An Interactive Annotated World Bibliography of Printed and Digital Works in the History of Medicine and the Life Sciences from Circa 2000 BCE to 2022 by Fielding H. Garrison (1870-1935), Leslie T. Morton (1907-2004), and Jeremy M. Norman (1945- ) Traditionally Known as “Garrison-Morton”

16018 entries, 14076 authors and 1941 subjects. Updated: July 23, 2024

Browse by Entry Number 400–499

113 entries
  • 400

Vom Baue des menschlichen Körpers. 5 pts.

Frankfurt: M. Varrentrapp u. Wenner, 17911796.

Soemmerring’s text-book contained only facts actually observed by him. He departed from the usual practice of including physiology with anatomy. The book was very popular in German medical schools, and Meckel considered it Soemmerring’s best work. It includes a very full list of what Soemmerring considered his anatomical discoveries.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century
  • 401

Tabula sceleti feminini juncta descriptione.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1797.

Soemmerring was noted for his accuracy in anatomical illustration, and the above work is a fine example of his artistic sense. For it he selected the skeleton of a well-built girl of 20 years. Great care was taken in selecting the most appropriate posture and the contour of an ideally perfect female body in which the skeleton might be drawn in order properly to observe its proportions.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 401.1

Nouveau recueil d’ostéologie et de myologie…

Toulouse: J. F. Desclassan, 1779.

“Without contest the most beautiful of all anatomies for the artist and one of the most remarkable books of its time” (Hahn & Dumaitre). The plates in this work are more fantastic than any other anatomy, suggesting the work of Goya, who may have known or studied with Gamelin since Gamelin taught in Rome during the time Goya was there.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 401.2

Traité d’anatomie et de physiologie avec des planches coloriées répresentant au naturel les divers organes de l’homme et des animaux. Tome premier [all published].

Paris: François Ambroise Didot I’aîné, 1786.

The most accurate neuroanatomical work produced before the advent of microscopic staining techniques. Vicq d’Azyr identified accurately for the first time many of the cerebral convolutions, along with various internal structures of the brain. This was the first volume of an ambitious study of anatomy and physiology which remained unfinished at Vicq d’Azyr’s premature death.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy
  • 401.3

The anatomy of the human body. 4 vols.

Edinburgh: Cadell & Davies, 17971804.

“The first great textbook contributed by the British school to modern anatomy” (Russell, No. 461).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 402

A system of dissections. 2 vols.

Edinburgh: Mundell & Son, 17981803.

Published in 7 fascicules and appendix while Bell was still a student, this was Bell’s first independent venture as an author. The anatomical work of Charles Bell and his brother John was among the most significant in the British Isles during the early part of the 19th century; from the artistic point of view it was probably the finest during that period.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 403

Anatomie générale, appliquée à la physiologie et à la médecine. 4 vols.

Paris: Brosson, Gabon & Cie, 1801.

Bichat revolutionized descriptive anatomy. Where Morgagni and others had conceived of whole organs being diseased, Bichat showed how individual tissues could be separately affected. He covered tissue pathology, system by system in the Anatomie générale, showing that tissues from different organs are similar and subject to the same diseases, and identifying 21 different types of tissues. This was done essentially without a microscope, but marks the beginning of modern histology. The above work and No. 404 are remarkable in their total reliance on verbal description to convey anatomical detail, since neither work contains a single illustration. Translated into English by George Hayward as General anatomy, applied to physiology and medicine. 3 vols., Boston: Richardson and Lord, 1822. Digital facsimile of the French edition from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the English translation also from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Microscopic Anatomy (Histology), PHYSIOLOGY
  • 1315
  • 404

Traité d’anatomie descriptive. 5 vols.

Paris: Gabon et Cie, 18011803.

Bichat was the creator of descriptive anatomy. He introduced the terms “animal” and “vegetative” system. This was his last work, unfinished at his death. Vol. 4 was prepared by Bichat's student and cousin, Mathieu-François Buisson, and vol. 5 by Philibert-Joseph Roux. Vol. 3, pp. 319-68 includes Bichat's Nerfs de la vie organique. Digital facsimiles of all 5 vols are available from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEUROSCIENCE › NERVOUS SYSTEM › Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System
  • 3055
  • 405

Observations on the surgical anatomy of the head and neck.

Edinburgh: T. Bryce, 1811.

Burns was the first to suggest (p. 31) ligature of the innominate artery. His book describes “Burns’s space”, the fascial space at the suprasternal notch.

The first recorded case of chloroma (myeloid sarcoma, granulocytic sarcoma, extramedullary myeloid tumor), a manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia, is found on p. 396 of this book. This was of course, about 30 years before leukemia was understood as a disease.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, HEMATOLOGY › Blood Disorders, ONCOLOGY & CANCER › Leukemia, VASCULAR SURGERY
  • 406

Anatomia per uso de’pittori e scultori.

Rome: V. Poggioli, 1811.

This anatomy for artists and sculptors contains 38 good copperplates in black and red.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 407

Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie. 4 vols.

Halle, 18151820.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 408

Afbeeldingen van de juiste plaatsing der inwendige deelen van het menschelijk ligchaam.

The Hague: J. Allart, 1818.

First anatomical illustrations of frozen sections. De Riemer appears to have been the first to freeze tissues in order to permit fine sectioning for the purposes of diagnosing diseased tissue. Digital facsimile from UniversitatsBibliothek Heidelberg at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Cross-Sectional
  • 409

Anatomie de l’homme, ou descriptions et figures lithographiées de toutes les parties du corps humain. 5 vols.

Paris: Imprimerie lithographique de C. Lasteyrie, Imprimerie de Rignous [Vols. 1-2] & Imprimerie lithographique de M. Engelmann et Compagnie, chez M. de Comte de Lasteyrie, Imprimerie de A. Belin [Vols. 3-5], 18211831.

The first anatomical atlas illustrated by lithography, containing 300 plates in folio format. This was one of the most elaborate of the lithographic “incunabula” produced by Charles Philibert de Lasteyrie, one of the pioneer lithographers in France. In planning this atlas Cloquet intended to exploit the faster production speed resulting new technology of printing by lithography; however, no matter how fast the plates could be drawn on stone, the publication in fascicles or parts was inevitably delayed by time required to do the dissections and prepare the original drawings. Jules began his career as an apprentice to his father, J.B.A. Cloquet, an artist and engraver and art teacher, and went to medical school after working as a wax-modeler for the Paris Faculty of Medicine. Jules illustrated his own doctoral thesis on hernia, and what was more unusual, he also drew the plates on stone for the lithographic reproductions in the version of his thesis that was commercially published in 1819. For this large anatomical atlas Jules and his artist sister, Lise, created the drawings for approximately 150 plates that were original for the work. The remaining 150 plates not after drawings by the Cloquets were copied from publications by William Hunter, Soemmerring, Tiedemann, Haller, Walter, Mascagni, Charles Bell, Scarpa, and others. There were more than 3000 separate figures on the 300 plates in the complete atlas. The art was drawn on stone by Haincelin, Feillet and Dubourjal. The lithographs were printed at the presses of de Lasteyrie, Godefroy Engelmann (the other pioneer lithographer in France), and Brigeaut, a workman at de Lasteyrie's press who set up his own shop. 

A few copies of the second edition in reduced quarto format, (Paris, 1825-[36]), were issued with the plates hand-colored.


Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 409.1

Anatomia universa… 2 vols.

Pisa: Niccolo Capurro, 18221832.

The largest of all medical books from the standpoint of format. The 44 life size engraved plates are reproduced in double elephant folio size measuring 950 x 635 mm., and include an almost incredible level of detail. Published posthumously in fascicules over ten years, very few sets were issued, some hand-colored by the artist, Antonio Serrantoni. Three plates placed end-to-end illustrate the entire figure life-size. A lithographed edition, almost indistinguishable from the engraved edition, was issued nearly simultaneously by Francesco Antommarchi (Paris, 1823-26); G-M 7242). Antommarchi, Mascagni's literary executor, had been Napoleon's physician on St. Helena, and had presided over Napoleon's autopsy. For a longer discussion of Antommarchi's version, and why two versions of this huge publication were issued almost simultaneously, see "The Double Publication of the Double Elephant Folio of Anatomy," at at this link. A small folio authorized version of the Pisa edition, with more conveniently sized versions of the dramatic color plates, was issued in 2 vols., Florence, Batelli, 1833. 


Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 410

Elements of descriptive and practical anatomy.

London: W. Simpkin & R. Marshall, 1828.

Among the most important of the English textbooks on anatomy. An eleventh edition was published in 1908-29.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 411

Anatomical studies of the bones and muscles, for the use of artists. From drawings by the late John Flaxman, Esq. R.A. Engraved by Henry Landseer. With two additional plates, and explanatory notes, by William Robertson.

London: M. A. Nattali, 1833.

Digital facsimile from at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 411.1

The hand: Its mechanism and vital endowments as evincing design.

London: William Pickering, 1833.

Classic work on the anatomy, physiology, bio-mechanics, comparative anatomy, and adaptive importance of the hand. Issued as a volume in a series entitled the "Bridgewater Treatises." The first edition has 288pp. An enlarged second edition with 314pp. was also published in 1833, without notice on the title page

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, Biomechanics, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, RELIGION & Medicine & the Life Sciences › Natural Theology
  • 412

On a hitherto undescribed structure in the human hair sheath.

Lond. med. Gaz., 36, 1340-41, 1845.

“Huxley’s layer” and “membrane” of the root sheath of hair follicles.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, DERMATOLOGY
  • 413

Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen.

Prague: F. Ehrlich, 1846.

Hyrtl’s Lehrbuch passed through 22 editions and was translated into the principal modern languages.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 414

Handbuch der topographischen Anatomie. 2 vols.

Vienna: J. B. Wallishausser, 1847.

Hyrtl, professor of anatomy at Vienna, published the first text on topographical anatomy in German. He was for 30 years the most popular lecturer on the subject in Europe, and ranks as one of the greatest of medical scholars.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy
  • 415

A manual of artistic anatomy.

London: H. Renshaw, 1852.

Knox, remembered because of his indiscreet association with the Edinburgh “resurrectionists”, was one of the best teachers of anatomy during the 19th century.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 416

Anatome topographica sectionibus per corpus humanum congelatum triplici directione ductis illustrata. 8 pts.

St. Petersburg, Russia: J. Trey, 18521859.

Pirogov was the greatest of Russian surgeons. He introduced the teaching of applied topographical anatomy in Russia. His atlas of 220 plates represents the first use on a grand scale of frozen sections in anatomical illustration, an idea first carried out by de Riemer (No. 408).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Cross-Sectional, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy, COUNTRIES, CONTINENTS AND REGIONS › Russia
  • 417

Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. 3 vols.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 18551871.

Considered by many authorities to be the greatest of the 19th-century systems of anatomy. Many structures are named after Henle, including the looped portion of the uriniferous tubules of the kidney, the layer of cells in the root sheath of a hair, and the ampulla of the uterine tube.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, NEPHROLOGY › Renal Anatomy
  • 418

Anatomy, descriptive and surgical. By Henry Gray. The drawings by H. V. Carter. The dissections jointly by the author and Dr. Carter.

London: John W. Parker & Son, 1858.

Gray’s textbook of anatomy remains today a standard work on the subject in the English-speaking world. The 37th edition appeared in 1989; the first American edition was published at Philadelphia, 1859. Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Surgical Anatomy
  • 419

A treatise on the human skeleton, including the joints.

Cambridge, England: Macmillan, 1858.

Humphry was professor of anatomy at Cambridge and became the first professor of surgery there. He founded the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology in 1867. “Humphry’s ligament” of the knee-joint is described on p. 546 of the above book and pictured on plate 53, fig. 1.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ORTHOPEDICS › Muskuloskeletal System
  • 420

Des moyens chirurgicaux de favoriser la reproduction des os après les résections.

Gaz. hebd. Méd. Chir. 5, 572-7, 651-3, 733-6, 769-70, 853-7, 890, 899-905, 1858.

“Ollier’s layer”, the osteogenetic layer of the periosteum.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 421

An elementary treatise on human anatomy.

Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1861.

Leidy illustrated this book himself. He was professor of anatomy at Philadelphia and the leading American anatomist of his time.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 422

Medical anatomy: or, illustrations of the relative position and movements of the internal organs. 7 pts.

London: John Churchill, 18551869.

Sibson was professor of medicine at St. Mary’s Hospital. “Sibson’s fascia” and “muscle” are named after him. Plates 19-21 show movements, structure and sounds of the heart.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 423

Die descriptive und topographische Anatomie des Menschen.

Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1870.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy
  • 424

Topographisch-anatomischer Atlas. Nach Durchschnitten angefrornen Cadavern.

Leipzig: Veit & Co., 1872.

Fine illustrations of frozen sections. Translated into English by Edward Bellamy as An atlas of topographical anatomy after plane sections of frozen bodies. (Philadelphia: Lindsay and Blakiston, 1877).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Cross-Sectional, ANATOMY › Topographical Anatomy
  • 425
  • 7630

Die Corrosions-Anatomie und ihre Ergebnisse: mit 18 chromolithographirten Tafeln.

Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1873.

Hyrtl significantly enhanced the techniques of corrosion anatomy, a technique of preparing anatomical specimens invented by Frederik Ruysch. He built up a collection unsurpassed in Europe. In this work Hyrtl described a method that he invented in which he injected the blood supplies of the different organs, the adjacent parts being eaten away by acids, in order to show the finest ramifications. The technique of wax impregnation and later corrosion was also known to the Hunters. Digital facsimile from the Heidelberg University at this link

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, MUSEUMS › Medical, Anatomical & Pathological
  • 426

Observations on the relation of the principal fissures and convolutions of the cerebrum to the outer surface of the scalp.

Lancet, 2, 539-40., London, 1884.

Reid’s base line – the anthropometric base line on the skull.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANTHROPOLOGY › Anthropometry
  • 427

Plastische Anatomie des menschlichen Körpers.

Leipzig: Veit & Co., 1886.

“Illustrated with lithographs from hand-drawings, photographs from the nude, ethnic studies of facial features…The text…is of unusual historic interest, and includes special chapters on the anatomy of the infant, human proportions, and ethnic morphology” (Choulant, transl. Frank).

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 428

Traité d’anatomie humaine. 3 vols.

Paris: Octave Doin, 18891892.

7th edition, 1921-23.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 429

Dissections illustrated.

London: Whittaker & Co., 18921895.

“Brodie’s ligament”, the transverse humoral ligament, described.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 430

Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen. 3 vols.

Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 18951903.

16th edition in English, 1967.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › 20th Century
  • 431

Atlas of head sections. Fifty-three engraved copperplates of frozen sections of the head, and fifty-three key plates with descriptive texts.

Glasgow: J. Maclehose, 1893.

Intended to supplement and illustrate Macewen’s neurosurgical textbook published the same year (No. 4872). Includes coronal, sagittal and horizontal sections with commentary on each.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, ANATOMY › Cross-Sectional, ANATOMY › Neuroanatomy, NEUROSURGERY
  • 432

Die anatomische Nomenclatur.

Leipzig: Veit & Co., 1895.

His was largely responsible for the Basle Nomina Anatomica, the first attempt to produce a standard anatomical nomenclature. English translation by L.F. Barker, 1907.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century
  • 433

Handbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. 32 parts.

Jena: Gustav Fischer, 18961934.

An important collective work.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 20th Century
  • 434

Lehrbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen.

Berlin & Vienna: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1906.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 20th Century
  • 435

Die Anatomie des Menschen. 3 pts.

Wiesbaden: J. F. Bergmann, 19131914.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 20th Century
  • 436

Nomina anatomica Parisiensia (1955) and B.N.A. (1895).

Utrecht: Oosthoek, 1957.

Includes historical sketch of the systems of anatomical nomenclature.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 20th Century, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 436.1

Atlas of human anatomy.

Summit, NJ: Ciba-Geigy Corporation, 1989.

The culmination of the life work of one of the greatest, and most prolific, anatomical illustrators of the 20th century. Includes 514 full-color plates, many of which were created for this atlas. Reproduction of previously published plates was enhanced in this superbly produced work. With S. Colacino, consulting editor.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 20th Century, ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration
  • 437

Anatomica corporis virilis et muliebris historia.

Lyon: J. le Preux, 1597.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century
  • 437.1
  • 5788.9

Histoire de l’anatomie et de la chirurgie. 6 vols.

Paris: P. F. Didot le jeune, 17701773.

A biobibliographical survey to 1755, including dentistry.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Anatomy, DENTISTRY › History of Dentistry, SURGERY: General › History of Surgery
  • 438

Bibliotheca anatomica. 2 vols.

Zürich: Orell, Gessner, etc, 17741777.

Haller is one of the greatest names in medical bibliography. While pursuing his monumental scientific career he found time to compile bibliographies of botany, anatomy, medicine and surgery which together form the most exhaustive summary of previous writings on these subjects. Reprinted, Hildesheim, G. Olms, 1969.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Anatomy
  • 439

Antiquitates anatomicae rariores, quibus origo, incrementa et status anatomes, apud antiquissimae memoriae gentes, historica fide illustrantur.

Vienna: Congregationis Mechitaristicae, 1835.

Anatomical terms used in antiquity, representing to a certain, extent a survey of the literature of ancient medicine available to Hyrtl. Digital facsimile from The Medical Heritage Library, Internet Archive, at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Egypt, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Greece, ANCIENT MEDICINE › Roman Empire
  • 440

Geschichte und Bibliographie der anatomischen Abbildung.

Leipzig: R. Weigel, 1852.

In this classic work Choulant traced the evolution of anatomical illustration from the early schematic plates up to his own time, including a valuable bibliography. Reprinted, Wiesbaden, 1974. An English translation by Mortimer Frank appeared in 1920 (Chicago, University Press), enriched by a chapter on anatomical illustration since Choulant, written by F. H. Garrison. A reprint of the translation appeared in 1945 with additional essays by Garrison et al, plus a new historical essay by Charles Singer. This was reprinted in 1962.  In 1843 Choulant issued a preliminary study of anatomical illustration: Die anatomischen Abbildungen des XV. und XVI. Jahrhunderts. Historisch und bibliographisch Erlaeutert (Leipzig: Leopold Voss, 1843).

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographical Classics, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Anatomy
  • 442

A sketch of the early history of practical anatomy. The introductory address to the course of lectures on anatomy at the Philadelphia School of Anatomy.

Philadelphia: F. Madeira, Surgical Instrument Maker, 1870.

Reprinted in 1874 by Lippincott as a separate pamphlet, and in Keen’s Addresses and other papers, Philadelphia, 1905.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 443

Das Arabische un Hebräische in der Anatomie.

Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1879.

Hyrtl, professor of anatomy at Prague and Vienna, retired in 1874 and devoted his leisure to the writing of this and his Onomatologia anatomica. Garrison considered Hyrtl, along with Littré, among the greatest medical scholars.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, ISLAMIC OR ARAB MEDICINE › History of Islamic or Arab Medicine, Jews and Medicine › History of Jews and Medicine
  • 444

Onomatologia anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Barbarismen, Widersinnigkeiten, Tropen und grammatikalischen Fehler.

Vienna: W. Braumüller, 1880.

A classic work on anatomical terminology. Digital facsimile from Biodiversity Heritage Library at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 444.1

The diary of a resurrectionist 1811-1812, to which are added an account of the resurrection men in London and a short history of the passing of the Anatomy Act.

London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1896.

First-hand account of the activities of the so-called “sack-em-up” men who flourished in England and Scotland until passage in 1832 of the Anatomy Act provided legal means for physicians to obtain cadavers for dissection. The text of this book may be read at Project Gutenberg at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, Crimes / Frauds / Hoaxes, LAW and Medicine & the Life Sciences › Legislation, Biomedical
  • 446

Histoire d’anatomie plastique: Les maitres, les livres et les écorchés.

Paris: Picard & Kann, 1898.

Digital facsimile from the Internet Archive at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomy for Artists, ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration
  • 447

Studien zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter.

Leipzig: Franz Deuticke, 1898.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine
  • 448

Geschichte der Anatomie.

Puschmann’s Handbuch der Geschichte der Medizin, Jena, 2, 155-326, 1903.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 449

Die Anfänge der Anatomie bei den alten Kulturvölkern.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): J. U. Kern, 1904.

Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Medizin, Breslau, Heft 9.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 450

Anatomy in America.

Bull. Univ. Wisconsin, No. 115, 85-208, 1905.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 451

Tradition und Naturbeobachtung in den Illustrationen medicinischer Handschriften und Frühdrucke vornehmlich des 15. Jahrhunderts.

Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1907.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine
  • 452

Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter, speziell der anatomischen Graphik nach Handschriften des 9. bis 15. Jahrhunderts.

Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1908.

Studien zur Geschichte der Medizin, Leipzig, Heft 4. Reprinted Hildesheim, 1964.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine
  • 454

The evolution of anatomy. A short history of anatomical and physiological discovery to Harvey.

London: Kegan Paul, 1925.

This invaluable reference book was reprinted under the title A short history of anatomy and physiology from the Greeks to Harvey, Dover, 1957.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 456

Anatomical texts of the earlier Middle Ages: A study in the transmission of culture, with a revised Latin text of Anatomia Cophonis and translations of four texts.

Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1927.

Digital facsimile from the Hathi Trust at this link.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, MEDIEVAL MEDICINE › History of Medieval Medicine
  • 459

Das Anatomenbildnis. Seine Entwicklung im Zusammenhang mit der anatomischen Abbildung.

Basel: Schwabe, 1939.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 460

Anatomical eponyms: being a biographical dictionary of those anatomists whose names have become incorporated into anatomical nomenclature, with definitions of the structures to which their names have been attached and references to the works in which they are described. 2nd ed.

Edinburgh: E. & S. Livingstone Ltd., 1962.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 461

British anatomy 1525-1800; a bibliography of works published in Britain, America, and on the Continent. 2nd edition.

Winchester, Hampshire, England: St. Paul's Bibliographies, 1987.

Full descriptions, frequently annotated, of 901 items.

Subjects: ANATOMY › Anatomical Illustration, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy, BIBLIOGRAPHY › Bibliographies of Anatomy
  • 461.1
  • 6610.6

Die anatomische Sektion in bildlicher Darstellung.

Basel: S. Karger, 1967.

Full descriptions and illustrations of 355 of the most important paintings, prints, sculpture, and book illustrations concerning anatomy in its widest sense.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration
  • 461.2
  • 6610.4

Geschichte der medizinische Abbildung. 2nd ed. 2 vols.

Munich: Moos, 19671972.

A history of medical illustration, but primarily covering the history of anatomy. English translation of Vol. 1 (to 1600), London: Pitman, 1970. Vol. 2, edited by Marielene Putscher, extended the work to close to time of publication. The second volume was not translated.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomical Illustration, ART & Medicine & Biology
  • 461.3

Studies in pre-Vesalian anatomy. Biography, translation, documents by L. R. Lind.

Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1975.

Includes  English translations of texts by Alessandro Achillini, Alessandro Benedetti, Berengario da Carpi, Gabriele Zerbi, Niccolo Massa, Andrés de Laguna, J. Dryander and G. B. Canano.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 461.4

Early history of human anatomy, from antiquity to the beginning of the modern era.

Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1984.

Subjects: ANATOMY › History of Anatomy
  • 274
  • 275
  • 462

De animalibus. Translated by Theodorus Gaza. Edited by Ludovicus Podocarthus.

Venice: Johannes de Colonia and Johannes Manthen, 1476.

Includes Aristotle's De historia animalium, De partibus animalium, and De generatione animalium. Aristotle was the first scientist to gather empirical evidence about the biological world through observation. By his careful observations and excellent accounts of the natural history of those living creatures which he was able to investigate in De historia animalium Aristotle may be considered the first scientific naturalist. English translation in his Works...edited by J. A. Smith and W. D. Ross, Oxford, 1910, vol. 4.

Aristotle's De partibus animalium is the first animal physiology. English translation in his Works edited by Smith and Ross, vol. 5. That edition excluded annotations by the translator,  William Ogle, that were published in the edition of London, 1882.

Aristotle's De generatione animalium is the first textbook on embryology. "The depth of Aristotle's insight into the generation of animals has not been surpassed" (Needham). English translation in his Works, edited Smith & Ross, vol. 5. Later translations are also available.

ISTC: ia00973000

Digital facsimile from Bayerische StaatsBibliothek at this link

  • 463
  • 6141

Ein schön lustig Trostbüchle von den Empfengknussen und Geburten der Menschen…

Zürich: apud Frosch[overum], 1554.

An improved version of Rösslin’s Swangern frawen. This contains the first true anatomical pictures in an obstetrics book. Rueff described smooth-edged forceps for delivery of a live baby, preceding Chamberlen, and a toothed forceps for extraction of the dead fetus. He developed a method of cephalic version combining internal and external manipulation. A Latin translation of his book, De conceptu et generatione hominis, was published by Froschauer in the same year. English translation, London, 1637.

The illustrations show contemporary ideas about mammalian embryology.

  • 464

De humano foetu.

Bologna: Johannes Rubrius, 1564.

According to Charles Singer, Aranzi gave the first adequate printed account of the gravid uterus, and finally dispelled the idea of a human cotyledonous placenta. He gave by far the best description of fetal anatomy up to that time, especially examining the fetal heart, where he saw the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale (and described their occlusion after birth). Aranzi believed the maternal and fetal circulations to be separate. He also described the ductus venosus of the fetus, and the corpora Arantii in the heart valves. Incidentally, he was the first to record a pelvic deformity. Digital facsimile of the Leiden, 1564 edition from Google Books at this link.

  • 1539
  • 464.1

Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabulae.

Nuremberg: T. Gerlatzeni, 15721573.

Coiter made several important contributions to the study of human anatomy, and was the first to elevate comparative anatomy to the rank of an independent branch of biology. His Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabulae is a collection of ten short works, among which are the first monograph on the ear (De auditus instrumento); the earliest study of the growth of the skeleton as a whole in the human fetus (Ossium tum humani foetus . . .); the first descriptions of the spinal ganglia and musculus corrugator supercilii (in Observationum anatomicarum chirurgicarumque miscellanea); and Coiter's epochal (although unillustrated) investigation of the development of the chick in ovo (De ovorum gallinaceorum generationis. . .), based upon observations made over twenty successive days. This last was the first published study of chick embryo development based upon direct observation since the three-period description (after three, ten and twenty days of incubation) given by Aristotle in his Historia animalium two thousand years before.

Coiter was one of the first physicians to draw the illustrations for his own publications, and to take credit for them in print. It is believed that Vesalius may have done some of the simpler illustrations for the Fabrica; however, none of the Fabrica images are signed, and questions concerning their authorship have led to centuries of speculation and debate. Coiter's illustrations of the adult skeleton and skull, after Vesalius, are superior in anatomical detail; and his sketches of fetal skeletons are original. English translation with parallel Latin text and biographical introductions as Opuscula Selecta Neerlandicorum de Arte Medica XVIII (Amsterdam: Sumptibus Societatis, 1955).  See No. 284.

For further details see the entry at at this link.



Subjects: ANATOMY › 16th Century, COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, EMBRYOLOGY, OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 465

De formato foetu.

Venice: F. Bolzettam, 1600. Colophon: Laurentius Pasquatus, 1604.

Fabricius wrote at great length on embryology, inventing many theories, some of which were false. His illustrations marked a great advance on previous work. Fabricius recorded for the first time the dissection of several embryos. Facsimile reprint with translation by H. B. Adelmann, 1942.

  • 466

De formatione ovi et pulli.

Padua: A. Bencÿ, 1621.

  • 467
  • 6146

Exercitationes de generatione animalium.

London: O. Pulleyn, 1651.

Harvey was among the first to disbelieve the erroneous doctrine of the “preformation” of the fetus; he maintained that the organism derives from the ovum by the gradual building up and aggregation of its parts.  The chapter on on labor (“De partu”) in this book is the first work on that subject to be written by an Englishman, and the first original work on obstetrics by an English author. This book also demonstrates Harvey’s intimate knowledge of the existing literature on the embryology. He corrected many of the errors of Fabricius. Harvey considered this to be the culminating work of his life, and more significant than De motu cordis. See The analysis of the Degeneratione animalium of William Harvey by A. W. Meyer, Stanford Univ. Press, 1936. First English translation, London, 1653. New translation, with introduction and notes by G. Whitteridge, Oxford, Blackwell, 1980.


  • 467.1

The history of generation…

London: John Martin, 1651.

Highmore’s account of the development of the chick is the first embryological study based on microscopical examination, predating Malpighi (No. 468) by more than twenty years. This is also the first book in English to refer to the microscope. It was published within weeks of Harvey’s book (No. 467). Harvey and Highmore had collaborated on embryological research at Oxford since the 1640s.

Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY, Microscopy
  • 467.2

Disquisitio anatomica de formatu foetu.

London: Radulph Needham, 1667.

Founding work of developmental chemical embryology, the first book to report chemical experiments on the developing mammalian embryo, and the first to give practical instructions on dissection of embryos. Needham was also the first to describe the solid bodies in the amniotic fluid, and to give a comparative account of the secondary apparatus of generation.

  • 468

De ovo incubato observationes.

London: J. Martyn, 1673.

First accurate description, from the microscopical point of view, of the chick embryo. See No. 467.1. English translation in No. 534.1

  • 469

Dissertatio epistolica de formatione pulli in ovo.

London: J. Martyn, 1673.

This and the De ovo incubato (No. 468) placed the study of embryology on a sound basis, surpassing in accuracy all other contemporary work on the subject and foreshadowing some of the more important general lines of research in embryology. Malpighi's study of the development of the chicken in the egg went far beyond the work of Harvey and Fabrici, dealing with the internal structures to an unprecedented extent: his chief discoveries, illustrated in his four beautifully detailed plates, were the vascular area embraced by the terminal sinus, the cardiac tube and its segmentation, the aortic arches, the somites, the neural folds and neural tube, the cerebral and optic vesicles, the protoliver, the glands of the prestomach, and the feather follicles. According to Adelmann, Malpighi illustrated very clearly the three primary brain vesicles, and then the five secondary brain vesicles (along with the two optic vesicles).English translation in No. 534.1.

Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY, EMBRYOLOGY › Neuroembryology
  • 1547
  • 469.1

Tractatus quatuor anatomici de aure humana. Tractatus quintus anatomicus de aure humana. Cui accedit tractatus sextus de aure monstri humani.

Halle: sumtibus Orphanotrophei, 17341735.

Important tracts on the anatomy and physiology of the ear. Cassebohm’s studies of the embryonic ear far surpassed his predecessors, including Valsalva and Morgagni, and were not themselves surpassed until the work of Huschke and von Baer.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 18th Century, EMBRYOLOGY, OTOLOGY , OTOLOGY › Physiology of Hearing
  • 469.2

Sur la formation du coeur dans le poulet…2 vols.

Lausanne: Bousquet, 1758.

Haller devised a numerical method to demonstrate the rate of growth of the fetus, showing that the rate of growth is relatively rapid in the earlier stages but that the tempo gradually decreases. He calculated the rate of growth of the chick and of the human embryo.

  • 470

Theoria generationis.

Halle: lit. Hendelianis, 1759.

Wolff observed in great detail the early processes of embryonic differentiation. He disposed of the “preformation” theory, substituting his view that the organs are formed from leaf-like (blastodermic) layers. He thus laid the foundation of the “germ-layer” theory of Baer and Pander. His book includes descriptions of the “Wolffian bodies” and “ducts”. Reprinted 1966.

  • 471

De formatione intestinorum praecipue.

Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Petropol., 12, 43-7, 403-507; 1769, 13, 478-530, 1768.

One of the acknowledged classics of embryology. Wolff’s description of the formation of the chick’s intestine by the rolling inwards of a leaf-like layer of the blastoderm was important as proving his theory of epigenesis. A German translation by J. F. Meckel was published in 1812.

  • 472

Considérations sur les corps organisés. 2 vols.

Amsterdam: M. M. Rey, 1762.

Bonnet’s theory of generation offered the best synthesis of 18th century ideas of development and remained a leading authority until von Baer. Bonnet believed in the preformation of the embryo. He used many of Haller’s arguments to support his own opinions. J. Needham (No.533) calls him an organicistic preformationist, for his objection to epigenesis lay in the fact that it apparently did not allow for the integration of the organism as a whole.

  • 473

Icones embryonum humanorum.

Frankfurt: Varrentrapp & Wenner, 1799.

Soemmerring met William Hunter during a visit to London in 1778. The latter’s classic work on the pregnant uterus (No. 6157) dealt only with the latter half of pregnancy. Soemmerring therefore decided, in a supplementary volume, to deal with the appearance of the embryo during the first half of pregnancy. This book is one of the best illustrated of Soemmerring’s works.

  • 474

Dissertatio sistens historiam metamorphoseos, quam ovum incubatum prioribus quinque diebus subit.

Würzburg: T. E. Nitribitt, 1817.

Pander’s doctoral thesis (unillustrated) in which he announced his discovery of the trilaminar structure of the chick blastoderm, a term that he coined. Pander's discovery stimulated von Baer’s research. Also in 1817 Pander paid for the publication of an illustrated German-language edition of the thesis: Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Hühnchens im Eye (Würzberg, 1817). Digital facsimile of the Latin edtion from the Internet Archive at this link. Digital facsimile of the German-language edition from Google Books at this link.  

  • 474.1

Deuxième mémoire sur la génération. Rapports de l’oeuf avec la liqueur fécondante. Phénomènes appréciables, résultant de leur action mutuelle. Développement de l’oeuf des Batraciens.

Ann. Sci. nat. (Paris), 2, 100-120, 129-49, 1824.

Prévost and Dumas proved that the frog egg is fertilized by the entry of spermatozoa.

  • 475

Ueber die Entwickelung der Eier im Eierstock bei den Gespenst-heuschrecken.

Nove Acta phys.-med. Acad. Caes. Leopold nat. curios., Bonn, 12, 553-672, 1825.

Discovery of the Müllerian duct.

  • 476

Symbolae ad ovi ovium historiam ante incubationem.

Wroclaw (Vratislava, Breslau): typ. Universitatis, 1825.

First description of the germinal vesicle in the embryo, “Purkynĕ’s vesicle” This is located on the spot of the yolk where the embryo develops. Later identified with the cell nucleus, this formed a bridge between the large avian egg and the small ova of other animals, stimulating the researches of von Baer (No. 477). Reprinted in his Opera selecta, Prague, 1948, pp. 1-25; 2nd ed. Leipzig, L. Voss, 1830, reprinted in his Opera omnia, vol. 1, pp. 195-218. English translation of 2nd ed., in Essays in biology in honor of Herbert M. Evans (1943).

  • 477

De ovi mammalium et hominis genesi.

Leipzig: L. Vossius, 1827.

Announces Baer’s discovery of the mammalian ovum, the culmination of a search begun by scientists at least as early as the work of de Graaf in the 17th century (No. 1209). The pamphlet was reprinted in facsimile in Isis, 1931, 16, 315-30. English translation by C. D. O’Malley, Isis, 1956, 47, 117-53.

  • 478

Mémoire sur le développement du poulet dans l’oeuf.

Ann. Sci. nat (Paris), 12, 415-43, 1827.

First description of the segmentation of the frog’s egg.

  • 479

Ueber Entwicklungsgeschichte der Thiere. 2 vols.

Königsberg: Bornträger, 18281888.

Baer, the founder of modern embryology, definitely established the “germ-layer theory”, discovered the notochord and the human ovum, and postulated the law of corresponding stages in embryonic development. With Cuvier he is the founder of modern morphology. Later in his life he devoted much time to the study of anthropology. Part of vol. 1 was published in No. 599. In response to demands by subscribers to the treatise, the publishers issued vol. 2 in incomplete form in 1837. The conclusion to vol. 2, sometimes called volume 3, was edited by Ludwig Stieda and published 12 years after von Baer’s death.

  • 480

Abhandlungen zur Bildungs-und Entwicklungs-Geschichte der Menschen und der Thiere. 2 pts.

Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 18321833.

Rathke’s most notable discovery was of structures homologous with gill slits in bird and mammalian embryos. He discredited the vertebral theory of the skull.

Subjects: EMBRYOLOGY, ZOOLOGY › Ornithology
  • 481

De necessitate aëris atmosphaerici ad evolutionem pulli in ovo incubito. Dissertatio inauguralis physiologica....

Berlin: Typis Nietackianis, 1834.

Proof that air is necessary in the development of the embryo. Digital facsimile from Google Books at this link.

  • 482

Ueber die Visceralbogen der Wirbelthiere.

Berlin: Sittenfeld, 1837.

First description of the visceral arches in vertebrates.

  • 483

Entwicklungsgeschichte der Natter (Coluber natrix).

Königsberg: Bornträger, 1839.

“Rathke’s pouch”, a diverticulum from the embryonic buccal cavity.

  • 484

Entwickelungsgeschichte des Kaninchen-Eies.

Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 1842.

Bischoff contributed important original work on the development of the rabbit.

  • 484.1

Spermatozoa observed within the mammiferous ovum.

Phil. Trans., p. 33 (only), 1843.

Barry was the first to observe the spermatozoon within the ovum.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Reproduction, MICROBIOLOGY
  • 485

Untersuchungen überdie Entwickelungder Wirbelthiere.

Berlin: G. Reimer, 1855.

Simplification of von Baer’s classification of the germ-layers.

  • 486

Ueber den Bau und die Entwickelung der Wirbelthier-Eier mit partieller Dottertheilung.

Arch. Anat. Physiol wiss. Med., 491-529, 1861.

Proof that the ovum is unicellular in all vertebrates.

  • 487

Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen und der höheren Thiere.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1861.

First book on comparative embryology.

  • 488

Observationes nonnulae de ovorum ranarum segmentatione, quae “Furchungsprocess” dicitur.

Bonn: Formis C. Georgi, 1863.

Best contemporary description of the segmentation furrowing of the egg.

  • 489

Beobachtungen über den Bau des Säugethier-Eierstockes.

Arch mikr. Anat., 1, 151-202, 1865.


  • 490

Die Häute und Höhlen des Körpers.

Basel: Schwighauser, 1865.

A new classification of tissues based on histogenesis.

  • 491

Zur Kenntnis der menschlichen Placenta.

Arch Gynäk., 1, 317-34, 1870.

“Langhans’s layer”—the cytotrophoblast, the individual cells of which are termed “Langhans’s cells”.

Subjects: ANATOMY › 19th Century, BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 492

Eierstock und Ei.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1870.

Waldeyer discovered the germinal epithelium.

  • 493

Anthropogenie oder Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen.

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1874.

  • 494

Unsere Körperform und das physiologische Problem ihrer Entstehung.

Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1874.

In this work His compared the various layers and organs of the embryo to a series of elastic tubes and plates. He thought that the local inequalities of growth and the differences in the consistency of the tissues might account for the various organs and structures. This work led to the idea of “developmental mechanics”.

  • 495

Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Bildung, Befruchtung und Theilung des thierischen Eies.

Morph. Jb., 1, 347-434, 1876.

Demonstration that the spermatozoon enters the ovum and that fertilization occurs by the union of the nuclei of the male and female sex cells. Hertwig also established that the transfer of hereditary material is part of the same nuclear process. Hertwig was professor of anatomy at Jena and Berlin.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Reproduction
  • 496

Le maturation de l’oeuf, la fécondation et les premières phases du développement embryonnaire des mammifères.

Bull Acad. roy. Sci. Belg., 2 sér., 40, 686-736, 1875.

First detailed description of the segmentation of the mammalian ovum.

  • 497

Contributions à l’histoire de la vésicule germinative et du premier noyau embryonnaire.

Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Belg., 2 sér., 41, 38-85, 1876.

Independently of Flemming, van Beneden discovered the centrosome.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 498

Beobachtungen über die Beschaffenheit des Zellkerns.

Arch. mikr. Anat., 13, 693-717, 1877.

Discovery of the centrosome.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology
  • 499

The embryology of Clepsine.

Quart. J. micr. Sci.,18, 215-315, 1878.

The study of cell-lineage was initiated by Whitman’s paper on Clepsine.

Subjects: BIOLOGY › Cell Biology, EMBRYOLOGY