An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 14, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 4800–4899

121 entries
  • 4800

Les affections parasyphilitiques.

Paris: Rueff & Cie, 1894.

Fournier, great French venereologist, introduced the concept of “parasyphilis”. He showed statistically the causal relationship of syphilis to paresis and tabes.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis
  • 4801

Paralyse und Tabes bei Eheleuten. Ein Beitrag zur Aetiologie beider Krankheiten.

Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol., 6, 266-86, 1899.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis
  • 4802

Ueber einige Fälle atypischer progressiver Paralyse. Nach einem hinterlassenen Manuscript Dr. H. Lissauer’s.

Mschr. Psychiat. Neurol., 9, 401-34, 1901.

“Lissauer’s atypical general paralysis” first described. Heinrich Lissauer was bom in 1861 and died in 1891.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Paralysis
  • 4803

Histologische und histopathologische Arbeiten über die Grosshirnrinde. Vol. 1.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1904.

Pages 315-494 contain Nissl’s classic account of the histopathology of general paresis.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, PATHOLOGY › Histopathology
  • 4804

Ueber das Vorhandensein syphilitischer Antistoffe in der Cerebrospinalflüssigkeit von Paralytikem.

Dtsch. med. Wschr., 32, 1769-72, 1906.

Wassermann applied his test (No. 2402) to the cerebrospinal fluid and, in paretics, obtained positive results in over 90 per cent of cases. The test greatly facilitated the diagnosis of general paralysis.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis
  • 4805

A demonstration of Treponema pallidum in the brain in cases of general paralysis.

J. exp. Med., 17, 232-38, 1913.

A pure culture of Trep. pallidum was obtained from a case of dementia paralytica.

Subjects: BACTERIOLOGY › BACTERIA (mostly pathogenic; sometimes indexed only to genus) › Spirochetes › Treponema , NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis
  • 4806

Ueber die Einwirkung der Malaria auf die progressive Paralyse.

Psychiat.-neurol. Wschr., 20, 132-34, 251-55, 19181919.

In 1917 Wagner von Jauregg returned to the idea of the inoculation of paretics with malaria to induce pyrexia, first proposed by him in 1887 (Ueber die Einwirkung fieberhafter Erkrankungen auf Psychosen, Jb. Psychiat., 7, 94-131). See Magda Whitrow, "Wagner-Jauregg and fever therapy," Medical History, 34 (1990) 294-310.

In 1927 Wagner von Jauregg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica."

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Malaria, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, NOBEL PRIZES › Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, THERAPEUTICS › Pyrotherapy
  • 4807

The sacred disease. In [Works]…edited with an English translation by W.H.S. Jones. 2, 127-83

London: Heinemann, 1923.

This includes the first mention of epilepsy in children. Hippocrates grouped all convulsive attacks together as ερα νο̂σος, the sacred disease. He did not employ the word έπίληψις, (which seems first to have been used in the 10th century by Avicenna) but the terms ρόν νόσημα, παθος παίδειον and νόσημα παίδειον. The standard Greek edition is Die hippokratische Schrift Über dieheilige Krankheit. Herausgegeben, übersetzt und erläutert von H. Grensemann, Berlin, 1968.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, PEDIATRICS
  • 22
  • 2433
  • 3162
  • 3163
  • 3612
  • 3925
  • 4484
  • 4510
  • 4808
  • 4915
  • 5046
  • 5089
  • 5146

Тα ∑ωζομενα. The extant works of Aretaeus, the Cappadocian. Edited and translated by Francis Adams.

London: Sydenham Society, 1856.

Aretaeus left many fine descriptions of disease; in fact Garrison ranks him second only to Hippocrates in this respect. In the printed editions of this bibliography, before the present online version, the Adams edition was cited no less than 12 times for individual diseases, plus its first citation in "Collected Works" (No. 22.) This number of citations is, of course, greater than any other specific work by any other author, though the number of citations may be a reflection of idiosyncracies of the compilers rather than a proportionate measure of the significance of Aretaeus in the history of medicine. The citations are as follows:


3162. On angina, or quinsey. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 249-52, 404-07.

3163. On pleurisy. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 255-58, 410-16.

2433. On elephas, or elephantiasis. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams, 366-73, 494-98. Classic description of “elephantiasis Aretaei”, nodous leprosy.

5046. On ulcerations about the tonsils. In hiis Extant works, ed. F. Adams, 253-55. Aretaeus’s description of ulcerations about the tonsils, which he called “ulcera Syrica”, clearly referred to diphtheria, of which it was the first unmistakable description. For his treatment of the disease, see pp. 409-10 of the same work.

5089. On dysentery. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 353-57. Prior to Lösch’s discovery of E. histolytica, all forms of dysentery were differentiated only on clinical grounds.

4915. Extant works. Ed. F. Adams. Aretaeus wrote important accounts of melancholy (298-300, 473-78) and madness (301-04).

5146. On tetanus. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams,  246-49, 400-04. Aretaeus left a full account of tetanus.

4484,  On arthritis and sciatica. In his Extant works, ed. by F. Adams,  362-65, 492-93,

3612. On jaundice, or icterus. In his Extant works, ed F. Adams, 324-28.

4510. On paralysis. In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams.

4808. On epilepsy, in his Extant works, ed F. Adams,  243, 296, 399, 468. Aretaeus was well acquainted with hemi-epilepsy from local injury in the opposite half of the brain; partly from this knowledge he formulated the “decussation in the form of the letter X” of the motor path. He first described epilepsy resulting from a depressed fracture of the skull. In his excellent description he made the first mention of the aura.

3925. On diabetes.In his Extant works, ed. F. Adams. 338-40, 485-86. The first accurate account of diabetes, to which Aretaeus gave its present name; he insisted on the part which thirst plays in the symptomatology. 

According to the Wikipedia article on Headache, Aretaeus also provied the first recorded classification system for headaches: "He made a distinction between three different types of headache: i) cephalalgia, by which he indicates a shortlasting, mild headache; ii) cephalea, referring to a chronic type of headache; and iii) heterocrania, a paroxysmal headache on one side of the head." 

Digital facsimile of Adams's Greek and Latin edition from the Internet Archive at this link.


Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, Collected Works: Opera Omnia, HEPATOLOGY › Diseases of the Liver, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Bacillary Dysentery, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Diphtheria, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Leprosy, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tetanus, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES › Mosquito-Borne Diseases › Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis), Medicine: General Works, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Sciatica, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROLOGY › Paralysis, PSYCHIATRY, RESPIRATION › Respiratory Diseases, RHEUMATOLOGY › Arthritis
  • 1959.1
  • 4808.1
  • 4915.1

Caelii Aureliani Siccensis Tardarum passionum libri V. D. Oribasii Sardi Iuliani Caesaris archiatri Euporiston lib: III. Medicinae comperi: lib: 1. Curationum lib: 1. Trochiscoru confect: lib: 1.

Basel: Henricus Petrus, 1529.

From a clinical point of view, the two works of Caelius Aurelianus, which were translated into Latin from Greek originals by Soranus of Ephesus that were later lost, represent the high-point of Graeco-Roman medical achievement. Soranus (fl. circa 150 CE), was the chief representative of the methodic school of medicine. Besides his writings on gynecology and obstetrics that survived, Soranus left works on chronic and acute maladies—Tardae or Chronicae passiones, in five books, and Celeres or Acutae passiones in three books, which were preserved through Caelius's translations. The Latin translations show that Soranus possessed considerable practical skill in the diagnosis of both ordinary and exceptional diseases. The translations are also important for their references to the methods of earlier medical authorities.

This is first edition of Caelius's Tardarum passionum (Chronic diseases ), edited by Johannes Sichard. On the verso of the title page the editor provided a list of about 50 ancient Greek physicians referred to in Caelius's text.

Garrison described Caelius / Soranus as a 5th century neurologist who gave one of the best early descriptions of epilepsy, including its convulsive and comatose forms, and the tendency of victims of vertigo to become epileptic. Caelius also distinguished between sensory and motor impairment, and between spastic and flaccid paralysis.

The first edition of Caelius's / Soranus's other work—Acute diseases – Liber celerum vel acutarum passionum, was edited by Johann Guinter von Andernach and published in Paris at the press of Simon de Colines in 1533. Both that and Sicart's edition of 1529 were based on Latin manuscripts that have since disappeared. No other medieval codices of these texts survived.

The four works by Oribasius also edited by Sicard for this 1529 printing represent the first editions in Latin of the texts involved. Like Caelius and Soranus, Oribasius was also a major compiler. Oribasius, a pagan, was physician to the Emperor Julian (the Apostate) in the period of Late Antiquity. Digital facsimile of the 1529 edition from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Late Antiquity, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, OTOLOGY › Vestibular System › Vertigo, PSYCHIATRY, THERAPEUTICS
  • 4809

A treatise on diseases of the nervous system.

London: T. & G. Underwood, 1822.

Includes the best early account of epilepsy after Willis.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4810

Recherches sur les symptômes et le traitement de l’épilepsie hémiplégique. Thèse [pour le doctorat en médecin] No. 118

Paris: De L'Imprimerie de Didot le jeune, 1827.

First description of hemiplegic epilepsy so well depicted by Jackson (No. 4816), and referred to by Charcot as “Bravais–Jacksonian épilepsie”. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4811

Fatal epilepsy, from suppuration between the dura mater and arachnoid, in consequence of blood having been effused in that situation.

Guy’s Hosp. Rep., 1, 36-40, London, 1836.

Bright was the first to describe unilateral (“Jacksonian”) epilepsy.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4812

Synopsis of cerebral and spinal seizures of inorganic origin and of paroxysmal form as a class; and of their pathology as involved in the structures and actions of the neck.

London: J. Mallett, 1851.

Hall was the first to suggest that the paroxysmal nervous discharges in epilepsy were produced by the spinal nervous system, first to notice the connection of anemia with epilepsy, and first to deduce that epilepsy was produced by anemia of the medulla.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4813

Recherches expérimentales sur la production d’une affection convulsive épileptiforme, à la suite de lésions de la moëlle épiniére.

Arch. gén. Med., 5 sér., 7, 143-49, 1856.

Experimental epilepsy (section of sciatic nerve). See also Arch. Physiol. norm. path., 1869, 2, 211-20, 422-38, 496-503; 1870, 3, 153-60.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4813.1

[Contribution to discussion on paper by E.H. Sieveking.]

Lancet, 1, 528, 1857.

Locock, physician accoucheur to Queen Victoria, recommended bromide of potassium in the treatment of epilepsy.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4814

Cases of epilepsy, associated with amenorrhoea and vicarious menstruation, successfully treated with the iodide of potassium.

Lancet, 1, 525, 1857.

O’Connor was apparently the first to use potassium bromide for the treatment of epilepsy.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4815

Bau und Functionen der Medulla spinalis und oblongata, und nächste Ursache und rationelle Behandlung der Epilepsie.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1859.

The work of Schroeder van der Kolk brought histological examination to the forefront in connection with theories on the localization of function. His careful microscopical studies confirmed the medulla as being the ultimate seat of epilepsy. The book was translated into English for the New Sydenham Society in the same year.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4816

Unilateral epileptiform seizures, attended by temporary defect of sight.

Med. Times Gaz., 1, 588-89, 1863.

“Jacksonian epilepsy” is so called from the excellent account of unilateral epilepsy with spasm given by Jackson. Actually, Bravais (No. 4810) was first to note the condition.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4817

Case of hemikinesis.

Brit. Med. J., 1, 773, 1875.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4818

Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive diseases.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1881.

Gowers left a classic account of epilepsy, a book which today is still one of the most important on the subject. He was first to note the tetanic nature of the epileptic convulsion.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4819

Die Myoclonie.

Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1891.

First description of “Unverricht’s disease” – familial myoclonus epilepsy.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4820

Osobyj vid kortikal’noj epilepsii.

Med. Obozrenie, 42, 9-118, 1894.

“Koževnikov’s epilepsy”, an atypical form of cortical origin. German translation by H. Heintel and H. Müller-Dietz, Hamburg, 1974.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4821

The border-land of epilepsy. Faints, vagal attacks, vertigo, migraine, sleep symptoms, and their treatment.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1907.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Headache › Migraine, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROLOGY › Sleep Physiology & Medicine, OTOLOGY › Vestibular System › Vertigo
  • 4822

A first study of inheritance of epilepsy.

J. nerv. ment. Dis., 38, 641-70, 1911.

Davenport and Weeks produced strong evidence in support of the hereditary origin of epilepsy.

Subjects: GENETICS / HEREDITY › HEREDITARY / CONGENITAL DISEASES OR DISORDERS › Inherited Neurological Disorders › Epilepsy, Hereditary Aspects of, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4823

Luminal bei Epilepsie.

Münch. med. Wschr., 59, 1907-09, 1912.

Introduction of phenobarbitone in the treatment of epilepsy.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4824

The electro-encephalogram in epilepsy.

J. ment. Sci., 83, 137-55, 1937.

Demonstration of the changes in the electro-encephalogram in epilepsy. With S. Graham and W. Grey Walter.

Subjects: Electrodiagnosis, NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4824.1

Sodium diphenyl hydantoinate in the treatment of convulsive disorders.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 111, 1068-73, 1938.

Introduction of diphenylhydantoin.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy
  • 4825
  • 6328

Commentaries on some of the most important diseases of children. Part the first.

London: Longman, 1815.

First account of infantile tetany is given on pp. 86-97. Clarke died before this work was published. In it he also gave a clear description of laryngismus stridulus. This disease, which consists in a sudden onset of difficult breathing, obviously originating in the windpipe, was confused by Boerhaave with asthma, and by later writers with true croup. Its anatomical cause is not yet known; but Clarke's exact clinical description (Commentaries, chap. iv.) was the first step to a precise study of the affection.

  • 4826

Notes on the swelling of the tops of the hands and feet, and on a spasmodic affection of the thumbs and toes, which very commonly attends it.

Edinb. med. surg. J., 12, 448-52, Edinburgh, 1816.

In his early account of chronic tetany, Kellie referred to carpo-pedal spasm and spasms of the glottis as part of the syndrome.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4827

Zwei seltene Formen von hitzigem Rheumatismus.

Litt. Ann. ges. Heilk., 17, 22-30, 1830.

German writers usually credit Steinheim with the first description of parathyroid tetany.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4828

Observations sur une espèce de tétanos intermittent.

Arch. gén. Méd., 26, 190-205, 1831.

Dance’s important early description of parathyroid tetany followed closely on that of Steinheim.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4829

De la contracture des extrémités ou tétanie. Thèse pour le doctorat en médecine. No. 223

Paris: Rignoux, 1852.

In his graduation thesis, Lucien Corvisart, nephew of the more famous Baron Corvisart (No. 2737), introduced the term “tétanie”. Digital facsimile from BnF Gallica at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 2221
  • 4830

Clinique médicale de l’Hôtel Dieu de Paris. 2 vols.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1861.

Trousseau, clinician of the Hôtel-Dieu, made important advances in the treatment of diphtheria, typhoid, scarlet fever and other conditions. In his book he emphasized the value of bedside observation. He supported the doctrine of the specific nature of disease and realized the significance of Pasteur’s work on fermentation. On pp. 112-14 of vol. 2 Trousseau described the phenomenon in tetany which now bears his name. This is produced by pressure upon the arm sufficient to stop the circulation; the result is a sudden contraction of the fingers and hand into the so-called “obstetrical position”. English translation, 1868-72.

Subjects: Medicine: General Works, NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4831

Zur Lehre von der Tetanie.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 9, 441-44, Berlin, 1872.

Important observations on gastric tetany were made by Kussmaul. He called attention to the convulsions sometimes accompanying dilatation of the stomach. He first mentioned “gastric tetany” in 1869 in his paper on gastric lavage (No. 3463).

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4832

Zur Lehre von der Tetanie nebst Bemerkungen über die Prufung der electrischen Erregbarkeit motorischer Nerven.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 4, 271-316, 18731874.

“Erb’s sign”.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4833

Beitrag zur Tetanie.

Wien. med. Presse, 17, 1201-03, 1225-27, 1253-58, 1313-16, 1876.

“Chvostek’s sign”, a reliable diagnostic sign in latent tetany in small children.

  • 4834

Die Tetanie.

Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1891.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4835

Die Tetanie der Kinder.

Vienna: A. Hölder, 1909.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Child Neurology, NEUROLOGY › Tetany, PEDIATRICS
  • 4836

Die Beeinflussung der Tetanie durch Ultraviolettlicht.

Z. Kinderheilk., 26, 207-14, 1920.

Treatment of tetany with ultraviolet light.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 3862
  • 4837

A case of tetany treated with parathyrin.

Canad. med. Ass. J., 15, 59-60, 1925.

First use of parathyroid hormone in the treatment of tetany.

Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Parathyroids , NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4838

Die Behandlung der postoperativen Tetanie.

Arch. klin. Chir., 177, 32-34, 1933.

Introduction of A.T. 10 (“Antitetanisches Praparat Nr. 10”), dihydrotachysterol, in the treatment of tetany.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Tetany
  • 4839

Affectionum quae dicuntur hystericae e hypochondriacae pathologia spasmodica vindicata…

London: Jacob Allestry, 1670.

In this treatise on hysteria and hypochondria, Willis showed that hysteria was a nervous disease and not a uterine disorder as had been traditionally believed. He compared hysteria in women to hypochondria in men. He considered the key feature of hysteria to be the “fit” or episodic disturbance of sensation short of “universal convulsions” and classified it under convulsive diseases. This caused hysteria to be linked with epilepsy as in Charcot’s hybrid, “hystero-epilepsy”.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4840

The English malady; or, a treatise of nervous diseases of all kinds.

London: G. Strahan, 1733.

Cheyne attributed hypochondria (“Cheyne’s disease”) to the moisture of the air and variability of the weather in the British Isles. Cheyne himself suffered from this disease and the work includes a careful account of his own case history.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria
  • 4841

Observations on the nature, causes, and cure of those disorders which have been commonly called nervous hypochondriac, or hysteric, to which are prefixed some remarks on the sympathy of the nerves.

London: T. Becket and P. Du Hondt & Edinburgh: J. Balfour, 1765.

“First important English work on neurology after Willis” (Garrison).

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4842

Traité clinique et thérapeutique de l’hystérie.

Paris: J.-B. Baillière, 1859.

Includes, p. 297, first description of ataxia analgica hysterica (“Briquet’s ataxia”), and p. 475, hysterical paralysis of the diaphragm with dyspnoea and aphonia (“Briquet’s syndrome”).

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Hysteria, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4843

Neurasthenia, or nervous exhaustion.

Boston med. surg. J., 80, 217-21, 1869.

“Beard’s disease” (neurasthenia) first described. See also No. 4846.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4844

Die Agoraphobie, eine neuropathische Erscheinung.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 3, 138-61, 18711872.

First description of agoraphobia

  • 4845

Anorexia nervosa (apepsia hysterica, anorexia hysterica).

Trans. clin. Soc. Lond., 7, 22-28, 1874.

Classic description of anorexia nervosa.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4846

A practical treatise on nervous exhaustion (neurasthenia).

New York: W. Wood & Co., 1880.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY, PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4847

On visceral neuroses.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1884.

Gulstonian Lectures.

Subjects: PSYCHIATRY › Neuroses & Psychoneuroses
  • 4848

Jumping, latah, myriachit.

Arch. Neurol. (Paris), 8, 68-74, 1884.

Latah, motor incoordination associated with echolalia and coprolalia, is named “Gilles de la Tourette’s disease” after his classic description of it.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Movement Disorders
  • 4849

Ueber einen eigenartigen hysterischen Dämmerzustand.

Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 30, 633-40, 1898.

“Ganser’s syndrome” – an acute hallucinatory mania.

  • 4850
  • 5547

The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Published in facsimile and hieroglyphic transliteration with translation and commentary by James Henry Breasted. 2 vols.

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1930.

At Luxor, Egypt, in 1862 the American collector and dealer in papyri Edwin Smith purchased the papyrus which bears his name. It is preserved at the New York Academy of Medicine. The original text was written about 3000 BCE; the present manuscript is a copy dating from about 1600 BCE. It is the oldest known surgical treatise and consists entirely of case reports; it describes 47 different cases of injuries and affections of the head, nose, and mouth, together with methods of bandaging. 

A more recent edition in French is: Claude Carrier and Dider Fournier, Le papyrus chirurgical Edwin Smith (New York Academy of Medicine Library). Brest: PAM, 2015. This edition includes a transcription of the text with philological analysis followed by a medical analysis case by case.


  • 4850.1
  • 5548

Chirurgie d’Hippocrate. 2 vols

Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 18771878.

A Greek-French edition with extensive notes and commentaries by J. E. Pétrequin, surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu of Lyon. Operations attributed to Hippocrates included trephination and paracentesis; his most important successes were in the reduction of fractures and dislocations.

Subjects: ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, NEUROSURGERY, NEUROSURGERY › History of Neurosurgery, ORTHOPEDICS › History of Orthopedics, Fractures, ORTHOPEDICS › Orthopedic Surgery & Treatments › Fractures & Dislocations, SURGERY: General › History of Surgery
  • 4850.2

Tractatus de fractura calve sive cranei.

Bologna: Hieronymus de Bendictis, 1518.

The first separate treatise on head wounds and their surgical treatment. Berengario described several types of skull fractures and grouped the resulting lesions according to their symptoms, citing the relation between location and neurological effect. The book also discussed apoplexy, meningitis and paralysis.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis, NEUROLOGY, NEUROSURGERY, NEUROSURGERY › Head Injuries
  • 4850.3

La méthode curative des playes, & fractures de la teste humaine.

Paris: Jean le Royer, 1561.

Written after the death of Paré’s patient, Henri II, who was struck in the eye by the shaft of a lance at a tournament in celebration of the marriage of Philip, King of Spain, with Elizabeth of France. Paré discusses surgery of head wounds with special attention to skull fractures. Digital facsimile from BIU Santé at this link.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Head Injuries, SURGERY: General
  • 4850.4

Chirurgiae Ioannis Andrea a Cruce, Veneti medici libri septem, Quamplurimis instrumentorum imaginibus arti chirurgicae opportunis suis locis exornati, theoricam, practicam ac verissimam experientiam continentes....

Venice: apud Jordanum Zilettum, 1573.

Croce improved the instruments for trephination, and published classic woodcuts depicting the operation, including the first illustration of a neurological surgery operation actually taking place. The work is also important for Croce’s descriptions of cranial and cerebral diseases. In hundreds of woodcuts of instruments and procedures Croce illustrated all of the instruments used before and during his own time. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Translated into Italian with expanded text as Cirugia universale e perfetta di tutte le parti pertinenti all’ottimo chirurgo (1574). Digital facsimile of the 1584 Italian translation from Google Books at this link. 

For biography, bibliography, and interpretation see Antonio Di leva & Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld, "The legacy of Renaissance surgeon Giovanni Andrea Dalla Croce on the history of military surgery and neurosurgery," Journal of Neurosurgery, 53, Issue 3 (2022).

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments, MILITARY MEDICINE, SURGERY & HYGIENE › Renaissance, NEUROSURGERY, SURGERY: General , SURGERY: General › Notable Surgical Illustrations
  • 4850.5

Observations on the nature and consequences of wounds and contusions of the head, fractures of the skull, concussions of the brain, etc.

London: C. Hitch & L. Hawes, 1760.

This book, which showed Pott’s extensive knowledge of surgical literature, systematized the treatment of head injuries. It shows what a variety of injuries of the head could be sustained even before the advent of the motor-car. Includes the first description of “Pott’s puffy tumor”. Pott was bom in Threadneedle Street, where the Bank of England now stands; he succeeded Cheselden as the greatest surgeon of his day. The book was altered and re-published under a different title in 1768.

  • 4851

Opuscules de chirurgie. Pt. 1.

Paris: G. Desprez & P. A. Le Prieur, 1768.

Records, p. 161, a successful operation for temporo-sphenoidal abscess, 1752. The patient, a monk, had otorrhoea followed by a mastoid abscess, which Morand opened.

  • 4851.1

Case reports: From injuries of the head.

Transylvania. J. Med., 1, 9-40, 1823.

Dudley was for many years the leading surgeon on the western frontier of the United States. This paper reports the first operations on the brain performed in the United States. Three of the five patients were relieved of their symptoms.

  • 4852

Exstirpation of the os coccygis for neuralgia.

New Orleans med. surg. J., 1, 58-60, 18441845.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4853

Abscess in the substance of the brain; the lateral ventricles opened by an operation.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 19, 86-95, 1850.

Lateral ventricles of the brain first opened for the treatment of cerebral abscess.

  • 4854

Exsection of the trunk of the second branch of the fifth pair of nerves, beyond the ganglion of Meckel, for severe neuralgia of the face; with three cases.

Amer. J. med. Sci., n.s. 35, 134-43, 1858.

First excision of the superior maxillary nerve for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4855

New operation for the relief of persistent facial neuralgia.

Philad. med. Times, 2, 285-87, 18711872.

Pancoast devised the operative procedure of sectioning the second and third branches of the fifth pair of nerves as they emerge from the base of the brain. Reported by F. Woodbury.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4856

Tumour of the dura mater–convulsions–removal of tumour by trephining–recovery.

Glasg. med. J., 12, 210-13, Glasgow, 1879.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4857

Study of the pathological changes occurring in trifacial neuralgia, with the report of a case in which three inches of the inferior dental nerve were excised.

Med. News (Philad.), 45, 58-63, 1884.

Mears first suggested Gasserian ganglionectomy for trigeminal neuralgia.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4858

Case of cerebral tumour.

Med.-chir. Trans., 68, 243-75, 1885.

First instance of diagnosis, accurate clinical localization, and operative removal of a tumor of the brain, 25 November, 1884. The patient survived for one month. Preliminary report in Lancet, 1884, 2, 1090-91.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4859

Die chirurgische Behandlung von Hirnkrankheiten.

Arch f. Klin. Chirurg., 36, 759-872., Berlin, 1887.

Bergmann was the first in Germany to undertake an intensive study of the surgical aspects of brain diseases. From his experience as a military surgeon he learned that increased intracranial pressure was a consequence of brain trauma. In his book on brain injuries, Die Lehre von den Kopfverletzungen (1880), he discussed these problems in detail. In this later work on non-traumatic brain diseases Bergmann addressed unsolved problems such as blood loss and brain edema. Second edition, and first edition in book form, Berlin: A. Hirschwald, 1889. Digital facsimile of the 1889 edition from Google Books at this link.

  • 4860

A case of tumour of the spinal cord. Removal; recovery.

Med.-chir. Trans., 71, 377-430, 1888.

Horsley was the founder of neurosurgery in England. The above paper records the first successful operation for the removal of an extramedullary tumor of the spinal cord.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4860.1

A contribution to the surgery of the spine.

Med. Rec., 35, 149-52, 1889.

Posterior rhizotomy.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4861

The treatment of epilepsy.

Edinburgh: Young J. Pentland, 1889.

Alexander was the first to attempt the treatment of epilepsy by surgical means. He removed the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Epilepsy, NEUROSURGERY › Epilepsy
  • 4861.1

A case in which acute spasmodic pain in the left lower extremity was completely relieved by sub-dural division of the posterior roots of certain spinal nerves, all other treatment having proved useless. Death from sudden collapse and cerebral haemorrhage on the twelfth day after the operation, at the commencement of apparent convalescence.

Med.-chir. Trans., 72, 329-48, 1889.

Posterior rhizotomy.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4862

Die temporäre Resektion der Schädeldaches an Stelle der Trepanation.

Zbl. Chir., 16, 833-38, 1889.

Osteoplastic flap operation. Wagner’s method of opening the skull made a large area of the brain more easily accessible than by trephining. Translation in J. Neurosurg., 1962, 19, 1099.

  • 4863

Removal of the gasserian ganglion for severe neuralgia.

Lancet, 2, 914-15, 1890.

Gasserian ganglionectomy for trigeminal neuralgia; the patient lived for at least two years.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4864

Ueber Rindenexcisionen, als Beitrag zur operativen Therapie der Psychosen.

Allg. Z. Psychiat., 47, 463-548, 1891.

Burckhardt, physician at a Swiss mental hospital, performed frontal lobotomy on four patients in 1890, with good results in some cases. Digital facsimile from Universitätsbibliothek Bern at this link.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Psychosurgery
  • 4865

Remarks on the various surgical procedures devised for the relief or cure of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux).

Brit. med. J., 2, 1139-43, 1191-93, 1249-52, 1891.

Horsley, with J. Taylor and W. S. Coleman, devised an operation for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in which the Gasserian ganglion was removed by a temporal approach.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4866

Linear craniotomy (miscalled craniectomy) for microcephalus.

Am. J. med. Sci., 101, 549-55, 1891.

Keen was a pioneer in linear craniotomy and one of the first successfully to operate for meningioma. He was Professor of Surgery at Jefferson Medical College.

  • 4867

A new operation for spasmodic wry neck, namely, division or exsection of the nerves supplying the posterior rotator muscles of the head.

Ann. Surg., 13, 44-47, 1891.

Spastic torticollis treated by division of spinal accessory nerve and posterior roots of first, second, and third spinal nerves.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4868

Four cases of tubercular meningitis in which paracentesis of the theca vertebralis was performed for the relief of fluid pressure.

Lancet, 1, 981-82, 1891.

Lumbar puncture. Reprinted in Middx. Hosp. J., 1951, 51, 147.

Subjects: INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Neuroinfectious Diseases › Meningitis, INFECTIOUS DISEASE › Tuberculosis, NEUROSURGERY
  • 4869

Die Lumbalpunction des Hydrocephalus.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 28, 929-33, 965-68, 1891.

Quincke popularized lumbar puncture, which he had introduced independently of Wynter and others. He used it both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. He first presented his method at the German Congress of Internal Medicine (Verb. Congr. inn. Med., 1891, 10, 321-31).

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4870

Intracranial neurectomy of the second and third divisions of the fifth nerve.

N.Y. med. J., 55, 317-19, 1892.

Hartley originated the operation of intracranial neurectomy for trigeminal neuralgia.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4871

Resection des Trigeminus innerhalb der Schädelhöhle.

Arch. klin. Chir., 44, 821-32, 1892.

Hartley–Krause operation for relief of trigeminal neuralgia (see also No. 4870).

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4872

Pyogenic infective diseases of the brain and spinal cord.

Glasgow: J. Maclehose & Sons, 1893.

Macewen’s greatest work was in connection with the surgery of the brain. In the above book he included extensive case reports of 65 patients under his care, with details of operative procedures. A biography of Macewen was written by A. K. Bowman, London, 1942. See No. 431.

  • 4873

Zur klinischen Bedeutung der spinalen Punction.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 32, 272-77, 1895.

Fürbringer demonstrated the diagnostic value of spinal puncture.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4874

Zur Technik der temporären Schädelresektion mit meiner Drahtsäge.

Zbl. Chir., 25, 425-28, 1898.

Gigli’s saw adapted for craniotomy. Translation in J. Neurosurg., 1962, 19, 1103.

  • 4875

A method of total extirpation of the Gasserian ganglion for trigeminal neuralgia, by a route through the temporal fossa and beneath the middle meningeal artery.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 34, 1035-41, 1900.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4876

The division of the sensory root of the trigeminus for the relief of tic douloureux; an experimental, pathological, and clinical study, with a preliminary report of one surgically successful case.

Univ. Penn. med. Bull., 14, 342-52, 1901.

Introduction of intracranial trigeminal neurotomy, using a modification of the techniques of Horsley (No. 4865) and Krause (No. 4871). Also published in Philad. med. J., 1901, 8, 1039-49.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4877

Névralgie faciale; présentation de malade.

Mém. Bull. Soc. Méd. Chir. Bordeaux, (1902), 59-63, 1903.

Alcohol injection of the Gasserian ganglion for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. See also pp. 91-96 of the same volume. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY, NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4877.1

Pneumatic tourniquets: With especial reference to their use in craniotomies.

Med. News, 84, 577-80, 1904.

First report of tourniquet with pneumatic pressure of measurable degree. This inflatable cuff was the forerunner of the modern pneumatic tournequet cuff. 

  • 4878

Concerning surgical intervention for the intracranial hemorrhages of the new-born.

Amer. J. med. Sci., 130, 563-81, 1905.

Successful operative intervention in intracranial hemorrhage of the new-born.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • 4879

The establishment of cerebral hernia as a decompressive measure for inaccessible brain tumors.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 1, 297-314, 1905.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4879.01

Some points on the surgery of the brain and its membranes.

London: Macmillan, 1907.

Ballance recognized and described chronic subdural hematoma with great accuracy, described a successful operation for it and also for subdural hygroma, discussed brain abscess fully and devoted 243pp. to brain tumors.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 1435.1
  • 4879.1

The structure and functions of the cerebellum examined by a new method.

Brain, 31, 45-124, 1908.

Stereotactic apparatus for the accurate location of electrodes in the brain. The apparatus devised by Horsley and Clarke opened the way to stereotactic surgery of the brain.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Stereotactic Surgery, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Brain, including Medulla: Cerebrospinal Fluid, NEUROSURGERY › Stereotactic Neurosurgery
  • 4880

Ueber eine neue operative Methode der Behandlung spastischer Lähmungen mittels Resektion hinterer Rückenmarkswurzeln.

Z. orthop. Chir., 22, 203-23, 1908.

Foerster’s operation of rhizotomy for spastic paralysis.

  • 4880.1

Surgery of the head. In: Surgery: its principles and practice, edited by William Williams Keen, 3, 17-276.

Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1908.

Cushing’s first treatise on neurosurgery. “As a result of this detailed monograph, neurological surgery became almost at once recognized as a clear-cut field of surgical endeavor” (J.F. Fulton, Harvey Cushing [1947] 268).

  • 4880.2

Chirurgie des Gehirns und Rückenmarks nach eigenen Erfahrungen. 2 vols.

Berlin: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 19081911.

With Macewen and Cushing, Krause pioneered the development of neurosurgery as a specialty. This is his most comprehensive work. English translation by H.A. Haubold and M. Thorek, 3 vols., New York, Rebman, [1909-12],

  • 4881

Ueber operative Behandlung gastrischer Krisen durch Resektion der 7-10. hinteren Dorsalwurzel.

Beitr. klin. Chir., 63, 245-56, 1909.

Foerster’s operation for tabes.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurosyphilis, NEUROSURGERY
  • 4882

The Linacre lecture on the function of the so-called motor area of the brain.

Brit. med. J., 2, 125-32, 1909.

Horsley demonstrated that removal of the precentral area in man abolished athetosis.

  • 4883

The treatment of persistent pain of organic origin in the lower part of the body by division of the anterolateral column of the spinal cord.

J. Amer. med. Assoc., 58, 1489-90, 1912.

Cordotomy for the relief of intractable pain.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 3896
  • 4883.1

The pituitary body and its disorders.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1912.

The first clinical monograph on the hypophysis. Cushing, outstanding neurological surgeon of the early 20th century, added much to our knowledge of the pituitary body and its disorders. The above work includes a description of his own method of operating on the pituitary. He assumed that in diabetes insipidus the pituitary was involved. Cushing also described obesity caused by basophil pituitary tumor. See No. 1161.


Subjects: ENDOCRINOLOGY › Pituitary, Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders › Diabetes, NEUROSURGERY, Obesity Research
  • 4884

Air in the ventricles of the brain, following a fracture of the skull.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 17, 237-40, 1913.

Luckett’s finding of air in the ventricles gave Dandy (No. 4602) the idea for ventriculography.

  • 4884.1

Operative Erfolge bei Geschwülsten der Sehhügel-und Vierhügel gegend.

Berl. klin. Wschr., 50, 2316-22, 1913.

Successful removal of pineal tumor.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 4885

De la causalgie envisagée comme une névrite du sympathique et de son traitement par la dénudation et l’excision des plexus nerveux périartériels.

Presse méd., 24, 178-80, 1916.

Periarterial sympathectomy.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY › Spine
  • 4886

The wire gauze brain drain.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 23, 740-41, 1916.

Mosher initiated the modern method of trephining and draining inflammatory processes of the brain.

  • 4887

Les blessures des nerfs.

Paris: Masson & Cie, 1916.

A study of the effect of gunshot wounds on nerves. English translation, London, 1917.

  • 4888

Extirpation of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles in communicating hydrocephalus.

Ann. Surg., 68, 569-79, 1918.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, NEUROSURGERY › Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • 4889

Tic douloureux and its treatment, with a review of the cases operated upon at the University Hospital in 1917.

J. Mich. St. med. Ass., 17, 91-99, 1918.

Trigeminal nerve resection with conservation of the motor root, for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 3403.1
  • 4889.1

Essays on the surgery of the temporal bone. 2 vols.

London: Macmillan, 1919.

Finely illustrated, and beautifully produced, with several historical chapters. Includes a history of the development of temporal bone surgery.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, OTOLOGY › Otologic Surgery & Procedures
  • 4890

Puncture of the cistema magna.

Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chicago), 4, 529-41, 1920.

Introduction of cisternal puncture.

  • 4891

La meccanica del cervello e la funzione dei lobi frontale.

Turin: Bocca, 1920.

Bianchi showed that bilateral destruction of the frontal lobes caused character changes, a finding put to practical use by Egas Moniz and others. English translation, Edinburgh, 1922.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neuropathology
  • 4892

Algievélo-pharyngée essentielle. Traitement chirurgical.

Rev. neurol., 27, 256-57, 1920.

Idiopathic glossopharyngeal neuralgia described and treated.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4893

The influence of the sympathetic nervous system in the genesis of the rigidity of striated muscle in a spastic paralysis.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 39, 721-43, 1924.

Hunter believed in the sympathetic innervation of skeletal muscle and on this assumption devised the technique of sympathetic ramisection carried out by Royle (No. 4894). Biography by M.J. Blunt, Sydney, 1985.

  • 4894

A new operative procedure in the treatment of spastic paralysis and its experimental basis.

Med. J. Aust., 1, 77-86, 1924.

Sympathetic ramisection. See also Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 1924, 39, 701-20.

  • 4895

La sympathectomie hypogastrique a-t-elle sa place dans la thérapeutique gynécologique?

Presse méd., 33, 98-99, 1925.

Presacral neurectomy.

  • 4896

Section of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve at the pons. Preliminary report of the operative procedure.

Bull, Johns Hopk. Hosp., 36, 105-06, 1925.

Intracranial section for glossopharyngeal neuralgia. For a more detailed account see his paper in Arch. Surg. (Chicago), 1929, 18, 687-734.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4897

Die Operationstechnik der Hirntumoren (nach eigenen Erfahrungen).

Folia neuropath, eston., 6, 127-49, 1926.

Puusepp, an Estonian, was the first professor of neurosurgery; he was particularly notable for his method of removing cerebral tumors. The above journal was founded and edited by him, and vol. 16 (1935) is a Festschrift in his honor.

  • 4897.1

Electro-surgery as an aid to the removal of intracranial tumors. With a preliminary note on a new surgical-current generator by W.T. Bovie.

Surg. Gynec. Obstet., 47, 751-84, 1928.

Introduction of electrocoagulation in neurosurgery.

Subjects: INSTRUMENTS & TECHNOLOGIES › Surgical Instruments › Electrosurgery, NEUROSURGERY › Neuro-oncology
  • 3004.1
  • 4897.2

Traumatic aneurysm of the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery. With a note by Wilfred Trotter.

Brain, 51, 184-208, 1928.

In 1924 Wilfred Trotter(1872-1939) performed the first planned operation for intracranial aneurysm diagnosed pre-operatively.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Neurovascular Disorders, NEUROSURGERY › Vascular & Endovascular
  • 4898

Traitement des syndromes douloureux de la périphérie par 1’alcoolisation sub-arachnoïdienne des racines postérieures à leur émergence de la moelle épinière.

Presse méd., 39, 1249-52, 1931.

Subarachnoid injection of alcohol for the relief of pain.

Subjects: NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management
  • 4899

The operative treatment of facial palsy by the introduction of nerve grafts into the Fallopian canal and by other intratemporal methods.

Arch. Otolaryng. (Chicago), 15, 1-70, 1932.

A classic paper which includes some history of the surgical treatment of facial palsy.

Subjects: NEUROLOGY › Chronic Pain › Trigeminal Neuralgia, NEUROSURGERY, PAIN / Pain Management