An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 23, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 900–999

121 entries
  • 900

Studies on isoagglutinins and isohemolysins.

Johns Hopk. Hosp. Bull. 21, 63-70, 1910.

Moss showed that the blood of all individuals could be placed into one of four groups. His classification has been the one most commonly used until recently. The work was similar to that of Janský and completed before the writer learned of the latter’s publication.

  • 901

The variation in the sizes of red blood cells.

Brit. med. J., 2, 1418-19, 1910.

Price-Jones described a method for the direct measurement of red blood cells, which led to the term, “Price-Jones curve”. See also his book, Red blood cell diameters, London, 1933.

  • 902

The role of antithrombin and thromboplastin (thromboplastic substance) in the coagulation of blood.

Amer. J. Physiol., 29, 187-209, 19111912.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anticoagulation, HEMATOLOGY › Coagulation
  • 903

A method for the determination of plasma and blood volume.

Arch. Intern. Med., 16, 547-76, 1915.

Keith, Rowntree, and Geraghty devised a method for determination of plasma and blood volume, which includes the injection of a dye.

  • 904

The thromboplastic action of cephalin.

Amer. J. Physiol., 41, 250-57, 1916.

McLean extracted from dog liver a substance which retarded blood coagulation in vitro and which, after further work by Howell and Holt (No.905), was named heparin.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Anticoagulation
  • 905

Two new factors in blood coagulation — heparin and pro-antithrombin.

Amer. J. Physiol., 47, 328-41, 19181919.

Isolation of heparin.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, HEMATOLOGY › Anticoagulation
  • 906

Morphologische Hämatologie. Vol. 1.

Leipzig: W. Klinkhardt, 1919.

  • 907

L’hématoblaste, troisiéme élement du sang.

Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1923.

Hayem first named the hematoblasts in 1877 (Mém. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 1877, 29, 97). His view, reiterated in 1923, was that they were the early stages of red blood cells and regenerated the blood.

  • 907.1

Ergebniss einer biostatischen zusammenfassenden Betrachtung über die erblichen Blutstrukturen des Menschen.

Klin. Wschr., 3, 1495-97, 1924.

Bernstein, a mathematician, determined the correct blood group inheritance pattern of multiple alleles at one locus through statistical analysis.

  • 908

Relation of blood cells to connective tissues and endothelium.

Physiol. Rev., 4, 533-63, 1924.

Maximow’s blood regeneration theory.

  • 909

Experimental studies on the origin and maturation of avian and mammalian red blood-cells.

Contr. Embryol. Carneg. Instn. 16, 163-226, 1925.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 910

A new agglutinable factor differentiating individual human bloods.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.), 24, 600-02, 1927.

Discovery of M and N agglutinogens. See also the same journal, pp. 941-42.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Groups
  • 911

Über spontane Hämolysinbildung im Blut, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Physiologie der Milz.

Z. ges. exp. Med. 97, 555-87, 1936.

Lysolechtin found in normal blood.

  • 912

Blood groups.

Tab. biol. (Amst.), 17, 113-240, 1939.

Boyd showed that blood groups are inherited and not changed by environment.

  • 912.1

An unusual case of intra-group agglutination.

J. Amer. med. Ass. 113, 126-27, 1939.

Discovery of the Rh antigen.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Groups, HEMATOLOGY › Immunohematology
  • 912.2

An agglutinable factor in human blood recognized by immune sera for Rhesus blood.

Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y), 43, 223, 1940.

Recognition of the Rh antigen

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Groups
  • 912.3

Recherches sur un nouvel hémo-agglutinogéne du sang humain.

Acta biol. belg, 1, 123-28, 1941.

Moureau discovered the Rh factor independently of Levine and others whose work was not known to him owing to the military occupation of Belgium. See also his paper in Amer. J. clin. Path., 1946, 16, 373-79.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Groups
  • 751.2
  • 912.4

Chemical, clinical, and immunological studies on the products of human plasma fractionation. I. The characterization of the protein fractions of human plasma.

J. clin. Invest., 23, 417-32, 1944.

Cohn invented fractionation of plasma proteins, also called blood fractionation. (Order of authorship in the original publication: Cohn, Oncley, Strong, Hughes, Armstrong.) Digital facsimile from PubMedCentral at this link.

  • 912.5

The coagulation of blood. Investigations on a new clotting factor.

Acta med. scand. Suppl. 194, 1-327, 1947.

Discovery of the Factor V. Preliminary account in Proc. Norwegian Acad. Sci., 1941, 17, 21.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Coagulation
  • 913

A new human iso-agglutinin subdividing the MN blood groups.

Nature (Lond.), 160, 504-5, 1947.

S blood-group antigen.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Groups, WOMEN, Publications by › Years 1900 - 1999
  • 914

New experiments physico-mechanical touching the spring of the air.

Oxford: H. Hall for T. Robinson, 1660.

Boyle showed the effects of the elasticity, compressibility, and weight of air. He investigated the function of air in respiration, combustion, and conveyance of sound. Most significantly Boyle demonstrated that air is essential for life.

  • 760
  • 915

De pulmonibus observations anatomicae.

Bologna: B. Ferronius, 1661.

Discovery of the capillary circulation. Malpighi demonstrated that the pulmonary tissues are vesicular in nature and showed that the trachea ends in bronchial filaments. His De pulmonibus includes his demonstration of the capillary anastomosis between arteries and veins. This book, which is very rare, consists of two letters to Borelli describing observations made through the microscope on the lung of a living frog. In the second letter Malpighi described small channels connecting arteries with veins, the capillaries. This was the first proof that blood circulation occurred within a closed hydraulic system. The second edition was published as an appendix to Thomas Bartholin’s De pulmonum substantia et motu diatribe, 1663. It is republished in his Opera omnia, Lugduni Batavorum, 1687, ii, 331. A facsimile was published in Milan in 1958; English translation by J. Young in Proc. roy. Soc. Med., 1929-30, Sect. Hist. Med., 23, 1-11. See No. 915

  • 916

An account of an experiment of preserving animals alive by blowing through their lungs with bellows.

Phil. Trans., 2, 539-40, 1667.

By blowing air from a bellows over the exposed lungs of a dog, Hooke proved that respiratory motion is not necessary to maintain life, but that the essential feature of respiration lies in certain blood changes in the lungs. Reprinted in J. F. Fulton’s Selected readings in the history of physiology, 2nded., 1966, pp. 121-23.

  • 917

De respiratione experimenta anatomica, quibus aëris inter pulmonem etpleuram absentia demonstratur et musculorum intercostalium internorum officium adseritur. 2 pts.

Gottingen: A. Vandenhoeck, 17461747.

First investigation of the action of the intercostal muscles in respiration.

  • 918

De respirationis mechanismo atque usu genuino. [Praeses:] Georgius Erh. Hamberger. [Defendet:] Justinus Gerhardus Duising.

Jena: apud Litteris Fickelscherrianis, 1727.

"Recent data on intercostal muscle function, largely electromyographic, tend to confirm the ideas of Hamberger, who, in 1748 (recte 1727), proposed a theory of intercostals muscle action upon the rib cage. Hamberger's scheme was based upon a consideration of the ribs as levers and the vertebral column and sternum as fulcra, and of the directions in which the internal and external intercostal muscle fibers ran. He proposed that the external intercostals were inspiratory and that the internal intercostals were expiratory, except in the parasternal regions where the internal intercostals (there are no other intercostal muscles) are inspiratory. Careful selective electromyographic studies in both animals and man (using small bipolar needle electrodes) by Draper et al, Taylor et al, and Sears et al have amply confirmed Hamberger's ideas" (John T. Sharp., et al., "Respiratory Muscle Function and the Use of Respiratory Muscle Electromyography in the Evaluation of Respiratory Regulation", Chest, 70 [1976], 150).

Digital facsimile of second edition, Jena, 1737, from Google Books at this link.

(Prior editions of this bibliography incorrectly cited the third edition of 1748 for this discovery.)



  • 919

Dissertatio medica inauguralis de humore acido a cibis orto, et magnesia alba.

Edinburgh: G. Hamilton & J. Balfour, 1754.

Isolation of carbon dioxide. English translation, Minneapolis, 1973.

Subjects: Chemistry, RESPIRATION
  • 920

Observations on the different kinds of air.

Phil. Trans., 62, 147-264, 1772.

The isolation of oxygen was first achieved by Priestley. He also demonstrated that plants immersed in water give off oxygen and that this gas is essential for animal life.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Ecology / Environment, Chemistry, RESPIRATION
  • 921

De aëre fixo dicto, aut mephitico.

Edinburgh: Balfour & Smellie, 1772.

Discovery of nitrogen.

Subjects: Chemistry, RESPIRATION
  • 922

Mémoire sur la nature du principe qui se combine avec les métaux pendantleur calcination, et qui en augmente le poids.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci. (1775), 520-26, 1778.

Although Priestley isolated oxygen, it was Lavoisier who discovered its real significance. He showed the true nature of the interchange of gases in the lungs and exploded Stahl’s phlogiston theory. Lavoisier was guillotined during the French Revolution.

Subjects: Chemistry, RESPIRATION
  • 923

Mémoire sur la formation de l’acide, nommé air fixe ou acide crayeux, et que je désignerai désormais sous le nom d’acid du charbon.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci. (1781), 448-67, 1784.

  • 924

Mémoire sur l’affinité du principe oxygine avec les différentes substances auxquelles il est susceptible de s’unir.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci., (1782), 530-40, 1785.

Subjects: Chemistry, RESPIRATION
  • 925

Experiments on air.

Phil. Trans., 74, 119-53, 1784.

Cavendish isolated hydrogen in 1766, and later demonstrated the composition of air.

Subjects: Chemistry, RESPIRATION
  • 926

Mémoire sur la combinaison de l’oxigéne avec le carbone et l’hydrogéne du sang, sur la dissolution de l’oxigéne dans le sang, et sur la maniére dont le calorique se dégage.

Ann. Chim., 9, 261-74, 1791.

Hassenfratz, a pupil of Lagrange, maintained that the oxidation of carbon and hydrogen took place in the blood, and not in the lungs as taught by others.

  • 927

Über den Bau der Lungen.

Berlin: in den Vossischen Buchhandlung, 1808.

In 1804 the Berlin Akademie der Naturwissenschaften offered a prize for the best essay on the structure and function of the lungs. The prize was won by Reisseisen, while Soemmerring received honorable mention. The texts of both works were published in one volume; Soemmerring’s essay was entitled “Ueber die Structur, die Verrichtung und den Gebrauch der Lungen”. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 1389.2
  • 928

Expériences sur le principe de la vie.

Paris: D’Hautel, 1812.

Le Gallois described the action of the vagus nerve on respiration. He showed that bilateral section of the vagus can produce fatal bronchopneumonia. The above work includes (p. 37) his location of the respiratory center in the medulla , and not in the spinal cord, as had been previously believed. “For the first time, an area of brain substance within a major subdivision of the brain and having a specific function had been defined accurately by experiment” (Clarke & Jacyna).

Le Gallois is also remembered for his reviving, after Borelli, the neurogenic theory of the heart’s action; namely that the motor power of the heart comes from the spinal cord via branches of the sympathetic nerves. Le Gallois also developed a primitive isolated heart-lung preparation in rabbits and was the first to suggest the possibility of a heart-lung machine: “If the place of the heart could be supplied by injection, and if, for the regular continuance of this injection, there could be furnished a quantity of arterial blood, whether natural or artifcially formed . . . then life might be indefnitely maintained” (quoted in Fye, “Julien Jean César Legallois,” Clinical Cardiology 18 (1995): 599-600. . Digital facsimile of the 1812 edition from the Internet Archive at this link. English translation by N. C. and J. G. Nancrede (Philadelphia, 1813) as Experiments on the principle of life, and particularly on the principle of the motions of the heart, and on the seat of this principle: including the report made to the first class of the Institute, upon the experiments relative to the motions of the heart. Digital facsimile from the Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive at this link.

  • 929

Ueber die im Blute enthaltenen Gase, Sauerstoffe, Stickstoff, und Kohlensäure.

Ann. Phys. Chem. (Leipzig), 12, 583-606, 1837.

First quantitative analysis of the blood gases. Magnus proved that the arterial blood contains a higher concentration of oxygen than venous blood and that the latter had a higher carbon dioxide content.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Gases, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 930

On the capacity of the lungs, and on the respiratory functions, with a view of establishing a precise and easy method of detecting disease by the spirometer.

Med.-Chir. Trans., 29, 137-252, 1846.

Invention of the spirometer, making possible the determination of the vital capacity of the lungs. Hutchinson used the spirometer while evaluating candidates for life insurance as a physician for Brittania Life.  Particularly, he researched the safety of coal mining and the presence of charcoal in miner's lungs. He also theorized that air pollution could lead to poor health. Hutchinson’s work first appeared in summary form in Lancet, 1844, 1, 390-391, 567-70.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Spirometer, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & MEDICINE › Miners' Diseases, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 931

Die Ursache der Lungenveränderung nach Durchschneidung der pneumogastrischen Nerven.

Arch. physiol Heilk, 6, 690-721, 769-804, 1847.

Study of the effect of section of the vagus on respiration. See also No. 933.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 932

Recherches chimiques sur la respiration des animaux des diverses classes.

Ann. Chim. Phys., 3 sér. 26, 219-519, 1849.

First determination of the respiratory quotient.

Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 933

Ueber den Einfluss der Vagusdurchschneidung auf das Lungengewebe.

Physiol. Heilk, 9, 625-62, 1850.

See No. 931.

  • 934

Die Gase des Blutes.

Z. rat. Med., 8, 256-316, 1857.

Meyer showed that the oxygen in the blood was not held in simple solution but came off in quantity only when the air pressure was reduced to one fiftieth of an atmosphere.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Gases, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 935

De sanguine oxydo carbonico infesto.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): typ. Grasii, Barthii et soc, 1858.

Investigation of the blood gases.

Subjects: HEMATOLOGY › Blood Gases, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 935.1

Experimental inquiries into the chemical and other phenomena of respiration, and their modifications by various physical agents.

Phil. Trans., 149, 681-714, 1859.

Smith invented a respirometer to study changes in respiratory function under various conditions. See also the following paper (pp. 715-42) on the effects of foods on respiration. For an account of his work in this and other fields, see C. B. Chapman, J. Hist. Med., 1967, 22, 1-26.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Medical Instruments › Respirometer, NUTRITION / DIET, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 935.2

Les altitudes de l’Amérique tropicale comparées au niveau des mers au point de vue de la constitution médicale.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1861.

Jourdanet discovered the anoxemia theory of high altitude sickness. See No. 943.1. Digital facsimile of the 1861 edition from at this link.

Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, Latin American Medicine, TROPICAL Medicine
  • 936

Untersuchungen über den Bau der Nasenschleimhaut, namentlich die Structur und Endigungsweise der Geruchsnerven bei dem Menschen und den Wirbelthieren.

Abh. naturf. Ges. Halle, 7, 1-100, 1862.

Schultze’s classic paper on the nerves to the neuro-epithelium in the special sense organs marks an epoch in histology. He described the cells of the olfactory muccous membrane, “Schultze’s cells”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy › Comparative Neuroanatomy
  • 937

Ueber die Respiration.

Ann. Chem. Pharm (Heidelberg), Suppl. 2, 1-52, 18621863.

  • 938

Untersuchungen über die Respiration.

Ann. Chem. Pharm. (Heidelberg), Suppl. 2, 52-70, 18621863.

The first combined feeding–respiration experiments. Pettenkofer and Voit devised an apparatus for their important experiments on respiration and metabolism. They were first to estimate the amounts of protein, fat, and carbohydrate broken down in the body.

  • 939

Zur Gasometrie des Blutes.

Zbl. med. Wiss., 4, 305-8, 1866.

Pflüger showed that respiratory changes take place in the tissues.

Subjects: RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 940

Ueber die Ursache der Athembewegungen, sowie der Dyspnoë und Apnoë.

Pflüg. Arch. ges. Physiol., 1, 61-106, 1868.

Pflüger investigated the cause of the initiation of respiration in newborn animals. English translation in No. 1588.16.

  • 941

Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung durch den Nervus vagus.

S.B.k. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat. Cl. (Wien), 2. Abt., 57, 672-77, 1868.

Subjects: Neurophysiology › History of Neurophysiology, RESPIRATION
  • 942

Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung durch den Nervus vagus.

S.B.k. Akad. Wiss., math.-nat. Cl. (Wien), 2. Abt., 58, 909-37, 1868.

“Hering-Breuer reflex”; see also the previous entry. English translation of both papers in R. Porter (ed.), Hering–Breuer Centenary Symposium, London, Churchill, 1970. Digital facsimile of the 1868 edition from the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link.

Subjects: NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology, RESPIRATION
  • 943

Der Kehlkopf des Menschen.

Tübingen: H. Laupp, 1871.

  • 943.1

Influence de la pression de l’air sur la vie de l’homme. Climats d'altitude et climats du montagne. 2 vols.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1875.

Jourdanet’s observational work in remote areas of Latin America and Asia produced important evidence for Bert’s proof that altitude sickness is due to anoxemia. In La pression barométrique (No. 944) Bert described how Jourdanet made it possible for him to do his laboratory work on altitude physiology, and how the two agreed to each take half the field: Bert, the laboratory work; and Jourdanet, the observational. Bert also credits Jourdanet with the theory of anoxemia. Extensively illustrated. Second edition, 2 vols., 1876. See No. 935.2. Digital facsimile of the 1875 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Latin America, Latin American Medicine, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology, VOYAGES & Travels by Physicians, Surgeons & Scientists
  • 944

La pression barométrique. Recherches de physiologie expérimentale.

Paris: G. Masson, 1878.

The most famous work in the history of altitude physiology, in which Bert proved that the principal symptoms of altitude sickness arise from reduced partial pressure of oxygen and not from diminution of total pressure. Bert introduced oxygen apparatus to avert the dangerous consequences of ascent to high altitudes, and was the first to study the conditions of high-altitude ascents in a pressure chamber. He also explained the etiology and mechanism of caisson disease. English translation, 1943. See No. 12192.

Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 945

On the respiratory function of the internal intercostal muscles.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 2, 24-27, 18791880.

The important work of Martin and Hartwell on the intercostal muscles settled the controversy regarding their function.

  • 946

Normale und pathologische Anatomie der Nasenhöhle und ihrer pneumatischen Anhänge.

Vienna: W. Braumüller, 18821892.

  • 947

On the regulation of respiration.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 10, 1-70, 279-90, 1889.

Demonstration of the action of the vagus in respiration.

  • 949

Neue Versuche zur Bestimmung der Sauerstoffcapacität des Blutfarbstoffs.

Arch. Anat. Physiol., Physiol. Abt., 130-76, 1894.

Hüfner showed that 1 gm. hemoglobin combines with 1.34 cc oxygen.

  • 950

Fisiologia dell’uomo sulle Alpi. Studii fatti sul Monte Rosa.

Milan: frat. Treves, 1897.

Mosso made important investigations on respiration at high altitudes. He considered that the respiratory symptoms produced at high altitudes were due to lack of carbon dioxide. English translation, London, 1898.

Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, RESPIRATION
  • 951

A contribution to the chemistry of haemoglobin and its immediate derivatives.

Physiol. (Lond.), 22, 298-306, 1898.

Potassium ferricyanide method for the determination of oxygen in oxyhemoglobin.

  • 951.1

Some improved methods of gas analysis.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 22, 465-80, 1898.

The Haldane apparatus for the analysis of the repiratory gases, which proved a method that could measure oxygen and carbon dioxide to 0.005%. It was the cornerstone of all respiratory gas analysis until P.F. Scholander’s apparatus (No. 971.1).

  • 951.2

Sur la cause de l’apnée.

Arch. Biol., 17, 561-576, 1901.

Fredericq “established that chemical changes in the blood acting somewhere in the head were the major factor in the regulation of breathing” (Kellogg). English translation in No. 1588.16.

Subjects: RESPIRATION, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 952

La physiologie de l’apnée étudiée chez l’homme.

Arch. Ital. Biol., 40, 1-30, 19031904.

First studies of the physiology of apnea in man.

  • 953

Nouvelle méthode de mesure et d’inscription du débit et des mouvements respiratoires de l’homme et des animaux.

J. Physiol. Path, gén., 6, 688-700, 1904.

Tissot spirometer.

  • 954

The regulation of the lung-ventilation.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 32, 225-66, 1905.

Proof of the regulation of respiration by CO2 concentration of the alveolar air

Subjects: RESPIRATION, Ventilation, Health Aspects of
  • 955

A method for determining the total respiratory exchange in man.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 42, 17-18, 1911.

Douglas bag.

  • 956

Chemical nature of specific oxygen capacity in haemoglobin.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 44, 131-49, 1912.

Peters made accurate determinations of the ratio of iron to oxygen in the blood.

  • 957

Physiological observations made on Pike’s Peak, Colorado, with special reference to adaptation to low barometric pressures.

Phil. Trans. B, 203, 185-318, 1913.


Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, PHYSIOLOGY › Biophysics, U.S.: CONTENT OF PUBLICATIONS BY STATE & TERRITORY › Colorado
  • 958

The absorption and dissociation of carbon dioxide by human blood.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 48, 244-71, 1914.

CO2 dissociation curves. These workers discovered that hemoglobin indirectly greatly assists the transport of CO2 by the blood.

  • 959

Ueber das Vorkommen des Coferments des alcoholischen Hefegärung im Muskelgewebe und seine muttmassliche Bedeutung im Atmungsmechanismus.

Hoppe-Seyl. Z. physiol. Chetm., 101, 165-75, 1918.

In 1922 Meyerhof was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Pysiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle." The other half of the prize was awarded to Archibald Vivian Hill "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle."

Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 960

The partition of CO2, between plasma and corpuscles in oxygenated and reduced blood.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 54, 129-51, 19201921.

  • 961


New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1922.

An account of the work of the Oxford School of Physiology, in particular the Pike’s Peak expedition (No. 957). Second edition, 1935, with J. G. Priestley.

Subjects: Altitude or Undersea Physiology & Medicine, RESPIRATION
  • 962

The velocity with which carbon monoxide displaces oxygen from combination with haemoglobin.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 94, 336-67, 1923.

  • 963

The regulation of respiration.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 24, 58, 81-91, 111-26, 1923.

Lumsden introduced the concept of subsidiary respiratory centers in the brain stem.

  • 963.1

The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement.

J. biol. Chem., 61, 523-573, 1924.

Method for the manometric analysis of gases in blood and other solutions.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Clinical Chemistry, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Gases
  • 964

The respiratory function of the blood.

Cambridge, England: University Press, 1914.

Barcroft’s studies of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood are recorded in the above monograph. He particularly concentrated on elucidation of the oxygen dissociation curve. The second edition, 2 vols., Cambridge, 1925-28, was greatly revised and enlarged.

Subjects: RESPIRATION, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 965

The chemical regulation of respiration.

Physiol. Rev., 5, 551-95, 1925.

  • 966

Die Bindungsweise des Kohlendioxyds im Blute.

Biochem. Z., 200, 1-24, 1928.

Carbamino reaction.

  • 967

Le sinus carotidienet la zone homologue cardio-aortique.

Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1929.

In 1938 Heymans was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration."

Subjects: NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, RESPIRATION
  • 968

Cytochrome and respiratory enzymes.

Proc. roy. Soc. B, 104, 206-52, 1929.

Keilin discovered cytochrome and laid the foundations of the modern concept of cellular respiration. See No. 1588.3.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 969

Ueberden Absorptionsspektrum des Atmungsferments.

Biochem. Z., 1929, 214, 64-100, 1929.

Warburg discovered the nature and function of the respiratory ferment.

In 1931 Warburg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme."

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 970

Ueber ein neues Oxydationsferment und sein Absorptionsspektrum.

Biochem. Z., 254, 438-58, 1932.

  • 971

Carbonic anhydrase: Its preparation and properties.

J. Physiol. (Lond.), 80, 113-42, 1933.

Isolation of carbonic anhydrase.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 971.1

Analyzer for accurate estimate of respiratory gases in one-half cubic centimeter samples.

J. Biol. Chem., 167, 235-50, 1947.

An improvement on the classic Haldane method for analyzing oxygen and carbon dioxide in respiratory gases. It provides comparable accuracy over a wider range of gas concentrations with a gas sample of only 0.5 ml instead of 25 ml.

Subjects: RESPIRATION, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Physiology
  • 972

Anatomia hepatis.

London: typ. Du-Gardianis, 1654.

First accurate description of the capsule of the liver (Glisson’s capsule) and its blood-supply. He also described the sphincter of the bile duct (“Glisson’s sphincter”, the sphincter of Oddi). This is the first book printed in England which gives a detailed account of a single organ based on original research. See No. 1098.1.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Anatomy
  • 1543
  • 973

Observationes anatomicae, quibus varia oris, oculorum & narium vas describuntur novique salivae, lacrymarum & muci fontes deteguntur.

Leiden: J. Chouët, 1662.

Includes the first account of the excretory duct of the parotid gland (“Stensen’s duct”), discovered by Stensen. He first reported his discovery in a letter to his teacher, Thomas Bartholin, dated April, 22, 1661. Stensen was also the first mention the ceruminous glands in this work. Facsimile reproduction, with English translation, Copenhagen, 1951.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 974

De succi pancreatici natura et usu exercitatio anatomico-medica.

Leiden: ex. off. Hackiana, 1664.

De Graaf was an early investigator of the pancreatic secretion. He collected the pancreatic juice of dogs by means of artificial pancreatic fistulae, commenting on the small quantity of juice secreted and on its alkaline character. The French edition, Paris, 1666, contained a revised and enlarged text. Partial translation in J. F. Fulton, Selected readings in the history of physiology, 2nd ed., 1966, pp. 167-68. Full English translation from 2nd ed. (1671), London, 1676.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, PHYSIOLOGY
  • 974.1

Cicutae aquaticae historia et noxae.

Basel: J. R. König, 1679.

This is primarily a work on the poisonous water hemlock, its dangerous effects, its medicinal uses, and antidotes to counter the poison. However, it also contains the first description of the tiny glands in the mucosa of the duodenum, now called Brunner’s glands. Brunner was the author’s father-in-law; however, Wepfer first described them in this work. "They are described in the summary of an experiment on a dog, on pages 206 and 207. Parts of the book contains letters or extracts of letters between Wepfer and other toxicologists of that era. Four engraved plates illustrate one species of the hemlock family, the roots and lower stalk, the branching stalks, the leaves and the flowers and seeds. ... Wepfer systematically studied poisons, with particular attention to the toxic water hemlocks. He was the first to analyze the pharmacological effects of coniine, an alkaloid of hemlock that was not isolated until much later; and his classic description of hemlock poisoning was often cited as the standard" (Heirs of Hippocrates 535.5). Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, BOTANY, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, PHARMACOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY
  • 974.2

Du ductu salivati hactenus non descriptio.

Copenhagen: typ. J. P. Bockenhoffer, 1684.

“Bartholin’s duct” and “gland”, the sublingual salivary gland and ducts.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 975

De glandulis in intestino duodeno hominis detectis.

Heidelberg: C. E. Buchta, 1687.

“Brunner’s glands”, earlier described by Wepfer (No. 974.1).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 17th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 976

Dissertatio anatomica qua novum bilis diverticulum circa orificium ductus choledochi ut et valvulosam colli vesicae felleae constructionem ad disceptandum proponit.

Wittenberg: Gerdesianus, 1720.

Following Vater’s classic description of the ampulla of the bile duct, it was named the “ampulla of Vater”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 977

Suspenseurs de l’abdomen.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci., Paris, 51, 1730.

“Poupart’s ligament”, the inguinal ligament.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 978

De fabrica et actione villorum intestinorum tenuium hominis.

Leiden: C. & G. J. Wishof, 1745.

“Lieberkühn’s glands” or “crypts” described. They were discovered by Malpighi in 1688.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 979

Sur la digestion des oiseaux.

Hist. Acad. roy. Sci., (1752), 266-307, 461-95, 1756.

Using a pet buzzard, de Réaumur succeeded in isolating the gastric juice and demonstrating its solvent effect on foods.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 980

Dissertatio physiologica inauguralis de alimentorum concoctione.

Edinburgh: Balfour & Smellie, 1777.

First isolation of human gastric juice. Stevens was also the first successfully to perform an in vitro digestion, proving the presence in the gastric juice of the active principle necessary for the assimilation of food. An English translation is included in Spallanzani’s Dissertations relative to the natural history of animals, 1784, vol. 1, pp. 303-16. Digital facsimile of the 1777 edition from Google Books at this liink.  See also Edward Stevens: Gastric physiologist, phyhsician and American statesman. With a complete translation of his inaugural dissertation De alimentorum concoctione...Edited by Stacey B. Day. Montreal, 1969.

From the Wikipedia article on Edward Stevens, accessed 01-2017:

"Stevens was born in St. Croix in the Virgin Islands. Stevens's father, the merchant Thomas Stevens,[1] would also become the adoptive father of an orphaned Alexander Hamilton.[2] According to Ron Chernow's Alexander Hamilton,[3]people would often say that Edward Stevens and Hamilton looked like brothers. Secretary of State Timothy Pickering, who knew both men in adulthood, noted that the men were strikingly similar in appearance and concluded that they must be brothers. Ron Chernow says many aspects of Hamilton's biography make more sense given Stevens's paternity. It would explain why Hamilton was adopted into the Stevens family while his brother, James, was not. It may have also been a factor in Hamilton's supposed father abandoning his family.[4]"


Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 981

Dissertazioni di fisica animale e vegetable. 2 vols.

Modena: Presso la Società Tipografica, 1780.

In the first patrt of this work, Della digestione dissertazione prima Spallanzani confirmed earlier doctrines of the solvent property of the gastric juice and discovered the action of the saliva in digestion. He stated that gastric juice can act outside the body and can prevent or inhibit putrefaction. He obtained gastric juice by tying a sponge on a piece of string, then allowing it to be swallowed. The second part contains Spallanzani's experimental researches on reproduction in animals and plants in which he demonstrated the role of seminal fluid in generation. The second part also includes his investigations into artifical fertilization, in which he recorded the first case of artificial insemination in a viviparous animal.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link. English translation, as Dissertations relative to the natural history of animals and vegetables (1784). Digital facsimile of the 1784 edition from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Reproduction, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 982

An experimental inquiry into the principles of nutrition, and the digestive process.

Philadelphia: Eaken & Mecum, 1803.

Young, one of the first American experimental physiologists, showed the solvent principle in the gastric juice to be an acid, but wrongly inferred that it was phosphoric acid. He also deduced the association and synchrony between gastric juice and saliva. Reprinted, Urbana, Ill., 1959.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 3582
  • 983

Anatomisch-chirurgische Abhandlung über den Ursprung der Leistenbrüche

Würzburg: Baumgärtner, 1806.

Includes description of “Hesselbach’s hernia” and “triangle”. He wrote a further volume on the subject in 1814.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, SURGERY: General › Hernia
  • 984

Ueber die Divertikel am Darmkanal.

Arch. Physiol. (Halle), 9, 421-53., 1809.

“Meckel’s diverticulum”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 985

Mémoire sur le vomissement.

Paris: Crochard, 1813.

Physiologists still consult Magendie’s classic description of the physiology of deglutition and vomiting. Magendie proved, against the current theory of Haller, that the stomach was passive rather than active in vomiting. This was essentially correct; however Magendie did fail to observe the active role of the plyloric end of the stomach. English translation in Ann. Phil., London, 1813, 1, 429-38.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 985.1

Mémoire sur l’usage de l’epiglotte dans la déglutition …

Paris: Méquignon-Marvis, 1813.

Magendie showed that the epiglottis is not necessary for swallowing, which disproved the accepted doctrine that the epiglottis was necessary to cover the glottis to prevent food from entering the trachea.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 986

Experiments and observations on the influence of the nerves of the eighth pair on the secretions of the stomach.

Phil. Trans., 104, 102-06, 1814.

Before turning to surgery, Brodie did important work in physiology. Above is his study of the influence of the pneumogastric nerve on gastric secretion.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 987

On the nature of the acid and saline matters usually existing in the stomachs of animals.

Phil. Trans., 114, 45-49, 1824.

Proof that the gastric juice contains free hydrochloric acid.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 987.1

A case of wounded stomach [by Joseph Lovell].

Medical Recorder, 8, 14-19, 840, 1825.

Beaumont’s first report on Alexis St. Martin was accidentally published under the name of Joseph Lovell, Surgeon-General of the U.S. Army. See No. 989.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 987.2

Further experiments on the case of Alexis San Martin, who was wounded in the stomach by a load of buckshot.

Medical Recorder, 9, 94-97, 1826.

In this and No. 987.1 Beaumont first described his revolutionary experiments on Alexis St. Martin. He continued these researches and published his monograph in 1833. See No. 989.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 988

Die Verdauung nach Versuchen. 2 vols.

Heidelberg: K. Groos, 18261827.

Confirmation of the work of Prout.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 989

Experiments and observations on the gastric juice, and the physiology of digestion.

Plattsburgh, NY: F. P Allen, 1833.

Alexis St. Martin, a Canadian half-breed who had sustained a gastric fistula, was treated and investigated by Beaumont. With his human medium, Beaumont as the first to study digestion and the movements of the stomach in vivo. His work on the subject was the most important before Pavlov. Edinburgh imprint, 1838. Second edition, corrected, Burlington, Vt., 1847. Facsimile reprint, Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press, 1929.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 990

Versuche über die künstliche Verdauung des geronnenen Eiweisses.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 66-89, 1836.

Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 991

Ueber das Wesen des Verdauungsprocesses.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 90-138, 1836.

William Beaumont recognized that the gastric juice contained some other active chemical substance besides hydrochloric acid. Schwann proved this to be pepsin. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 992

Analyses comparées des alimens consommés et des produits rendus par une vache laitière.

Ann. Chim., 71,113-36, 1839.

The first analysis of foodstuffs and fertilizers. Boussingault made a balance of intake and outgo of nutrients in food and excreta.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, NUTRITION / DIET
  • 992.1

Voie artificielle dans l’estomac des animaux.

Bull. Soc. imp. Naturalistes Moscou, N.S. 16, 315-19, 1843.

First gastric fistula established specially for the purpose of experimentation.

Subjects: COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 992.2

Traité analytique de la digestion considérée particulièrement dans l’homme et dans les animaux.

Paris: Fortin, Masson & Cie, 1843.

Gastric fistula for experimental purposes.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 992.3

Du suc gastrique et de son rôle dans la nutrition.

Paris: Rignoux, 1843.

Bernard showed that if sucrose is injected directly into the blood it is eliminated by the kidneys while glucose is retained, and that gastric juice transforms sucrose into assimilable sugar. See F. J. Holmes, Claude Bernard and animal chemistry: The emergence of a scientist, Cambridge, Mass., 1974. This includes a history of research on digestion from 1750-1848.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY › Metabolism, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 993

Versuche um auszumitteln, ob die Galle im Organismus eine für das Leben wesentliche Rolle spielt.

Arch. Anat. Physiol. wiss. Med., 127-59, 1844.

Proof of the indispensability of bile to digestion.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 994

Beobachtung einer tödlichen Peritonitis, als Folge einer Perforation des Wurmfortsatzes.

Z. rat. Med., 6, 12-23, 1847.

Description of “Gerlach’s valve”, sometimes seen at the orifice of the appendix.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 995

De l’origine du sucre dans l’économie animale.

Arch. gén. Méd., 4 sér., 18, 303-19, 1848.

Bernard’s first communication regarding his investigation of the glycogenic function of the liver. Reprinted, with translation, in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 552-80.

Subjects: HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 996

Du sue pancréatique et de son rôle dans les phénomenès de la digestion.

Arch. gén Méd., 19, 60-81, 1849.

Discovery of the digestive action of the pancreatic juice, especially its role in the digestion and absorption of fats. Reprinted, with translation, in Med. Classics, 1939, 3, 581-617.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology
  • 997

Die Physiologie der Nahrungsmittel.

Darmstadt: C. W. Leske, 1850.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 998

Neue Versuche über die Beihilfe der Nerven zur Speichelabsonderung.

Z. rat. Med., n.F. 1, 254-77, 1851.

The innervation of the salivary glands first elucidated.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, NEUROSCIENCE › Neurophysiology
  • 999

Die Verdauungssäfte und der Stoffwechsel.

Jelgava, Latvia & Leipzig: G. A. Reyher, 1852.

Even after the work of Prout and Beaumont, some physiologists thought that the free acid of the gastric juice was lactic acid; Bidder and Schmidt finally proved that normally the gastric juice always contains HCl in excess.

Subjects: BIOCHEMISTRY, GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion
  • 999.1

Nouvelles recherches expérimentales sur les phénomènes glycogéniques du foie.

C. R. Soc. Biol. (Memoires), (1857) 2 sér. 4, 1-7, 1858.

Isolation of glycogen. See also C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 1857, 44, 578-86, 1325-31.

Subjects: GASTROENTEROLOGY › Anatomy & Physiology of Digestion, HEPATOLOGY › Hepatic Physiology