence, clonal selection. Burnet also predicted that diversity of antibody specificities needs a cellular mechanism to randomize and create diversity.

Burnet first published his theory in 1957 as "A modification of Jerne's theory of antibody production using the concept of clonal selection," Aust. J. Sci. 20 (1957) 67–69.

In 1960 Burnet shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Medawar "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance." See also No. 2578.7.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2578.32

Immunological function of the thymus.

Lancet, 2, 748-49, 1961.

Miller demonstrated the immunological function of the thymus.


  • 2578.33

Initiation of immune responses by small lymphocytes.

Nature, 196, 651-55, 1962.

Gowans and colleagues showed that the lymphocyte is the immunologically competent cell. 

  • 2578.34

Plaque formation in agar by single antibody-producing cells.

Science, 140, 405, 1963.

Hemolytic plaque assay for enumerating antibody-forming cells.

  • 2578.35

Individual antigenic specificity of isolated antibodies.

Science, 140, 1218-19, 1963.

Idiotypes. With M. Mannik and R.C. Williams. Kunkel and his team discovered idiotypy independently of Jacques Oudin and Philip Gell.

  • 2578.36

Delayed hypersensitivity in vitro: its mediation by cell-free substances formed by lymphoid cell-antigen interaction.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA), 56, 72-77, 1966.

Lymphokines (MIF). Simultanteously discovered by Barry R. Bloom (1937-) & B. Bennett. See Science, 1966, 153, 80-82.

  • 2578.37

Thymus-marrow cell combinations, Synergism in antibody production.

Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med., 122, 1167-71, 1966.

T cell subsets. With R.F. Triplett.

  • 2578.38

The H-2 locus of the mouse: observations and speculations concerning its comparative genetics and its polymorphism.

Folia biol. (Praha), 14, 335-58, 1968.

Antigen II, discovered by Gorer (No. 2576.5), was studied by Snell and became known as the product of the H-2 locus, the fundamental locus in the history of mammalian transplant biology.

  • 2578.39

The covalent structure of an entire ÁG immunoglobulin molecule.

Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), 63, 78-85, 1969.

Complete sequence of an immunoglobulin molecule. With five coauthors.

In 1972 Edelman shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with R. R. Porter “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.”

See also G.M. Edelman & Miroslav Dave Poulik (1923- ), Studies on structure units of the γ-globulins. J. exp. Med., 1961, 113, 861-884. Full text available from PubMedCentral at this link.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
  • 2578.4

The fate of skin homografts in man.

J. Anat. (Lond), 77, 299-310, 1943.

Gibson and Medawar placed the laws of transplantation on a firm scientific basis. A later paper by Medawar (J. Anat. [Lond.], 1944, 78, 176- 99) demonstrated that the mechanism of rejection of transplanted tissues is immunological in character.

  • 2578.40

An analysis of the sequences of the variable regions of Bence Jones proteins and myeloma light chains and their implications for antibody complementarity.

J. exp. Med.,132, 211-50, 1970.

Hypervariable regions of “Ig.”

  • 2578.41

Cell interactions in the induction of tolerance: The role of thymic lymphocytes.

Immunology, 18, 723-37, 1970.

Suppressor T cells.

  • 2578.42

Towards a network theory of the immune system.

Ann. Immunol. (Paris), 125C, 373-389, 1974.

Idiotype networks. Jerne shared the 1984 Nobel Prize with Milstein and Köhler for his theoretical contributions to our concept of the immune system.

  • 2578.43

Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity.

Nature, 256, 495-97, 1975.


In 1984 Köhler and Milstein shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Niels K. Jerne, "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies."

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHARMACOLOGY › PHARMACEUTICALS › Biological Medical Product (Biologic)
  • 2578.5

Induced mutations in bacterial viruses.

Cold Spring Harbor Symp. quant. Biol., 11, 33-37, 1946.

Genetic recombination in bacteriophages.

In 1969 Delbrück shared the Nobel Prize with A. D. Hershey and S. E. Luria  "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses."

Subjects: BIOLOGY › MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, VIROLOGY, VIROLOGY › Bacteriophage
  • 2578.6

In vitro method for testing the toxin-producing capacity of diphtheria bacteria.

Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand., 25, 186-91, 1948.

Agar gel immunodiffusion.

  • 2578.7

The production of antibodies. 2nd ed.

Melbourne, Australia: Macmillan, 1949.

Burnet and Fenner introduced the “self-marker” concept – natural tolerance to one’s own body constituents depended on their presence at a critical stage of embryonic development.

  • 2578.8

Localization of antigen in tissue cells. II. Improvements in a method for the detection of antigen by means of fluorescent antibody.

J. exp. Med., 91, 1-13, 1950.

Fluorescent antibody technique.

  • 2578.9


Pediatrics, 9, 722-27, 1952.

First report.

  • 2579

Vorlesungen über die geschichtliche Entwickelung der Lehre von den Bacterien. Teil l.[All published].

Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1887.

Loeffler, Professor of Hygiene at Greifswald, made many discoveries in bacteriology. His history of the subject was the first and only history of bacteriology prior to the publication of Bulloch's History of bacteriology (1938). It was unfortunately left unfinished. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology
  • 2580

The history of bacteriology.

London: Oxford University Press, 1938.

This pioneering and classic history includes brief biographical notes of the more important workers (arranged in a separate section), and an extensive bibliography. 

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology
  • 2581


New York: Hoeber, 1939.

A much briefer history than Bulloch’s but with a thorough and accurate bibliography.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology
  • 2581.1

A guide to the history of bacteriology.

New York: Ronald Press, 1958.

A selective annotated bibliography.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology
  • 2581.10

Geschichte der Allergie. 4 vols.

Diessenhofen: Dustri-Verlag Fiestle, 19791983.

Subjects: ALLERGY › History of Allergy
  • 2581.11

Immunology to 1980. An illustrated bibliography of titles in the Middleton Health Sciences Library, including the Julius M. Cruse collection.

Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Center for Health Sciences Libraries, 1985.

Citations, with paginations, of 3480 items. Author and subject indices

Subjects: BIBLIOGRAPHY › Catalogues of Institutional Medical Libraries, IMMUNOLOGY › History of Immunology
  • 2581.12

Milestones in immunology: A historical exploration.

Madison, WI: Science-Tech Publishers, 1988.

Readings from primary sources from 1884 to 1975 with expert introductions, commentaries, and bibliographies.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › History of Immunology
  • 2581.13

Portraits of viruses: A history of virology.

Basel: Karger, 1988.

Well-documented essays on specific families of viruses by expert researchers, reprinted from Intervirology, 1979, 11-1986, 26.

Subjects: VIROLOGY › History of Virology
  • 2581.14

A history of immunology.

San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1989.

Carefully documented, well-written, analytical history from the ancient world to c. 1975 by an expert researcher in the field. Includes biographical dictionary of notable contributors, list of “seminal discoveries” from 1714 to 1975 with bibliographical references, list of important books in immunology, 1892-1968, and glossary of technical terms.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › History of Immunology
  • 2581.2

Microbiology. Historical contributions from 1776-1908.

New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1960.

Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY › History of Microbiology
  • 2581.3

Milestones in microbiology.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1961.

Readings from primary sources, with commentary.

Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY › History of Microbiology
  • 2581.4

Selected papers on virology.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964.

Subjects: VIROLOGY › History of Virology
  • 2581.5

Three centuries of microbiology.

New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965.

Subjects: MICROBIOLOGY › History of Microbiology
  • 2581.6

A history of immunization.

Edinburgh & London: E. & S. Livingstone Ltd., 1965.

Subjects: IMMUNOLOGY › History of Immunology
  • 2581.7

Selected papers on the pathogenic rickettsiae. Edited by Nicholas Hahon.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968.

"The selected papers ...  range from the sixteenth century to the modern era. A number of the papers are classics in the field and several of the selections appear in English translation for the first time. The editor provides a preface to each selection and his general introduction defines the subject matter, surveys historical developments in the field, and summarizes recent research" (publisher).

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › History of Infectious Disease, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Rickettsial Infections, MICROBIOLOGY › History of Microbiology
  • 2581.8

A history of medical bacteriology and immunology.

London: Heinemann, 1970.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › History of Bacteriology, IMMUNOLOGY › History of Immunology
  • 2581.9

An introduction to the history of virology.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1978.

Subjects: VIROLOGY › History of Virology
  • 2581.99

De catarrho commentarius.

Paris: apud B. Turrisanum, 1564.

Summer catarrh (hay fever) first described. Partial English translation in No. 2241.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2582

Case of periodical affection of the eyes and chest.

Med. -chir. Trans., 10, 161-65, 1819.

Bostock’s classical description of the “catarrhus aestivus,” hay fever, is also referred to as “Bostock’s catarrh”. It begins the modern era in the clinical recognition of hay fever. The case he described was in fact himself. He was physician to Guy’s Hospital, London.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2583

Of the catarrhus aestivus, or summer catarrh.

Med. -chir. Trans., 14, 437-46, 1828.

On the history and aetiology of hay fever.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2584

Hay fever.

Lond. med. Gaz., 8, 411-16; 12, 164-71, 1831, 18321833.

Elliotson was the first to ascertain that pollen was the cause of hay fever.


Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2585

Lectures on the blood, and on the changes which it undergoes during disease: Delivered at the College of France in 1837-8.

Philadelphia: Harrington, Barrington & Haswell & New Orleans: John J. Haswell & Co., 1839.

Pp. 244-49: Magendie showed that secondary or subsequent injections of egg/albumin caused death in rabbits who had tolerated an initial injection. This was the first experiment in anaphylaxis, though Jenner in 1798 had observed the phenomenon in various inoculations. These lectures were delivered at the Collège de France in 1837-38.

First published in English in the London Lancet, between the 29th of September, 1838, and the 16th of March, 1839. This is the first edition in book form.

"Lecture IX includes Magendie's description of cateterizing the right atrium as part of an experiment. This precedes his protegé Claude Bernard's use of the technique, has has been described by historians. Magendie explained, 'I now tie the lower end of the vessel, and proceed to make the same experiment; by way of comparison, on the venous system. The jugular has been laid bare. We must, in the case of this vessel, take some precautions that would have been useless when we acted on an artery....I have, therefore, selected a tube for the present experiment sufficiently long to reach into the thorax, as far as the vena cava superior, or even as the right auricle; while introducing it I heard a slight sibilus; my assistant also detects a strange sound in the chest; it is probably that a little air entered into the tube during inspriation, aslo reached the right cavities of the heart. This accident will, probably, not interfere materially with the progress of the experiment. The mercury marks, as before 65-75 mill. I fill the syringe, but with much greater difficulty than from the carotid; I am obliged to raise the piston forcibily in order to get the blood into the body of the instrument, whereas, in the former experiment, the impulse of the heart was sufficient to produce that effect.' This quotation from p. 85 documets Magendie's pioneering attempt to place a catheter in the right atrium. Claude Bernard would extend this technique under Magendie's supervision in 1844. Bernard's work culminated in a detailed description of the techniques to cathererize both sides of the heart in animals. See R. E. Siegel, 'Vascular catheterization during the 19th century: Claude Bernard's studies in animal heat,' Surgery, 55 (1964) 595-601" (W. Bruce Fye).

Digital facsimile from at this link.


Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis, CARDIOLOGY › CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, CARDIOLOGY › Interventional Cardiology › Cardiac Catheterization, HEMATOLOGY
  • 2586
  • 3169.1

On asthma: its pathology and treatment.

London: John Churchill, 1860.

The best work on asthma to appear during the 19th century. Salter, who had suffered from asthma from childhood, may be considered the first modern student of the condition. He called special attention to asthma from animal emanations (cats, rabbits, horses, dogs, cattle, etc.).

Subjects: ALLERGY, ALLERGY › Asthma
  • 2587
  • 4549

On megrim, sick-headache, and some allied disorders.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1873.

Liveing’s classic account of migraine showed the close association of this condition with tetany, asthma, and false angina pectoris, with epilepsy, and the alternation of all these conditions in the same subject or the transference permanently from one to another. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ALLERGY › Asthma, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache › Migraine, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 2588

Experimental researches on the causes and nature of catarrhus aestivus.

London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1873.

Blackley showed that pollen can produce hay fever in both the asthmatic and catarrhal forms; he also showed that skin reactions were evoked in sensitive persons. 

Subjects: ALLERGY, ALLERGY › Asthma
  • 2589

Hay fever.

London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1880.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2590

De l’action anaphylactique de certains venins.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 54, 170-72, 1902.

First full description of the phenomenon of “anaphylaxis,” the name of which was coined by Richet. Abbreviated English translation in Bibel, Milestones of immunology (1988).

In 1913, Richet was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis."

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, TOXICOLOGY › Venoms
  • 2591

Injections répétées de sérum de cheval chez le lapin.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 55, 817-20, 1903.

The “Arthus phenomenon” – a symptom of anaphylaxis. Arthus showed that “antibody-mediated inflammation could be elicited in the skin of sensitized animals upon local introduction of an appropriate antigen” (Silverstein). Abbreviated English translation in Bibel, Milestones of immunology (1988).

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis
  • 2591.1

Ueber die biologisch nachweisbaren Veränderungen des menschlichen Blutes nach den Seruminjektion.

Wien. klin. Wschr., 16, 445-47, 1903.

Serum sickness first described.

  • 2592

Ursache und Behandlung des Heufiebers.

Leipzig: J. J. Weber, 1905.

Dunbar studied the relationship of pollen to hay fever, separated the active substances responsible for producing the condition, and introduced a specific therapy.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2593

Die Serumkrankheit.

Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1905.

Serum sickness and its significance. English translation, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1951.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2594

Das Theobald Smithsche Phänomen der Serum-Ueberfindlichkeit. In Gedenkschr. f.d. verstorb. Generalstabsarzt… von Leuthold, 1, 153-72


The “Theobald Smith phenomenon” was not reported by Smith but communicated by him to Ehrlich. Later Otto published details of the results obtained in his study of the phenomenon.

  • 2594.1

Zur Frage der Serum-Ueberempfindlichkeit.

Münch. med. Wschr. 54, 1665-70, 1907.

Otto discovered that a state of tolerance developed in animals that survived anaphylactic shock. He induced passive transfer of hypersensitivity.

  • 2595

A study of the cause of sudden death following the injection of horse serum.

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1906.

Forms Bulletin No. 29 of the Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Marine Hospital Service. Rosenau and Anderson drew attention to the fact that animals receiving an injection of a foreign protein became sensitive to a second dose of the same protein. This reaction is similar to the anaphylaxis of Richet and the “Theobald Smith phenomenon.”

  • 2596

De l’anaphylaxie et de l’anti-anaphylaxie vis-à-vis du sérum de cheval.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 21, 117-27, 384-91, 1907.

“Anti-anaphylaxis” was the term given by Besredka and Steinhardt to the specific desensitization of sensitized animals.

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 2597

Contribution à l’étude du “phénomène d’Arthus.”

Ann. Inst. Pastuer, 21, 128-37, 1907.

“Passive” anaphylaxis first demonstrated.

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis
  • 2598

Klinische Studien über Vakzination und vakzinale Allergie.

Leipzig: Franz Deuticke, 1907.

Pirquet suggested the word “Allergie”; see also his paper with this title in Münich. med. Wschr., 1906, 53, 1457-58.

Subjects: ALLERGY
  • 2599

De l’anaphylaxie en général et de l’anaphylaxie par la mytilocongestine en particulier.

Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 21, 497-524; 22, 465-95, 1907, 1908.

In 1913 Richet was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis."

Subjects: ALLERGY › Anaphylaxis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine